Gaff rig is a sailing rig in which the sail is four-cornered, fore-and-aft rigged, controlled at its peak and its entire head by a spar called the gaff. Because of the size and shape of the sail, a gaff rig will have running backstays rather than permanent backstays; the gaff enables aft sail to be four sided, rather than triangular. A gaff rig carries 25 percent more sail than an equivalent Bermudian rig for a given hull design. A sail hoisted from a gaff is called a gaff-rigged sail. Gaff rig remains the most popular fore-aft rig for schooner and barquentine mainsails and other course sails, spanker sails on a square rigged vessel are always gaff rigged. On other rigs the sloop and yawl, gaff rigged sails were once common but have now been replaced by the Bermuda rig sail, which, in addition to being simpler than the gaff rig allows vessels to sail closer to the direction from which the wind is blowing; the gaff is hoisted by two halyards: The throat halyard hoists the throat of the sail at the forward end of the gaff and bears the main weight of the sail and the tension of the luff.
The peak halyard bears the leech tension. Small craft attach the peak halyard to the gaff with a wire span with eyes at both ends looped around the gaff and held in place with small wooden chocks, larger craft have more than one span. Peak halyards pull upwards. Additionally, a gaff vang may be fitted, it is a line attached to the end of the gaff. Gaff vangs are difficult to rig on the aft-most sail, so are only found on schooners or ketches, only on the foresail or mainsail. A triangular fore-and-aft sail called a jib-headed topsail may be carried between the gaff and the mast. Gunter-rigged boats are similar, smaller vessels on which a spar is raised until it is nearly vertical, parallel to the mast and close adjacent to it. Topsails are never carried on gunter rigs; the spritsail is another rig with a four-sided fore-aft sail. Unlike the gaff rig where the head hangs from a spar along its edge, this rig supports the leech of the sail by means of a spar named a sprit; the forward end of the sprit is attached to the mast but bisects the face of the sail, with the after end of the sprit attaching to the peak and/or the clew of the sail.
For a given sail area a gaff rig has a shorter mast than a Bermudian rig. In short-ended craft with full body, heavy displacement and moderate ballast ratio, it is difficult to set enough sail area in the Bermudian rig without a mast of excessive height and a center of effort too high for the limited stability of the hull; because of its low aspect ratio, the gaff rig is less prone to stalling if oversheeted than something taller and narrower. Whilst reaching, the CE being set further back, will encourage a small craft to bear up into the wind, i.e. strong weather helm. The boat builder can compensate for this at design stage, e.g. by shifting the keel aft, or having two jibs to counter the effect. The gaff-cutter is in fact a popular sailplan for small craft; the helmsman can reduce weather helm simply by sheeting out the mainsail. Sheeting out may appear to create an inefficient belly in the sail, but it is a pragmatic alternative to having a heavy helm. A swing keel lifted halfway is the perfect treatment for weather helm on a gaffer.
The usual adjustments to mast rake, or bowsprit length may be made to a gaffer with persistent heavy weather helm. On a gaff-rigged vessel, any heading where the wind is within 20 degrees of dead aft is considered a run; when running with a gaff-rig, the CE of the mainsail may be overboard of the hull, in a stiff wind the craft may want to broach. Running goose winged with a balloon staysail poled out to windward will balance the CE. In light winds, or when racing, a watersail may be set. Gunter Parts of a sail Spritsail Lug sail Rousmaniere, John; the Illustrated Dictionary of Boating Terms: 2,000 Essential Terms for Sailors & Powerboaters. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04649-6
I Want a Country Man is an album by American jazz vocalist Dakota Staton recorded in 1973 and released on the Groove Merchant label. Allmusic's Jason Ankeny said: "Dakota Staton's second Groove Merchant session refines the hip contemporary sound first introduced via the preceding Madame Foo Foo. Paired with arranger Manny Albam, she veers further away from conventional jazz sensibilities into soul, a move that complements her impassioned approach, its earthy title notwithstanding, I Want a Country Man boasts an urbane stylishness that underscores the late-night ambience of the set. Albam's lovely arrangements serve both Staton and the material, adding depth and energy". "Country Man" − 3:57 "I Love You More Than You'll Ever Know" − 6:17 "Girl Talk" − 3:23 "Cry Me a River" − 4:01 "Heartbreak" − 4:20 "It's the Talk of the Town" − 4:55 "Make It Easy on Yourself" − 4:22 "How Did He Look?" − 4:15 Dakota Staton − vocals Cecil Bridgewater, Marvin Stamm, Burt Collins, Joe Newman, Lew Soloff − trumpet Eddie Bert, Bill Watrous, Garnett Brown − trombone Jerry Dodgion − soprano saxophone Joe Firrantello − alto saxophone Frank Wess, Eddie Daniels − tenor saxophone Pepper Adams − baritone saxophone Unidentified rhythm section Manny Albam − arranger, conductor
Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force is the title of a civilian office in the United States Department of the Air Force, with its main offices at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. Along with the two other Deputy Assistant Secretaries of the United States Air Force under Installations and Energy, the DAS assists the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force, the Under Secretary of the Air Force, the Secretary of the Air Force in drafting policy, promoting initiatives, championing projects related to energy across the US Air Force. Established on 18 November 2010, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force falls under the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Installations and Energy; the office was initiated, in part, to address the Air Force’s growing concern over rising energy costs, the requirement for diversification of energy resources, the need for increased energy security. Energy conservation in the Air Force dates back to the 1970s and focused on installations and facilities.
