Gadolinium is a chemical element with the symbol Gd and atomic number 64. Gadolinium is a silvery-white metal, it is only malleable and is a ductile rare-earth element. Gadolinium reacts with atmospheric oxygen or moisture to form a black coating. Gadolinium below its Curie point of 20 °C is ferromagnetic, with an attraction to a magnetic field higher than that of nickel. Above this temperature it is the most paramagnetic element, it is found in nature only in an oxidized form. When separated, it has impurities of the other rare-earths because of their similar chemical properties. Gadolinium was discovered in 1880 by Jean Charles de Marignac, who detected its oxide by using spectroscopy, it is named after the mineral gadolinite, one of the minerals in which gadolinium is found, itself named for the chemist Johan Gadolin. Pure gadolinium was first isolated by the chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran around 1886. Gadolinium possesses unusual metallurgical properties, to the extent that as little as 1% of gadolinium can improve the workability and resistance to oxidation at high temperatures of iron and related metals.
Gadolinium as a metal or a salt absorbs neutrons and is, used sometimes for shielding in neutron radiography and in nuclear reactors. Like most of the rare earths, gadolinium forms trivalent ions with fluorescent properties, salts of gadolinium are used as phosphors in various applications; the kinds of gadolinium ions occurring in water-soluble salts are toxic to mammals. However, chelated gadolinium compounds are far less toxic because they carry gadolinium through the kidneys and out of the body before the free ion can be released into the tissues; because of its paramagnetic properties, solutions of chelated organic gadolinium complexes are used as intravenously administered gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents in medical magnetic resonance imaging. Gadolinium is a silvery-white, ductile rare-earth element, it crystallizes in the hexagonal close-packed α-form at room temperature, when heated to temperatures above 1,235 °C, it transforms into its β-form, which has a body-centered cubic structure.
The isotope gadolinium-157 has the highest thermal-neutron capture cross-section among any stable nuclide: about 259,000 barns. Only xenon-135 has a higher capture cross-section, about 2.0 million barns, but this isotope is radioactive. Gadolinium is believed to be ferromagnetic at temperatures below 20 °C and is paramagnetic above this temperature. There is evidence that gadolinium is a helical antiferromagnetic, rather than a ferromagnetic, below 20 °C. Gadolinium demonstrates a magnetocaloric effect whereby its temperature increases when it enters a magnetic field and decreases when it leaves the magnetic field; the temperature is lowered to 5 °C for the gadolinium alloy Gd85Er15, this effect is stronger for the alloy Gd5, but at a much lower temperature. A significant magnetocaloric effect is observed at higher temperatures, up to about 300 kelvins, in the compounds Gd54. Individual gadolinium atoms can be isolated by encapsulating them into fullerene molecules, where they can be visualized with a transmission electron microscope.
Individual Gd atoms and small Gd clusters can be incorporated into carbon nanotubes. Gadolinium combines with most elements to form Gd derivatives, it combines with nitrogen, sulfur, boron, selenium and arsenic at elevated temperatures, forming binary compounds. Unlike the other rare-earth elements, metallic gadolinium is stable in dry air. However, it tarnishes in moist air, forming a loosely-adhering gadolinium oxide: 4 Gd + 3 O2 → 2 Gd2O3,which spalls off, exposing more surface to oxidation. Gadolinium is a strong reducing agent. Gadolinium is quite electropositive and reacts with cold water and quite with hot water to form gadolinium hydroxide: 2 Gd + 6 H2O → 2 Gd3 + 3 H2. Gadolinium metal is attacked by dilute sulfuric acid to form solutions containing the colorless Gd ions, which exist as 3+ complexes: 2 Gd + 3 H2SO4 + 18 H2O → 2 3+ + 3 SO2−4 + 3 H2. Gadolinium metal reacts with the halogens at temperature about 200 °C: 2 Gd + 3 X2 → 2 GdX3. In the great majority of its compounds, gadolinium adopts the oxidation state +3.
