Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u
Scouting Ireland is one of the largest youth movements on the island of Ireland, a voluntary educational movement for young people with over 53,000 members in late 2018, including over 13,000 adult volunteers. Of the 750,000 people between the ages of 6 and 18 in Ireland, over 6% are involved with the organisation, it was founded in 2004, following the amalgamation of two of the Scouting organisations on the island. It is the World Organization of the Scout Movement-recognised Scouting association in the Republic of Ireland. In Northern Ireland it operates alongside The Scout Association of the UK and the Baden-Powell Scout Association; the organisation is independent, non-political, open to all young people without distinction of origin, creed, sexual orientation, spiritual belief or gender, in accordance with the purpose and method conceived by Lord Baden-Powell and as stated by WOSM. The aim of the organisation is to encourage the social, intellectual, character and spiritual development aspects of young people "so that they may achieve their full potential and as responsible citizens, to improve society".
The process of founding the new organisation came on 21 June 2003, after a merger between Scouting Ireland C. S. I. and Scouting Ireland S. A. I. was announced, becoming effective on 1 January 2004. Its national office is at County Dublin; the association is headed by the Chief Scout, governed by the National Council and the Board of Directors. A small professional staff team is led by a Chief Executive Officer; the organisation is known for, operates through, its Youth Programme, for members aged between 6 and 25 years, divided into the following Sections: Beaver Scouts – Ages 6–8 Cub Scouts – Ages 9–11 Scouts – Ages 12–15 Venture Scouts – Ages 15–17 Rover Scouts – Ages 18–25Sea Scouts – Sea Scouting is a model for implementing the Scout Method with an emphasis on maritime tradition, nautical skills and water-based activities. Sea Scouting operates throughout consistent with the above age ranges; the basic unit of Scouting in Ireland is the Scout Group. Each Group is based around a single meeting point a dedicated scout den but sometimes a school assembly hall or community facility, but may have a number of sections, meeting at different times, may have more than one Scout Troop or Cub Scout Pack, for example.
Each Group is coordinated by a Scout Group Council, headed up by the Group Leader and Deputy Group Leader, these roles being appointed by the Chief Commissioner based on nomination by the Scout Group Council and recommendation by the relevant Scout County Commissioner. Membership includes roles such as Chairperson, Secretary and Quartermaster, adult representatives of all sections, youth representatives of the Scouts, Venture Scout and Rover Scout sections, made by the Scout Group Council itself; as of 2018, there are around 520 Scout Groups. Scout Groups are members of their local Scout County, some are which based on geographical counties, while others, depending on membership density, are based in parts of cities or across county boundaries; the Scout County supports the training of Scouters, the youth programme, the development of Groups within the County. Each Scout County is coordinated by a County Commissioner. Above the Scout County level, Ireland is divided into six Scout Provinces, namely the Northern, North Eastern, South Eastern and Dublin provinces.
Each Province is coordinated by a Provincial Commissioner, who in turn appoints a Training Co-Ordinator as well as Youth Programme and International representatives. The Provincial Management / Support Committee consists of County Commissioners, Provincial Officers, co-ordinators and representatives; each Province has a professional Provincial Support Officer. The primary decision-making body of Scouting Ireland is called National Council, it meets at least once a year. National Council is the body responsible for amendments to Constitution, it elects the Chief Scout and members of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors is the non-executive oversight body between National Councils. From 2018, it consists of 10 elected members, up to 3 co-opted members, it receives reports from Heads of Department and has the authority to create structures and appoint heads for those structures. From June 2003 until October 2018, the National Management Committee was the executive body which guided the association between National Council meetings.
It made decisions relating to policies and strategies, their implementation on behalf of National Council. The NMC, which included National and Provincial Commissioners handled representation of the organisation both nationally and internationally; the NMC drove development of both the youth programme and materials to support the management of adult members and other supporters. The NMC had the same membership as the Board of the not-for-profit company acting for Scouting Ireland when appropriate, as of 2018 the association is in the process of merging with the company with the Board of Directors at the helm; the leader of the overall organization is the Chief Scout, its leading volunteer and public representative, chairs National Council and other bodies, makes key awards. The Chief reports to the Board of Directors; the first Chief Scout elected was Martin Burbridge, the former National Treasurer of Scouting Ireland. He was re-elected at National Council in 2007 for a second term, due to end in 2010.
