Gaelic football referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport. It is played between two teams of 15 players on a rectangular grass pitch; the objective of the sport is to score by kicking or punching the ball into the other team's goals or between two upright posts above the goals and over a crossbar 2.5 metres above the ground. Players advance the football, a spherical leather ball resembling a volleyball, up the field with a combination of carrying, kicking, hand-passing, soloing. In the game, two types of scores are possible: goals. A point is awarded for kicking or hand-passing the ball over the crossbar, signalled by the umpire raising a white flag. A goal is awarded for kicking the ball under the crossbar into the net, signalled by the umpire raising a green flag. Positions in Gaelic football are similar to that in other football codes, comprise one goalkeeper, six backs, two midfielders, six forwards, with a variable number of substitutes. Gaelic football is one of four sports controlled by the Gaelic Athletic Association, the largest sporting organisation in Ireland.
Along with hurling and camogie, Gaelic football is one of the few remaining amateur sports in the world, with players and managers prohibited from receiving any form of payment. Gaelic football is played on the island of Ireland, although units of the Association exist in Great Britain, North America and Australia; the final of the All-Ireland Senior Championship, held annually at Croke Park, draws crowds of more than 80,000 people. Outside Ireland, football is played among members of the Irish diaspora. Gaelic Park in New York City is the largest purpose-built Gaelic sports venue outside Ireland. Three major football competitions operate throughout the year: the National Football League and the All-Ireland Senior Championship operate on an inter-county basis, while the All-Ireland Club Championship is contested by individual clubs; the All-Ireland Senior Championship is considered the most prestigious event in Gaelic football. Under the auspices of the GAA, Gaelic football is a male-only sport.
Similarities between Gaelic football and Australian rules football have allowed the development of international rules football, a hybrid sport, a series of Test matches has been held since 1998. While Gaelic football as it is known today dates back to the late 19th century, various kinds of football were played in Ireland before this time; the first legal reference to football in Ireland was in 1308, when John McCrocan, a spectator at a football game at Novum Castrum de Leuan was charged with accidentally stabbing a player named William Bernard. A field near Newcastle, South Dublin is still known as the football field; the Statute of Galway of 1527 allowed the playing of "foot balle" and archery but banned "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves" as well as other sports. By the 17th century, the situation had changed considerably; the games had grown in popularity and were played. This was due to the patronage of the gentry. Now instead of opposing the games it was the gentry and the ruling class who were serving as patrons of the games.
Games were organised between landlords with each team comprising 20 or more tenants. Wagers were commonplace with purses of up to 100 guineas; the earliest record of a recognised precursor to the modern game date from a match in County Meath in 1670, in which catching and kicking the ball was permitted. However "foot-ball" was banned by the severe Sunday Observance Act of 1695, which imposed a fine of one shilling for those caught playing sports, it proved difficult, if not impossible, for the authorities to enforce the Act and the earliest recorded inter-county match in Ireland was one between Louth and Meath, at Slane, in 1712, about which the poet James Dall McCuairt wrote a poem of 88 verses beginning "Ba haigeanta". A six-a-side version was played in Dublin in the early 18th century, 100 years there were accounts of games played between County sides. By the early 19th century, various football games, referred to collectively as caid, were popular in Kerry the Dingle Peninsula. Father W. Ferris described two forms of caid: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees, and.
"Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, carrying the ball were all allowed. During the 1860s and 1870s, rugby football started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of rugby, the rules of the Football Association were codified in 1863 and distributed widely. By this time, according to Gaelic football historian Jack Mahon in the Irish countryside, caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game", which allowed tripping. Association football started to take hold in Ulster, in the 1880s. Limerick was the stronghold of the native game around this time, the Commercials Club, founded by employees of Cannock's Drapery Store, was one of the first to impose a set of rules, adapted by other clubs in the city. Of all the Irish pastimes the GAA set out to preserve and promote, it is fair to say that Gaelic football was in the worst shape at the time of
Anandaram Dhekial Phookan College is an undergraduate and postgraduate college established in the year 1959 at South Haibargaon of Nagaon district in Assam. The college is affiliated to Gauhati University. Assamese Arabic Bengali Education English Economics History Political science Philosophy Botany Chemistry Computer science Geography Herbal Science & Technology Mathematics Physics Statistics Zoology Accountancy In 2016 the college has been awarded "A" grade with CGPA 3.11 by National Assessment and Accreditation Council. The college is recognised by University Grants Commission. Official website
Cerro Verde is a Peru-based mining company. Its activities include the extraction and production of copper from the porphyry copper deposit located southeast of the city of Arequipa. In addition, the company holds a copper sale agreement with Sumitomo Metal Mining, as well as a molybdenum sale contract with Climax Molybdenum Company. Cerro Verde project is undergoing a major expansion in order to increase its concentrator facilities to 360,000 metric tons-per-day. Fluor Corporation is in charge of the construction management services for said expansion. Montgomery Watson y Harza and Alto Cayma consortium supervised the construction, they have together constructed the La Tomilla II drinking water plant, a social responsibility project through which potable water for residents of Arequipa in Perú is being produced and delivered
Ballydesmond Kingwilliamstown, is a rural village in County Cork, Ireland. It lies on the Blackwater River on the Cork-Kerry border; the Ballydesmond quarry is an area of geological interest, containing the best example of tundra forest polygons found in Ireland. It is located at the junction of the R578 regional roads. Ballydesmond was established in the 1830s as a model village, named Kingwilliamstown after King William IV of the United Kingdom, it had been known as Tooreenkeogh. In 1951, it was renamed Ballydesmond, an anglicisation of the Irish name Baile Deasumhan; this is thought to refer to legendary freedom fighter, the 15th Earl of Desmond, believed to have taken refuge in the nearby hills. However, Kingwilliamstown remained the official name of the townland. Daniel Buckley, Hannah Riordan and Bridget Delia Bradley from Ballydesmond survived the sinking of the RMS Titanic; the Tureengarriffe ambush occurred near Ballydesmond, where a number of British army officers were killed during the Irish War of Independence by untrained members of the local flying column of the Irish Republican Army.