All four trihalides are known. All are white, except for the iodide, yellow. Most encountered of the halides is gadolinium chloride; the oxide dissolves in acids to give the salts, such as gadolinium nitrate. Gadolinium, like most lanthanide ions, forms complexes with high coordination numbers; this tendency is illustrated by the use of the chelating agent DOTA, an octadentate ligand. Salts of − are useful in magnetic resonance imaging. A variety of related chelate complexes have been developed, including gadodiamide. Reduced gadolinium compounds are known in the solid state. Gadolinium halides are obtained by heating Gd halides in presence of metallic Gd in tantalum containers. Gadolinium form sesquichloride Gd2Cl3, which can be further reduced to GdCl by annealing at 800 °C; this gadolinium chloride forms platelets with layered graphite-like structure. Occurring gadolinium is composed of six stable isotopes, 154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd and 160Gd, one radioisotope, 152Gd, with the isotope 158Gd being the most abundant.
The predicted double beta decay of 160Gd has never been observed (an experimental lower limit on its half-life of more than 1.3×1021 years has b
Ingebrigt Håker Flaten is a Norwegian bassist active in the jazz and free jazz genres. Flaten played electric bass in local funk trio Neon, studied on the Jazz program at Trondheim Music Conservatory, he was involved in several groups from the first year at NTNU, including Trondhjems Kunstorkester, To brumbasser og en bi, the successful group The Source. With the latter Ornette Coleman inspired band he recorded records Olemanns kornett and "... of Christmas', toured in northern Europe and had a festival gigs together with such different constellations as Motor Psycho and Cikada Quartet. In 1993 he was part of jamkompet at Kongsberg Jazz Festival. To brumbasser og en bi was better known as Maria Kannegaard Trio. From 1994 he had a duo with Michael Bloch, became a member of "Jax" from the same year, including festival gigs in Oslo and Moldejazz, he attended the Bugge Wesseltoft's album New Conception of Jazz, from 1995 he was a member of two successful groups, the Paul Bley inspired trio Close Erase, with recording 1995 1998, 2001 and 2006.
He appeared on tours and festivals, as well as re-release 2010, "R. I. P. Complete Recordings 1995–2007, the Coltrane inspired quartet Element. In the winter of 1995–96 Flaten moved to Oslo and this led to many new involvements, like Acidband, SAN: Song, Oslo Groove Company, YoungLove, not least the super trio with Petter Wettre just called The Trio: Meet the locals, In color and Mystery unfolds, Tour de force with Petter Wettre/Dave Liebman. Moreover, his authoritative bass have been listening to records with Sigurd Køhn, Eivind Aarset, Bugge Wesseltoft's Sharing and Live, Didrik Ingvaldsen, two albums with the band School Days, seven albums with The Thing, a trio with Mats Gustafsson and Paal Nilssen-Love, Live at Blå, Action jazz and forever, Immediate sound with Ken Vandermark and Bag it!, No Spaghetti Edition and og Atomic: Feet music, Boom Boom, The Bikini tapes, Happy new ears!, Retrograde and Theater Tilters, vol 1–2. New recordings coming, like The Electrics and The Scorch Trio 2002 og 2004, Brolt! and Melaza.
In 2003 he released his solo album Double bass, the same year he participated on the record Bjørn Johansen in memoriam and the fusjon of Atomic and Schooldays released in the album Nuclear assembly hall, followed by Distil. A record with Bugge Wesseltoft New Conception of Jazz released in 2004, the same year as he was awarded Vitalprisen at Kongsberg Jazzfestival. In 2011 was published the record My heart always wanders, which he did with Håkon Kornstad and Jon Christensen, from the same year he contributed on the Ola Kvernberg's record Liarbird receiving Spellemannprisen 2011. 2004: Kongsberg Jazz Award Atomic Element The Thing Scorch Trio Ingebrigt Håker Flaten Quintet Ken Vandermark Joe McPhee Paal Nilssen-Love Bugge Wesseltoft Håvard Wiik Ola Kvernberg Solo albums2003: Double Bass 2012: Birds - Solo Electric 2012: Steel - Live In Bucharest With Ingebrigt Håker Flaten Quintet2006: Quintet 2008: The Year Of The Boar Official website
CarBabes is a 2006 independent comedy film starring Ben Savage and directed by Nick Fumia and Chris Wolf. The title of producer Ben Rekhi's CarBabes comes from the term car salesmen use for each other, he realizes that some might suspect otherwise, but promises "it's in no way a bikini car wash movie". The film is a coming-of-age comedy starring Boy Meets World's Ben Savage as a recent college grad living at home who reluctantly goes to work at his dad's car dealership. "The original idea emerged from stories our co-writer Blake Dirickson entertained us with about working for his father on his car lot", say co-directors Nick Fumia and Chris Wolf, who jack up their film's tension with the threat of a hostile takeover and the requisite romantic interest. The soundtrack ranges from hip-hop to country. CarBabes had its premiere on December 26, 2006. Directed and produced by five Bay Area filmmakers, CarBabes is the first feature-length film written and produced by all five filmmakers, who channeled their love for the art of making films to produce this slapstick comedy.