For personal reasons Burbridge announced his resignation in August 2008, the NMC elected Michael John Shinnick, the Chief Commissioner for Adult Resources, as SI's second Chief Scout in Se
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
The Duke of Edinburgh's Award
The Duke of Edinburgh's Award, is a youth awards programme founded in the United Kingdom in 1956 by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, that has since expanded to 144 nations. The awards recognise adolescents and young adults for completing a series of self-improvement exercises modelled on Kurt Hahn's solution to the "Six Declines of Modern Youth". In the United Kingdom, the programme is run by The Duke of Edinburgh's Award, a royal charter corporation. A separate entity, The Duke of Edinburgh's International Award Foundation, promotes the award abroad and acts as a coordinating body for award sponsors in other nations, which are organised into 62 National Award Authorities and a number of Independent Operators. Award sponsors in countries outside the United Kingdom may title their awards Duke of Edinburgh's Awards, though the recognition operates under a variety of other names in countries without a historic link to the British monarchy, or that have severed such links. In February 1956, The Duke of Edinburgh's Award was first announced.
It was at first "for boys" aged 15 to 18. It was first administered, designed, by John Hunt, who had led the first successful climb of Everest in 1953, had retired from the army to run The Duke of Edinburgh's Award, it was designed to attract boys who had not been interested in joining one of the main British youth movements, such as the Scout Association. It was not necessary to wear a uniform to participate. In the first 12 months, 7,000 boys had enrolled for the scheme; the programme borrowed from the Moray Badge, instituted at Gordonstoun School by its headmaster, Kurt Hahn, in 1936, the County Badge adopted in Moray in 1941. In November 1957 it was announced. On 19 June 1958 the Award was extended to girls, with the first girls allowed to join from 1 September 1958; the programme for girls was not the same as that for boys, was for ages 14 to 20. The first girls received their Gold Awards on 3 November 1959 at Buckingham Palace. From January 1965, the Gold Award for boys and girls was made more similar.
The first Gold Awards were achieved in 1958, the charity was established in 1959. A single programme for young people aged 14 to 21 was launched in 1969, extended to those up to 25 years of age in 1980. In 2013, the Duke presented Awards at St James's Palace which included his 500th Gold Award Presentation; the first Duke of Edinburgh's Award ceremony was held in the United Kingdom in 1956. Participation in DofE programmes and the number of awards achieved has grown every year since 1956; as of 2017 420,000 young people were taking part in Duke of Edinburgh's Award programmes run in nearly 11,000 designated DofE centres – including schools, youth clubs and businesses – throughout the UK. Over 6 million young people in the UK have taken part in the DofE in the UK since 1956; the Duke of Edinburgh's Award is a member of the National Council for Voluntary Youth Services. In 2009, the old system of keeping track of progress through paper Record Books was replaced by the introduction of a major new online system – eDofE.
Participants use this system to track their progress, while Leaders use it to oversee participants' progress. The Duke of Edinburgh's Award programmes take between one and four years to complete, they must be completed by the participant's twenty-fifth birthday. There are around 300,000 participants annually; the programmes are at three progressive levels which, if completed, lead to a Bronze, Silver or Gold Duke of Edinburgh’s Award. With assistance from adult Leaders, participants select and set objectives in each of the following areas: Volunteering: undertaking service to individuals or the community. Physical: improving in an area of sport, dance or fitness activities. Skills: developing practical and social skills and personal interests. Expedition: planning, training for, completion of an adventurous journey in the UK or abroad. At Gold level, participants must do an additional fifth Residential section, which involves staying and working away from home for five days, doing a shared activity.
To achieve an award, the participant must work on each section for a minimum period of time, must be monitored and assessed by someone with knowledge of the chosen activities. Each progressive level demands more commitment from participants: Bronze 3 -- 6 months. Participants are required to show regular activity and commitment to the award for the duration of their DofE programme, at least one hour per week. In Northern Ireland participants completing The Duke of Edinburgh's Award can choose to accept a certificate from the Gaisce or an International Award Certificate instead of a Duke of Edinburgh certificate. Awards modelled on The Duke of Edinburgh's Award are presented by sponsoring organisations affiliated with the Duke of Edinburgh's International Award Association in 144 nations: 29 located in the Americas; the prestige and awareness of these awards vary from country to country and – unlike awards programmes in Ireland and the United Kingdom – there is no connection to the head of state and awards are issued by private youth charities.