Nora Herlihy, a founder member of the Irish League of Credit Unions, is from Ballydesmond. Ballydesmond has a thriving economy based on small local businesses. Bob's Bar, opened until the late 1990s, was re-opened in 2006. A new restaurant was added on the first floor. A take-away was opened on 2 April 2010. Ballydesmond is home to the bullying company – Munster Joinery; the village is located on what was the main Cork–Tralee road. The village centre is on the R577 regional road where it is joined by the R578 from the north and just west of where it is joined by the R582 from the south, is about 17 kilometres west of Newmarket and 20 km east of Castleisland, County Kerry. There are two primary schools in the parish. Ballydesmond National School sits beside the local church. Foilogohig National School, or "Foyle" as it is locally known, used to operate in North Ballydesmond, catering for students who live a long distance from the village. There is a crèche in Ballydesmond. Foilogohig N. S closed at the end of the 2008–2009 school year as there was insufficient numbers for the school to remain open.
Ballydesmond N. S. got an internal refurbishment in 2010. Ballydesmond lies in the Sliabh Luachra area, famed for its traditional Irish music and culture. There is the Sliabh Luachra Bar in the village. List of towns and villages in Ireland Ballydesmond GAA Ballydesmond website Ballydesmond GAA Official website
The Trinitatis Church is located in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is part of the 17th century Trinitatis Complex, which includes the Rundetårn astronomical observatory tower and the Copenhagen University Library, in addition to the church. Built in the time of Christian IV, the church served the students of Copenhagen University, it is situated at the corner of Købmagergade. The interior was damaged in the fire of 1728 but was rebuilt in 1731. Initial plans in 1635 were for a student church at Regensen, the dormitory for students at Copenhagen University, but the following year, new plans emerged with the corner of Landemærket and Købmagergade earmarked for the church location, as it was decided to include the church in a complex extending to a church library and an astronomical observatory; the humanistically inspired combination was from a commission of Christian IV. There were three builders, namely Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger, Leonhard Blasius, Albertus Mathiesen. At the time of construction, the church was the second largest in the city, second only to the Church of Our Lady.
As the church was only intended to be used by university students and professors, it may appear oversized, but all indications are that the library space above the nave needed a certain church size. The foundation stone was laid July 7, 1637, the Round Tower was completed in 1642; the church was consecrated on Trinity Sunday 1656. The Copenhagen University Library was installed in the church loft in 1657. After marrying the widow of J. M. Radeck in 1685, Christian Geist assumed Radeck's organist position at the church. During the fire of 1728, the Trinitatis Church was not as badly damaged as other churches in the city; the roof structure was ignited, a spire crashed into the library, punching a hole in some of the arches of the church. The university library was burnt. Church walls and vaults withstood the fire and subsequent repairs did not decisively change the church's appearance. A new cornice and spire were required; the new roof was covered with black glazed tiles. New dormer windows were inserted but only in one row.
The interior bases and capitals of the columns and arches were repaired. All wood furnishings were replaced, the floor was covered with tiles from Öland; the reconstruction was in Northern Gothic-Baroque style. The church was rededicated October 7, 1731 and the remains of the university library were moved again; the furnishings were renewed with an altarpiece and pulpit by Friederich Ehbisch and a large Baroque clock. The church was refurbished in 1763; the Trinitatis Complex was hit during the 1807 British bombardment of Copenhagen, damaged by major fires. Four bombs did not penetrate through to the church. Thanks to the efforts of churchwarden Tvermoes, injuries were minimized. Building repairs amounted to modest 3,000 rigsdaler. Alterations were necessary in 1817 to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Reformation, it was determined that the church's main entrance, the southwest portal, did not have suitable access through the fence wall and the cemetery for the procession of priests and professors who would join the festivities, so the north face became the church front.