The idea for the film was conceptualized by Blake Dirickson, 27, one of the writers of the film. He said he gained the inspiration for the film from a used car lot in Santa Clara, where he worked for 18 months, he would share stories with his friends about the car babes he worked with. He pitched the concept to first-time filmmakers Chris Wolf, 27, Nick Fumia, 27, Ben Rehki, 28, Liz Destro, 27, they loved the idea. "The biggest challenge we faced with this project was convincing friends and strangers to invest in a group of filmmakers who didn't have much under their belts in the realm of filmmaking," Wolf said."It was the most and physically draining thing I've done and I loved every minute of it," said Fumia. The 35mm CarBabes, was shot at Moore Pontiac & Buick in Los Gatos, for 26 days late Summer, 2005, with feature film cinematographer Oden Roberts. Co-starring in CarBabes are Jon Gries, Blake Clark, Donnell Rawlings, Carolina Garcia and David Shackelford. For Ben Savage the attraction was the dynamic between the father and son and the struggle for the son to grow from a boy into a man.
"It focused on something my friends and I are going through," the recent Stanford graduate explains. "Like that two- or three-year period right out of college where everything's a possibility, everything's terrifying. You don't have any sense of stability. It's the first time you're out on your own in life and I think that's such an interesting time."Savage is in every scene of the film and he appreciates the level of collaboration involved. "Working with these guys, it makes you feel like it's a group project. They're all young they are open and receptive to everyone's ideas. It's a great set to be around."Having to put the film together on a "spit and glue" budget, covering 126 days of script in 26 days, caused the cast to improvise and adjust along the way, according to Wolf. He said it is under these circumstances, that the most creative things happen. Much like the car babes they portray in the film, Wolf said being a filmmaker starts and ends with the ability to sell yourself, he said CarBabes is a stepping-stone to something bigger for each of the filmmakers."Watching a little dream turn into something, immortal and the experience of creating something that starts on piece of paper and ends up on the big screen is rewarding," Wolf said.
Ford Davis, a 24-year-old recent college graduate with no direction in his life, is forced to live with his parents and work for his dad, Big Len, at his car dealership to pay off a loaner car he damaged. On the lot, Ford learns that the game of car sales is not easy, his only saving grace becomes his co-workers, the heartwarming and irreverent CarBabes, who teach him that selling cars is about selling yourself. After an unforgettable test drive with a self-assured hairdresser, Ford begins to gain confidence not only selling cars, but with his new sexy girlfriend, but back on the lot, mobile home tycoon Ron Hamper, owner of the neighboring Hamper’s Campers, has his evil eye on Big Len's property. After an uncalled-for visit, Hamper threatens to shut Big Len down and turn Davis Automotive into a parking lot for his used campers. With the days at Davis Automotive numbered, Big Len and the CarBabes have all but given up, but Ford comes up with an idea to save the dealership. Using the wisdom he has gained from his father and the rest of the team, Ford concocts one final plan: a blowout sale to sell 300 cars in a month.
