Cinnamomum tamala, Indian bay leaf' known as ತಮಾಲ in Kannada, மரப்பட்டை இலை in தமிழ், tejapatta, Malabar leaf, Indian bark, Indian cassia, or malabathrum, is a tree in the Lauraceae family, native to India, Nepal and China. It can grow up to 20 m tall, its leaves have a clove-like aroma with a hint of peppery taste, they are used for culinary and medicinal purposes. It is thought to have been one of the major sources of the medicinal plant leaves known in classic and medieval times as malabathrum; the leaves, known as tējapattā or tejpatta in Hindi, tejpat in Nepali and Assamese, tejpata in Bengali, vazhanayila in Malayalam, tamalpatra in Marathi and in original Sanskrit, are used extensively in the cuisines of India and Bhutan in the Moghul cuisine of North India and Nepal and in tsheringma herbal tea in Bhutan. It is called biryani bagharakku in Telugu, it is used in kumbilappam or chakka-ada, an authentic sweet from Kerala, infusing its characteristic flavor to the dumplings. They are labeled as "Indian bay leaves," or just "bay leaf", causing confusion with the leaf from the bay laurel, a tree of Mediterranean origin in a different genus.
Bay laurel leaves are shorter and light- to medium-green in color, with one large vein down the length of the leaf, while tejpat leaves are about twice as long and wider olive green in color, with three veins down the length of the leaf. There are five types of tejpat leaves and they impart a strong cassia- or cinnamon-like aroma to dishes, while the bay laurel leaf's aroma is more reminiscent of pine and lemon. Beta-caryophyllene Linalool Caryophyllene oxide Eugenol The bark is sometimes used for cooking, although it is regarded as inferior to true cinnamon or cassia. Methanolic extract of C. tamala leaves fed at 10 mg/kg to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 15 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose level, blood glycosylated haemoglobin, LPO, serum AST, ALT, significant increase in the antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, GSH, SOD. C. tamala could be used as an adjunct therapy in diabetes. Malabar had been traditionally used to denote the west coast of Southern India that forms the present-day state of Kerala and adjoining areas.
The word mala or malaya means "mountain" in the Tamil and Malayalam languages, as in Sanskrit. The word "malabathrum" is thought to have been derived from the Sanskrit tamālapattram meaning "dark-tree leaves". Cassia Cinnamon Saigon cinnamon Indian bay-leaf page from Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages
Lemon balm, common balm, or balm mint, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the mint family Lamiaceae and native to south-central Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and Central Asia, but now naturalized in the Americas and elsewhere. It grows to a maximum height of 70–150 cm; the leaves have a mild lemon scent similar to mint. During summer, small white flowers full of nectar appear, it is not to be confused with bee balm, although the white flowers attract bees, hence the genus Melissa. The leaves are used as a herb, in teas, as a flavouring; the plant is used to attract bees for honey production. It is grown for its oil; the tea of lemon balm, the essential oil, the extract are used in traditional and alternative medicine, including aromatherapy. The plant has been cultivated at least since the 16th century, but research is still being conducted to establish the safety and effects of lemon balm. Sources date the medicinal use of lemon balm to over 2000 years ago through the Romans. Further mention is found in Theophrastus’s Historia Plantarum, dated to around 300 BC.
Lemon balm was formally introduced into Spain in the 7th century, from which its use and domestication spread throughout Europe. Its use in the Middle Ages is noted by herbalists, writers and scientists, with Swiss physician and alchemist, deeming it the “elixir of life”. Lemon balm was introduced to North America with the arrival of early colonists, is recorded to have been among the herbs cultivated in Thomas Jefferson’s garden; the plant is used to attract bees to make honey. It is grown and sold as an ornamental plant; the essential oil is used as a perfume ingredient, but the plant has other culinary and medicinal uses. Lemon balm is used in some toothpastes. Lemon balm is used as a flavouring in ice cream and herbal teas, both hot and iced in combination with other herbs such as spearmint, it is a common addition to peppermint tea because of its complementing flavor. Lemon balm is paired with fruit dishes or candies. Additionally, it is the main ingredient in lemon balm pesto, its flavour comes from citronellal, linalyl acetate and caryophyllene.