Prior to 1972, the Air Force was converting coal-fired installations to oil or natural gas under a Department of Defense air pollution reduction program. After the Yom Kippur War, the energy crisis of the 1970s prompted the Air Force to identify their first energy reduction goals and monitoring systems. By the late 1970s, the Air Force had developed a 10-year energy reduction plan for its facilities under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, it created the first Air Force Energy Office at Tyndall Air Force Base, which became the focal point for all of the service’s energy matters and policies. In 1985, the Air Force developed the Energy Information Management System, designed to collect all service energy data. Under this system, all Air Force installations were required to conduct energy security assessments every 1 to 3 years. In response to the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Air Force set new goals and mandates for utilities, increasing requirements for the use of clean energy, improving overall energy efficiency.
In an effort to achieve these goals, the Air Force began working with private industry to upgrade its facilities. Through Energy Savings Performance Contracts, industry made energy efficiency upgrades to facilities and the Air Force paid for them with the cost saved over time; the first of these was implemented at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas with Johnson Controls, where 14,500 light fixtures were retrofitted with energy-saving assets. The 21st Century brought an increased focus on energy conservation in the Air Force; the Undersecretary of the Air Force was designated the senior Air Force Energy Official, a role traditionally reserved for senior Air Force facility engineers. This raised visibility of energy conservation and usage amongst Air Force and Department of Defense leadership. In 2006, the Air Force conducted the first flight by a military aircraft using a domestic synthetic fuel blend; the test was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base, California in a B-52 Stratofortress, it culminated in four flights using all eight engines with the synthetic blend for the duration of each.
The following year was a pivotal point in the history of Air Force Energy, beginning with Executive Order 13423 mandating that all Federal agencies operate in an energy-conscious manner. In 2008 Air Force Policy Memo 10-1 directed the development of an Energy Strategic Plan, designated Roles and Responsibilities, created a new management structure under the Energy Program Management Office in 2009; the EPMO’s mission was to bring greater visibility to Air Force energy consumption trends and initiatives, ensure energy was a consideration across Air Force missions. With energy’s growing importance, Air Force leadership determined a broader effort was necessary; as a result, the EPMO became the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force on 18 November 2010, appointing a Senior Executive Service as the Deputy Assistant Secretary to lead it, becoming the first military service to identify energy as a major policy focus area. The Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force has personnel integrated into Air Force Acquisition Operations, Aviation Operations, Facility Management, Expeditionary Operations, Logistics.
