Gadsden is a city in and the county seat of Etowah County in the U. S. state of Alabama. It is located on the Coosa River about 56 miles northeast of Birmingham and 90 miles southwest of Chattanooga, Tennessee, it is the primary city of the Gadsden Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 103,931. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 36,856, with an estimated population of 35,157 in 2018. Gadsden and Rome, are the largest cities in the triangular area now defined by the interstate highways between Atlanta and Chattanooga. In the 19th century, Gadsden was Alabama's second-most important center of commerce and industry, trailing only the seaport of Mobile; the two cities were important shipping centers: Gadsden for riverboats and Mobile for international trade. From the late 19th century through the 1980s, Gadsden was a center of heavy industry, including the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and Republic Steel. More than a decade after the sharp decline in industry, in 1991 Gadsden was awarded the honor of All-America City by the National Civic League.
This honored the way Gadsden's citizens, government and voluntary organizations have worked together to address critical local issues. The first substantial European-American settlement in the area that developed as Gadsden was a village called "Double Springs", it was founded in about 1825 by John Riley, a mixed-race American Indian and European-American settler who built his house near two springs. Riley used his house for a stagecoach stop on the Huntsville-to-Rome route; the original building still stands as the oldest in Gadsden. The house was purchased by brothers Gabriel and Asenath Hughes in 1840; the Hughes brothers purchased much of the land between Lookout Mountain, the Coosa River, the mouth of Wills Creek. The brothers proposed constructing a railroad from the port of Savannah to Nashville, Tennessee through their land; the original 120 acres survey of Gadsden included the Hughes brothers' land, plus that of John S. Moragne and Lewis L. Rhea. On July 4, 1845, Captain James Lafferty piloted the steamboat Coosa to the settlement.
He landed near the site. The Hughes brothers suggested renaming the town as "Lafferty's Landing", but residents adopted "Gadsden" in honor of Colonel James Gadsden of South Carolina, he was noted for negotiating the United States' Gadsden Purchase from Mexico. In 1867, after the American Civil War, the legislature organized Baine County. After a constitutional convention, the new legislature dissolved Baine County in 1868 and renamed it as Etowah County. Gadsden retained its standing as county seat. By the late 19th century, Gadsden had developed as a major river port on the Coosa River, was second to Mobile, a seaport on the Gulf Coast, in importance, it developed as a center of heavy industry. With unionization, industrial workers could earn middle-class salaries and improve their lives as African Americans struggled under Jim Crow laws and political disfranchisement; the city reached its peak of population in 1960. Affected by the national restructuring of railroads and heavy industry, most of Gadsden's major industries closed in the 1970s and 1980s.
The city lost many jobs and much population, began to decline. The city government has struggled to manage the transition to a different economy, just as numerous other industrial cities had to do. Redevelopment efforts, such as the Cultural Arts Center and downtown revitalization, earned Gadsden first place in the 2000 City Livability Awards Program of the US Conference of Mayors. Underemployment continues to be a severe problem. Gadsden is located in central Etowah County at 34°0′37″N 86°0′37″W, developed on both sides of the Coosa River. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 38.3 square miles, of which 37.1 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles, or 2.96%, is water. The southern end of Lookout Mountain rises to the north of the city center. Typical of the Deep South, Gadsden experiences a humid subtropical climate with four distinct seasons. Winter lasts from early December to late-February. On average, the low temperature falls to the freezing mark or below on 60 days a year, to or below 20 °F on 6.9 days.
While rain is abundant, measurable snowfall is rare, with most years receiving none. Summers are hot and humid, lasting from mid-May to mid-September, the July daily average temperature is 80.6 °F. There are 2.1 days of 100 °F + highs. The latter part of summer tends to be drier. Autumn, which spans from mid-September to early-December, tends to be similar to spring in terms of temperature and precipitation, although it begins dry. With a period of record dating only back to 1953, the highest recorded temperature was 106 °F on June 30, 2012, while the lowest recorded temperature was −6 °F on January 20–21, 1985; as of the census of 2000, there were 38,978 people, 16,456 households, 10,252 families living in the city. The population density was 1,083.6 people per square mile. There were 18,797 housing units at an average density of 522.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 62.7% White, 34.0% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races.
2.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,456 households out of which 2
Mountains is an image analysis and surface metrology software platform published by the company Digital Surf. Its core is micro-topography, the science of studying surface texture and form in 3D at the microscopic scale; the software is dedicated to profilometers, 3D light microscopes, scanning electron microscopes and scanning probe microscopes. The main editor's distribution channel is OEM, through the integration of MountainsMap by most profiler and microscope manufacturers under their respective brands. Vision 64 Map on Bruker optical profilometers AttoMap on cathodoluminescence-analysis-dedicated scanning electron microscopes from AttoLight Mountains native file format is the SURF format. Mountains is compatible with most instruments of the market capable of supplying images or topography. Mountains complies to the ISO 25178 standard on 3D surface texture evaluation and offers the profile and areal filters defined in ISO 16610; the metrology reports are generated in proprietary format but can be exported to PDF and RTF formats.