In the United States, for instance, only about 7,000 of the estimated 47 million eligible persons age 14 to 24 annually participate in the programme. The Award was established in Australia in 1959 on the initiative of Sir Adrien Curlewis in 1958. By 2015 the Award was available in all state and territories and today over 24,000 young Australians undertake a Bronze, Silver or Gold Award each ye
President of Ireland
The president of Ireland is the head of state of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces. The president holds office for seven years, can be elected for a maximum of two terms; the president is directly elected by the people, although there is no poll if only one candidate is nominated, which has occurred on six occasions to date. The presidency is a ceremonial office, but the president does exercise certain limited powers with absolute discretion; the president acts as a representative of the Irish guardian of the constitution. The president's official residence is Áras an Uachtaráin in Dublin; the office was established by the Constitution of Ireland in 1937, the first president took office in 1938, became internationally recognised as head of state in 1949 following the coming into force of the Republic of Ireland Act. The current president is Michael D. Higgins, first elected on 29 October 2011, his inauguration was held on 11 November 2011. He was re-elected for a second term on 26 October 2018.
The Constitution of Ireland provides for a parliamentary system of government, under which the role of the head of state is a ceremonial one. The president is formally one of three parts of the Oireachtas, which comprises Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann. Unlike most parliamentary republics, the president is not the nominal chief executive. Rather, executive authority in Ireland is expressly vested in the government; the government is obliged, however, to keep the president informed on matters of domestic and foreign policy. Most of the functions of the president may be carried out only in accordance with the strict instructions of the Constitution, or the binding "advice" of the government; the president does, possess certain personal powers that may be exercised at his or her discretion. The main functions are prescribed by the Constitution: Appoints the government The president formally appoints the taoiseach and other ministers, accepts their resignations; the taoiseach is appointed upon the nomination of the Dáil, the president is required to appoint whomever the Dáil designates without the right to decline appointment.
The remainder of the cabinet is appointed upon the nomination of the taoiseach and approval of the Dáil. Ministers are dismissed on the advice of the taoiseach and the Taoiseach must, unless there is a dissolution of the Dáil, resign upon losing the confidence of the house. Appoints the judiciary The president appoints the judges to all courts in Ireland, on the advice of the government. Convenes and dissolves the Dáil This power is exercised on the advice of the taoiseach; the president may only refuse a dissolution. Signs bills into law The President can not veto a bill that the Seanad have adopted. However, he or she may refer it to the Supreme Court to test its constitutionality. If the Supreme Court upholds the bill, the President must sign it. If, however, it is found to be unconstitutional, the president will decline to give assent. Represents the state in foreign affairs This power is exercised only on the advice of the government; the president receives the letters of credence of foreign diplomats.
Ministers sign international treaties in the President's name. This role was not exercised by the president prior to the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces This role is somewhat similar in statute to that of a commander-in-chief. An officer's commission is sealed by the president; this is the powers of which are exercised on the advice of the government. Power of pardon The president, on the advice of the government, has "the right of pardon and the power to commute or remit punishment". Pardon, for miscarriages of justice, has applied rarely: Thomas Quinn in 1940, Brady in 1943, Nicky Kelly in 1992; the current procedure is specified by Section 7 of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1993. There were plans in 2005 for paramilitary "on the runs" to receive pardons as part of the Northern Ireland peace process, to supplement the 1998 early release of serving prisoners after the Good Friday Agreement; this was soon abandoned along with similar British proposals. Power of commutation and remittance are not restricted to the President, though this was the case for death sentences handed down prior to the abolition of capital punishment.