Ben Savage as Ford Davis Jon Gries as Gary Blake Clark as "Big Len" Davis Donnell Rawlings as Julius Jefferson Kevin Blackton as Ron Hamper Stephanie Keeney as Judy Gary Arj Barker as Jimmy David Shackelford as Pat Skis John Campo as Dicky Deluna Marshall Manesh as Babu Gulab Carolina Garcia as Alicia Santos Amy Resnick as Linda Davis Car Babes was released in Region 1 DVD on June 10, 2008, by Vivendi Visual Entertainment. Car Babes on IMDb
The INTOSAI Development Initiative is a body of the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions which supports capacity development of supreme audit institutions in developing countries. Founded in 1986, the organization was headquartered in Canada until 2001, it is hosted by the Office of the Auditor General of Norway. The INTOSAI Development Initiative engages in a variety of support activities for SAIs around the world, including delivering online and in-person training, holding workshops, developing global public goods, improving engagement between SAIs and stakeholders, it is working with SAIs in monitoring the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals. The organization conducts research on SAIs and publishes a triannual stocktaking report covering the status of audit institutions in every country; the organization is funded by the Austrian Development Agency, French Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs, International Fund for Agricultural Development, Irish Aid, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs) and USAID, among others
The mangrove vireo is a species of bird in the family Vireonidae. A drab olive or olive-grey bird, the mangrove vireo has two white wing bars. Sexes are similar, it is 10 cm long. There are two disjunct populations of this vireo: Pacific; the Caribbean population has both yellow and grey colour phases, while the Pacific population has no colour phases. There are 10 known subspecies: V. p. angulensis: The Bay Islands of Honduras. V. p. browningi: Southeastern Nicaragua. V. p. nicoyensis: Peninsula and Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. V. p. ochraceus: Pacific mangroves from Oaxaca to El Salvador. V. p. olsoni: Parts of Belize. V. p. pallens: Honduras and Nicaragua. V. p. paluster: Pacific mangroves from Sonora to Nayarit. V. p. salvini: Yucatan Peninsula and adjacent islands. V. p. semiflavus: Southernmost Campeche, southernmost Quintana Roo, Belize and Honduras. V. p. wetmorei: Eastern-most Guatemala. It is found in Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua, its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland.
The Pacific population is restricted, as the name suggests, to mangroves, while the Caribbean population occupies a wider range of habitats. The IUCN has classified this species as being of Least Concern. BirdLife species factsheet for Vireo pallens "Vireo pallens". Avibase. "Mangrove Vireo media". Internet Bird Collection. Mangrove Vireo photo gallery at VIREO Mangrove Vireo species account at Neotropical Birds Interactive range map of Vireo pallens at IUCN Red List maps
Alexander S. Bermange is a composer and lyricist whose musicals and theatre productions have enjoyed successful runs in the West End and around the world, whose comic writing is listened to by millions of listeners to BBC Radio, whose songs have been recorded and released by many international singing stars. Bermange was educated at the University of Oxford. Bermange's music and lyrics have been heard in the West End in The 24 Hour Musicals at the Old Vic and Plague Over England at the Duchess Theatre, in venues all over the UK in Murder on Air, several star-studded productions of which have had successful runs in various regional theatres, which has additionally enjoyed two extensive UK tours. Since graduating from Oxford University, Bermange has written the music and lyrics for the musicals The Route To Happiness, Thirteen Days, Walking on the Sun, Aladdin, Close Encounters, Dead Heat and Nessie. Alexander is the winner of two Frank Wildhorn Awards for Musical Theatre for his musical Shadowless.
Bermange has written and performed many comic songs for Broadcasting House on BBC Radio 4, Weekend and The World Today on the BBC World Service. His solo cabaret The Whimsy of Alexander S. Bermange celebrates this style of his writing, his witty ditties have been performed by the likes of Kit & The Widow, Britt Ekland, 4 Poofs & A Piano, featured in Miriam Margolyes's A Few of Our Favourite Things with Stephen Fry, included in his own comic musical entertainment Weird & Wonderful. A total of 42 of Alexander's comic songs have been released on the two albums Weird & Wonderful and Wit & Whimsy, which feature all-star line-ups of popular personalities and international musical theatre artists. Twenty tracks from Bermange's musicals have been released on the CD Act One, featuring 26 leading West End stars and produced by Mike Dixon. Performances of The Songs of Alexander S. Bermange have been staged with the New Frankfurt Philharmonic Orchestra. Further songs of Alexander's have been released on Sony Music's star-studded CD set Musical Emotions, which features two tracks by him.
Bermange's other commissions include the songs for the Toyota corporate show Premiere. He has composed the music for the film N. R. O. H. and for numerous plays at the Open Air Theatre, Regent's Park, the King's Head Theatre and the Jermyn Street Theatre, London. He has contributed additional lyrics to the musicals Snap! and All The Divas of Arabia, original music to Stalin!. Bermange has worked extensively as a musical director and repetiteur both on his own musicals and on others including Guys And Dolls and the stage premiere of Leonard Bernstein's Peter Pan – in conjunction with both of which he gave performances on BBC Radio 3's In Tune.