It is one of the ingredients in Spreewald gherkins. In traditional Austrian medicine, M. officinalis leaves have been prescribed for internal use—as a tea—or external application—as an essential oil—for the treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, nervous system and bile. Lemon balm is the main ingredient of Carmelite water, still for sale in German pharmacies. In alternative medicine it is used as a sleep digestive aid. Lemon balm essential oil is popular in aromatherapy; the essential oil is co-distilled with lemon oil, citronella oil or other oils. M. officinalis is now naturalized around the world. Lemon balm seeds require at least 20 °C to germinate. Lemon balm grows in spreads vegetatively, as well as by seed. In mild temperate zones, the stems of the plant die off at the start of the winter, but shoot up again in spring. Lemon balm grows vigorously. M. officinalis may be the "honey-leaf" mentioned by Theophrastus. It was in the herbal garden of John Gerard, 1596; as of 1992 the major producing countries were Hungary, Italy for herb, Ireland for essential oil.
The many cultivars of M. officinalis include: M. officinalis'Citronella' M. officinalis'Lemonella' M. officinalis'Quedlinburger' M. officinalis'Lime' M. officinalis'Variegata' M. officinalis'Aurea' M. officinalis'Quedlinburger Niederliegende' is an improved variety bred for high essential oil content Lemon balm, including lemon balm extract, has been shown to improve sleep quality. Pediatric patients have displayed improvement in restlessness and dyssomnia with the ingestion of lemon balm extract. Further evidence has demonstrated a significant reduction in levels of insomnia. Lemon balm is associated with anti-stress and anti-anxiety. Studies have shown a significant increase in calmness in healthy patients exposed to lemon balm when compared to placebo. In addition, lemon balm ingestion is linked to improvement in cognitive performance. Gender and administration length appear to have an impact on the effectiveness of lemon balm as a treatment for depression in rats. Several studies have demonstrated the lemon balm’s antioxidant activity, obtained through high amounts of flavonoids, rosmaric acid, gallic acid and phenolic contents.
Lemon balm has been shown to possess antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumoral properties. The composition and pharmacology and potential uses of lemon balm have been extensively studied with regard to its traditional uses. Randomized, double-blinded clinical studies in people, have been limited and have had few subjects; those studies cannot be used for generalized conclusions about the safety or efficacy of lemon balm and its components. Lemon balm contains eugenol and terpenes, it contains -citronellal, 1-octen-3-ol, 10-α-cadinol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, α-cubebene, α-humulene, β-bourbonene, caffeic acid, caryophyllene oxide, chlorogenic acid, cis-3-hexenol, cis-ocimene, citral A, citral B, copaene, δ-cadinene, eugenyl acetate, γ-cadinene, geraniol, geranyl acetate, germacrene D, linalool, luteolin-7-glucoside, neral, octyl benzoate, oleanolic acid, pomolic acid (-hydroxyursolic
Ocimum tenuiflorum known as holy basil, tulasi or tulsi, is an aromatic perennial plant in the family Lamiaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent and widespread as a cultivated plant throughout the Southeast Asian tropics. Tulasi is cultivated for religious and traditional medicine purposes, for its essential oil, it is used as a herbal tea used in Ayurveda, has a place within the Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism, in which devotees perform worship involving holy basil plants or leaves. The variety of Ocimum tenuiflorum used in Thai cuisine is referred to as Thai holy basil. Holy basil is 30 -- 60 cm tall with hairy stems. Leaves are purple; the purplish flowers are placed in close whorls on elongate racemes. The three main morphotypes cultivated in India and Nepal are Ram tulsi, the less common purplish green-leaved and the rare wild "vana tulsi". DNA barcodes of various biogeographical isolates of tulsi from the Indian subcontinent are now available. In a large-scale phylogeographical study of this species conducted using chloroplast genome sequences, a group of researchers from Central University of Punjab, have found that this plant originates from North-Central India.
The discovery might suggest the evolution of tulsi is related with the cultural migratory patterns in the Indian subcontinent. Tulsi leaves are part in the worship of Vishnu and his avatars, including Krishna and Rama, other male Vaishnava deities, such as Hanuman and some brahmanas. Tulsi is worshipped as the avatar of Lakshmi. Traditionally, tulsi is planted in the centre of the central courtyard of Hindu houses or may be grown next to Hanuman temples; the ritual lighting of lamps each evening during Kartik includes the worship of the tulsi plant, held to be auspicious for the home. Vaishnavas traditionally use Hindu prayer beads made from tulsi stems or roots, which are an important symbol of initiation, they have such a strong association with Vaishnavas, that followers of Vishnu are known as "those who bear the tulsi round the neck". Tulsi Vivah is ceremonial festival performed anytime between Prabodhini Ekadashi and Kartik Poornima; the day varies regionally. Tulasi has been used in Siddha practices for its supposed treatment of diseases.