In addition, the Operational Energy Office has established a relationship with the US Department of Energy, to research future opportunities for integrating alternative fuels into Air Force operations. The office employs an outreach staff to address energy culture change across the service. Among other achievements, the Air Force Energy Office has led the first-ever pilot project to produce a 100% electric vehicle fleet at Los Angeles Air Force Base, directed the inaugural A-10 Warthog flight using a 50-50% blend of alcohol-to-jet and JP-8 fuel, achieved nearly $1 million in utility cost savings from a new solar panel array at the US Air Force Academy. Official Website of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force
Iaroslav Denysenko, is a swimmer from Ukraine who competes in Paralympic S13, SB13 and SM13 events. A five time European champion, in 2013 Denysenko won the World Championship in 50 metres freestyle S13, has appeared in two Paralympic Games Denysenko began swimming competitively in 2013 for Ukraine, winning the world title in his debut season, he came to international attention when he competed at the 2016 Paralympic Games, winning four silver medals. The following year Denysenko represented Ukraine again, winning 5 gold and two silver medals at the 2018 World Para Swimming European Championships, dominating the S12 classification. In recognition of his performance at the 2016 Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, he received the Order for Merits in Ukraine, he has received the title of Honoured Master of Sport in Ukraine. His wife Kateryna Denysenko has competed in Para swimming, winning gold in the S8 100m butterfly at the 2016 Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro
The Penguin Guide to Blues Recordings is a non-fiction book, an encyclopedic referencing of all known blues music albums released on CD. The book's first edition was released on 31 October 2006 and was written by Tony Russell and Chris Smith with contributions by Neil Slaven, Ricky Russell and Joe Faulkner. Russell in particular is known as a musical historian, working with programs presented on BBC Radio, as well as documentaries on the blues. In the book, artists are set up alphabetically and include short biographies before showing a complete listing of their discography; each album includes title, a rating out of four stars, musicians on the album, release month and year, a review of varying length. The Penguin Guide to Jazz Listing at Penguin Books
Bogra Zilla School is one of the oldest high school in the Bogra district of Bangladesh and one of the top-ranked schools in the country. It provides education from class three to class ten, it was a private English medium school before becoming a public school. Bogra Zilla School was established in 1853. Babu Bhagabati Charan Ghosh was the first headmaster, it was a private school before becoming a public one. It came under governmental management through the efforts of magistrate and collector Mr. Russell and deputy collector Babu S. Mukharjee; this school observed its 150th anniversary celebration in 2005. Bogra Zilla School was the second government high school in the Bogra district during British rule. Babu Bhagabati Charan Ghosh was held the post for six years. Bogra's native son Babu Kishoree Lal Roy, the author of many philosophical writings, was an early student of this school. In his book Free Enquiry after Truth he wrote, “In 1853 a Government English school was established here and I obtained my entrance into it.
My progress in this institution has been remarked by its first and best of its Headmasters that were, to have been remarkably rapid. Be it said with deep respect and gratitude that under the judicious tuition of Babu Bhagabati Charan Ghosh I obtained a useful knowledge of the English language within about four years and a half. I have always thought Bhahabati Babu to be one of my greatest benefactors on Earth and will think so for also.” There were four teachers during the period of Bhagabati Babu. According to the National School Committee, the school appears to have beeb founded principally by the sons and relatives of the clerks' officers connected with the Courts. After Bhagabati Babu, A. C. Mukharjee became Headmaster in 1859. During his tenure, two students passed in 2nd division, one passed in 1st division with scholarship in 1862. Around this time, the practice of giving books as rewards to the students of both Bangla and English schools based on their performance was started. During the prize-giving ceremony more than a hundred taka used to be spent for fireworks.
During 1859–60, the inspector of the schools of the north-east areas and Assam, Mr. W. Robinson, conducted the ceremony, he arranged a demonstration with a magic lantern for their entertainment and showed many interesting and educative events of nature such as the motions of the stars and planets, a solar and lunar eclipse, a cyclone, etc. From 1881 to 1885, a school building was constructed of bricks. In 1873–74, there were six teachers, one pundit, one moulavi in the school. There were 85 students in 1860–61. In 1907–08, the number of students was 363. Among them, 218 were Hindus and 145 were Muslims; the school now has 2000 students. The faculty members are graduates from universities in Bangladesh, student applicants from top elementary schools, are put through a competitive admission selection process. Bogra Zilla School is located at the center of Bogra city, called Shatmatha, it is the nerve of Bogra town. The Circuit House is situated at the eastern border of the school and a playing ground, named Altafunnesa is situated in the southern border.
Admission is competitive. Students are admitted into class three. After an initial screening, more than 2500 applicants appear at a comprehensive admission test for only 240 positions. There are a few positions in class four to nine each year. Bogra Zilla School is one of the best Schools of Bogra Bangladesh also; this school teaches from class three to class ten. Upon a screening in class ten, students appear at the SSC examination. Humayun Ahmed - novelist and filmmaker Muhammad Zafar Iqbal - academician and writer Ziaur Rahman - former president of Bangladesh and the founder of Bangladesh Nationalist Party Akhteruzzaman Elias - novelist and short story writer Mushfiqur Rahim - cricketer and captain of the national team List of Zilla Schools of Bangladesh