Other functions specified by statute or otherwise include: The president is ex officio president of the Irish Red Cross Society. The president appoints, on the advice of the government, the Senior Professors and chairman of the council of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies; the president appoints one trustee to the Chester Beatty Library. This was given effect by a 1968 Act of the Oireachtas; the president is the patron of Gaisce – The President's Award, established by trust deed in 1985. The president is the patron of Clans of Ireland, including its Order of Merit, since he so agreed in January 2012; the president confers the title of Saoi on those so elected by the membership of Aosdána. The president is patron to several charities in Ireland; the president may not leave the
Chief Scout Award (Scouting Ireland)
The Chief Scout Award is the highest youth programme award in each of the Programme Sections in Scouting Ireland. It is designed to tie-in with the Gaisce Award/Duke of Edinburgh's Award, the Chief Scout Award for Scouts, Venture Scouts, Rover Scouts are awarded jointly with the Bronze and Gold awards respectively. Requirements for the award are a number of Adventure Skills, Special Interest Badges, an Expedition, camp with an inter-cultural aspect; the progress of the award is led with the help of the Scouter. A named award, The Chief Scout's Award was the highest award for Scouts in Scouting Ireland until the development of the ONE Programme; the precise criteria for the Chief Scout's Award in Scouting Ireland as a result of the merger of CSI and SAI are unclear at present. It is the final step in the personal progressive scheme of the former CSI; the SAI used it as an award to be achieved in tandem with the progressive badge scheme. The Chief Scout's Award is a individual recognition of commitment to the Scout Law, dedication to attain personal ambitions and the desire to contribute to and to improve society.
Chief Scout's Award holders have been received at Áras an Uachtaráin by the President of Ireland, most in 2004 by Mary McAleese, the Patron of Scouting Ireland. It is estimated; the award was introduced by Catholic Boy Scouts of Ireland in the early 1960s to replace the Silver Palm Award. The first awards were presented by Chief Scout CJ "Kit" Murphy. Scouting Ireland S. A. I. awarded a Chief Scout's Award, with successful applicant receiving a cloth badge, a certificate signed by the Chief Scout, a special neckerchief on Founder's Day in the Mansion House, Dublin. Since the foundation of Scouting Ireland, award recipients have been presented with a pendant The Chief Scout award is now standardised across the five programme sections Beavers, Scouts and Rovers. Requirements for the award are a number of Adventure Skills, Special Interest Badges, an Expedition, camp with an inter-cultural aspect; the progress of the award is led with the help of the Scouter. Rover Scouts are presented with their Chief Scout Award/Gold President's Award/Gold DOE Award in an annual ceremoney in Trinity College, Dublin.
On this pathway, Scouts complete a personal project. The Scout meets with the Chief Scout, or his representative, discusses his or her own interests and a project is derived from the candidate's own individual goals. More than not the project does not directly relate to Scouting, it always, relates to one of the development trails which Scouting identifies as crucial to personal growth and achievement. Projects vary from community projects to local history studies and from putting on exhibitions and shows to raising awareness of charitable causes. Key to this pathway is planning, identifying a goal, endeavouring to attain that goal and evaluation of the project as a whole. Scouts with their Scout Leader agree their own challenges in each of the six categories; the challenges are recorded on the form. The Scout Leader should ensure a suitable Standard Of The Challenges is achieved by verifying that the challenges have been set in accordance with the criteria laid down below and sign this form before it is sent to National Office.
The standard of the challenges should be relevant to the Scout's ability and the quality of Scouting in the Troop, so that they are both challenging and achievable. Once you have been registered as a participant in the Award, you will receive an acknowledgement from the Chief Scout accepting your challenges and stating your Chief Scout's Award registration number. Plan and organise an expedition by foot, boat or canoe of at least two nights' duration covering either:- 30 km on foot over open country or 100 km by bicycle or 30 km by boat or canoe The expedition should be planned under the supervision of your Scout Leader and all safety precautions for the various disciplines must be adhered to. You may complete the expedition with other members of your Troop doing the Chief Scout's Award, but a maximum of three Scouts may count the same expedition as part of their Chief Scout's Award. Plan and lead a day activity such as a hike, cycle or boating trip for other members of your Troop producing route cards, safety considerations and emergency procedures.
The activity should have a novel programme on route, e.g. orienteering, dusk to dawn, historical visit etc. Hike 15 km over open country Cycle 50 km road or off-road Boat / Canoe 10 km river, lake or coastalOnly the planner or organiser may count this towards their Chief Scout's Award. Lead the construction of one of the following items, which you have not constructed before:- A monkey bridge over a river A look-out tower for your Summer Camp A classic altar fire with a back boiler A classic altar fire with an oven A hyberbola gateway for your Troop site campsite A campsite gateway with look-out tower A substantial knot board for your Scout Hall Build a raft and paddle it over a distance of half a mile Construct a full nautical flag pole on your Summer Camp Undertake an environmental project in the form of an activity, research or survey relevant to your local area or an area in which your Troop does most of its Scouting; this could be a campsite, park area, open land, beach or coastline with which
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the la