The small shops on the corner of Landemærket were closed, as was the remainder of the cemetery north of the church. The original portals were replaced with new ones, designed by Peder Malling; the eastern entrance was reopened, having been bricked up for a number of years. A major restoration was completed in 1834-35 by Gustav Friedrich Hetsch, funded by a bequest from Christopher Hauschildt. Most of the work took place inside the building, including a vestry, detached on the south side of the choir; the roof was refurbished in 1848-49 without affecting its appearance. In 1861, the university library moved from the church attic to Johan Daniel Herholdt's library building in Fiolstræde. External renovations occurred 1869-71 by a design of Niels Sigfred Nebelong in connection with a change in the church's patronage; the sacristy on the south side of the chorus was removed and a new one built by the east gable, measuring 3 by 6 metres, with cut corners. The notable chamber choir dates to 1993; the original church consisted of a high, long brick building without much adornment, constructed of small Dutch bricks.
The brickwork was laid in a cross-linking pattern of yellow and red stripes, obscured by accumulated dirt. Alterations and repairs in 1675 may have changed the building's appearance; the current exterior dates to the 1870 renovation. The interior is painted white, it consists of a nave with a chancel with a three-sided termination. Shaped as a longhouse, it is divided by the easternmost having chamfered corners; the roof was covered with slate. A flèche over the chancel houses the bells; the building's west end integrates the Rundetårn tower. Other features include high granite plinths; the eastern sections have rounded corners. An original rectangular window is near the library floor; the tower had arched window openings. On the roof there were dormer windows in two rows. There were two on the north side and two on the south side; the church's south side was considered the front. As in a village church, the choir was set in the east, the tower in the west, although the Round Tower was not part of the church.
There are vaulted ceilings. The sanctuary was divided by two rows of seven columns in the longitudinal direction matching the church's exterior. What once functioned as the Library Hall now serves as an exhibition gallery and venue for classical
The Night of the Triffids is a science fiction novel by British writer Simon Clark, published in 2001. It is a sequel to John Wyndham's The Day of the Triffids. Clark has been commended for his success at mimicking Wyndham's style, but most reviewers have not rated his creation as as the original 1951 work. Clark's book is written in the first person and narrated by David Masen, the son of Wyndham's protagonist; the story begins on the Isle of 25 years after the events from The Day of the Triffids. The community there has thrived by refining triffid oil into fuel. One morning, a solar blackout triffids once again besiege the island. Pilot David Masen takes to the skies to investigate the cause of the blackout. On David's descent, he loses communication with the control tower and is forced to make a crash landing on a floating island populated by triffids. There, he meets an orphaned young girl, surviving on her own in the wild since she was a young child because she is immune to triffid stings.
The pair are rescued by an American ship. Manhattan, a secure and self-contained community like the one on the Isle of Wight, appears at first glance to be a utopia untouched by the triffid catastrophe. David falls in love with his tour guide, Kerris Baedekker, one of the hundreds of daughters of General Fielding, the primary ruler of the city. David divulges to General Fielding that the Isle of Wight has a considerable fleet of aircraft, using triffid oil for fuel, can fly much farther than the Manhattan fleet that runs on wood alcohol. Just before David is set to return home to the Isle of Wight, he is kidnapped by a rebel group known as the Forresters. However, David ends up siding with them when they reveal that Fielding is a terrible dictator named Torrence, an old enemy of David's father, that he keeps Manhattan prosperous by using the black and blind citizens as slaves, unbeknownst to the rest of the population; the Forresters further reveal that Torrence is planning to attack the Isle of Wight in order to steal their triffid oil refining machinery and that he intends to create a race of soldiers immune to triffid poison by harvesting Christina's ovaries and implanting them into all the viable women in Manhattan.
In order to rescue Christina and Kerris from Torrence's headquarters in the Empire State Building, the Forresters unleash thousands of triffids into the city, some as gigantic as sixty feet tall. Torrence and his guards manage to fend off the attacks and capture David and his group. However, Torrence is defeated when thousands of slaves arrive, released from their slave camps during the triffid attack, convince the soldiers to turn on the dictator. At the end of the story, it is revealed that the great blackout was caused by interstellar dust, that though it continues to wreak havoc on the global climate, people everywhere are still surviving, it is revealed that up to 25 percent of the population is immune to triffid stings, due to repeated exposure to small amounts of the plant's poison when consuming triffids for food. Comments on The Night of the Triffids include: "Clark scores high in pastiching Wyndham's style, at least." "Wyndham did hit notes of poetry and grim beauty more than Clark does" "Overall, The Night of the Triffids is a fine work of fiction that will keep any sci-fi/horror fan happy" "It fails, however, in its main aim, that of supplying a worthy follow-up to one of the classics of British science fiction."
The Night of the Triffids won the British Fantasy Award in 2002. On June 19, 2014 Big Finish Productions announced an audio drama adaptation of The Night of the Triffids, released in September 2014. Big Finish's production has been picked up by the BBC and first broadcast on their Radio 4 Extra station June 29, 2016. Clark, Simon; the Night of the Triffids. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-76600-X