Mountains is available in English, Brazilian Portuguese, simplified Chinese, German, Japanese, Polish and Spanish. Mountains analyses the following data types:Vocabulary: x,y,z refer to space coordinates, t to the time, i to an intensity. "A=f" means A is function of B, B referring to space coordinates and A to a scalar Profile: z=f and series of the same: z=f, as issued by stylus 2D profilometers. Parametric profile: = f, as issued by contouring instruments Surface: z=f and series of the same: z=f Also called "topography". Shell: free form surface allowing to describe a complex external shape of a 3D object or a collection of 3D objects True color image: = f and series of the same = f Surface-image: The association of a surface and an image = f as issued by 3D optical profilers built from a light microscope Multi-layer images: = f, as issued by multi-channel scanning probe microscopes Force curves, series of force curves and cubes refer to the force spectroscopy in scanning probe microscopy Spectrum, series of spectra, hyperspectral cubes refer to spectral analysis in Mountains's vocabulary, these data types are referred to as "studiables".
Digital Surf launched their first surface analysis software package in 1990 for MS-DOS their first 3D surface analysis package in 1991 for Macintosh II. Version 1.0 of MountainsMap was launched in September 1996, introducing a change in the name after a move of the editor to Windows from MsDos and Macintosh platforms. Version 5.0 introduced the management of multi-layers images. It was a move to Confocal microscopy, to SPM image analysis. Version 6.0 completed the specialization of the platform per instrument type. For Version 6.0 the company teamed with a group of alpinists to launch the new version at the summit of the Makalu mountain. A special logo was created for this marketing event; the expedition was successful and Alexia Zuberer, a French and Swiss mountaineer was the first Swiss woman to reach the summit of the Makalu, Sandrine de Choudens, a French PhD in chemistry being the first French woman to succeed Version 7.0 was unveiled in September 2012 at the European Microscopy Congress in Manchester, UK.
It expanded the list of instruments supported, in particular with new Scanning electron microscope 3D reconstruction software and hyperspectral data analysis. Version 7.2 introduces near real-time 3D topography reconstruction for scanning electron microscopes Version 7.3 adds fast colorization of scanning electron microscope images based on object-oriented image segmentation. Version 7.4 offers 3D reconstruction from a single SEM image, enhanced 3D printing Version 8.0 is due in Q2 2019. New 3D parameters and filtration techniques for surface metrology, François Blateyron, Quality Magazine White Paper Manufacturer's official Web site Makalu 2010 expedition sum up published by one of the Mountaineers, Philippe Bourgine Makalu 2010 expedition video
The 2014 Texas Longhorns softball team represented the University of Texas at Austin in the 2014 NCAA Division I softball season. Connie Clark entered the year as head coach of the Longhorns for an 18th consecutive season; the Longhorns were picked to finish third in the pre-season conference polls. After posting a 12-6 record in conference play, the Longhorns finished where they were picked to finish and qualified for the NCAA Softball Tournament as an at large bid; the Longhorns would go 2-2 in the Lafayette Region and bow out with a final record of 35-23. More than 60% of the Texas schedule would air on television. Below are the announcing assignments for the games. If a TV station isn't listed, the game aired on Longhorn Network. LSU: Lyn Rollins & Yvette Girourd UTSA: Carter Blackburn & Cat Osterman Texas Classic: Alex Loeb & Amanda Scarborough Texas Invitational: Alex Loeb & Amanda Scarborough Iowa: Alex Loeb & Megan Willis Iowa: Alex Loeb & Cat Osterman Iowa: Carter Blackburn & Cat Osterman Houston: Carter Blackburn & Cat Osterman Baylor: John Morris & Megan Turk Texas A&M-Corpus Christi: Carter Blackburn & Cat Osterman Texas State: Alex Loeb & Cat Osterman Texas Tech Series: Alex Loeb & Amanda Scarborough Oklahoma: Beth Mowins & Jessica Mendoza Oklahoma: Bruce Haertl, Jessica Shults, & Jessica Coody Oklahoma: Brenda VanLengen & Tracy Warren Oklahoma State: Carter Blackburn & Amanda Scarborough Oklahoma State: Carter Blackburn & Cat Osterman Kansas Series: Carter Blackburn & Megan Willis Baylor: John Morris & Megan Turk Baylor: Carter Blackburn & Megan Willis Mississippi State: Melissa Lee & Kayla Braud Louisiana-Lafayette: Melissa Lee & Kayla Braud Mississippi State: Melissa Lee & Kayla Braud Louisiana-Lafayette: Melissa Lee & Kayla Braud