Traditionally, tulasi is taken as herbal tea, dried powder, fresh leaf or mixed with ghee. The leaves of holy basil, known as kaphrao in the Thai language, are used in Thai cuisine for certain stir-fries and curries such as phat kaphrao — a stir-fry of Thai holy basil with meats, seafood or, as in khao phat kraphao, with rice. Two different types of holy basil are used in Thailand, a "red" variant which tends to be more pungent, a "white" version for seafood dishes. Kaphrao should not be confused with horapha, known as Thai basil, or with Thai lemon basil. For centuries, the dried leaves have been mixed with stored grains to repel insects; some of the phytochemical constituents of tulsi are oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, carvacrol, linalool, β-caryophyllene. Tulsi essential oil consists of eugenol β-elemene, β-caryophyllene and germacrene, with the balance being made up of various trace compounds terpenes; the genome of Tulsi plant has been sequenced and reported as a draft, estimated to be 612 mega bases, with results showing genes for biosynthesis of anthocyanins in Krishna Tulsi, ursolic acid and eugenol in Rama Tulsi.
Media related to Ocimum tenuiflorum at Wikimedia Commons
Thai cuisine is the national cuisine of Thailand. Thai cooking places emphasis on prepared dishes with strong aromatic components and a spicy edge. Thai chef McDang characterises Thai food as demonstrating "intricacy. Australian chef David Thompson, an expert on Thai food, observes that unlike many other cuisines, Thai cooking rejects simplicity and is about "the juggling of disparate elements to create a harmonious finish". In 2017, seven Thai dishes appeared on a list of the "World's 50 Best Foods"— an online poll of 35,000 people worldwide by CNN Travel. Thailand had more dishes on the list than any other country, they were: tom yam goong, pad Thai, som tam, massaman curry, green curry, Thai fried rice and mu nam tok. Thai cuisine is more described as five regional cuisines, corresponding to the five main regions of Thailand: Bangkok: cuisine of the Bangkok metropolitan area, with Teochew and Portuguese influences. In addition, as a capital city, Bangkok cuisine is sometimes influenced by more dedicated royal cuisine.
Tastes and looks of food in Bangkok have changed somewhat over time as they have been influenced by other cuisines such as Asian, European or Western countries. Central Thai: cuisine of the flat and wet central rice-growing plains, site of the former Thai kingdoms of Sukhothai and Ayutthaya, the Dvaravati culture of the Mon people from before the arrival of Siamese in the area. Coconut milk is one of major ingredients used in Central Thai cuisine. Isan or northeastern Thai: cuisine of the more arid Khorat Plateau, similar in culture to Laos and influenced by Khmer cuisine; the best-known ingredient is Pla ra. Northern Thai: cuisine of the cooler valleys and forested mountains of the Thai highlands, once ruled by the former Lanna Kingdom and home of Lannaese, the majority of northern Thailand; this cuisine shares a lot of ingredients with Isan. Southern Thai: cuisine of the Kra Isthmus, bordered on two sides by tropical seas, with its many islands and including the ethnic Malay, former Sultanate of Pattani in the deep south.
Some food base on Hainanese and Cantonese influence. Thai cuisine and the culinary traditions and cuisines of Thailand's neighbors have mutually influenced one another over the course of many centuries. Regional variations tend to correlate to neighboring states as well as geography. Northern Thai cuisine shares dishes with Shan State in Burma, northern Laos, with Yunnan Province in China, whereas the cuisine of Isan is similar to that of southern Laos, is influenced by Khmer cuisine from Cambodia to its south, by Vietnamese cuisine to its east. Southern Thailand, with many dishes that contain liberal amounts of coconut milk and fresh turmeric, has that in common with Indian and Indonesian cuisine. In addition to these regional cuisines, there is Thai royal cuisine which can trace its history back to the cosmopolitan palace cuisine of the Ayutthaya kingdom, its refinement, cooking techniques and use of ingredients were of great influence to the cuisine of the central Thai plains. Many dishes that are now popular in Thailand were Chinese dishes.
They were introduced to Thailand by the Hokkien people starting in the 15th century, by the Teochew people who started settling in larger numbers from the late–18th century onward in the towns and cities, now form the majority of Thai Chinese. Such dishes include rice porridge; the Chinese introduced the use of the wok for cooking, the technique of deep-frying and stir frying dishes, several types of noodles, soy sauces, tofu. The cuisines of India and Persia, brought first by traders, settlers from these regions, with their use of dried spices, gave rise to Thai adaptations and dishes such as kaeng kari and kaeng matsaman. Western influences, starting in 1511 when the first diplomatic mission from the Portuguese arrived at the court of Ayutthaya, have created dishes such as foi thong, the Thai adaptation of the Portuguese fios de ovos, sangkhaya, where coconut milk replaces cow's milk in making a custard; these dishes were said to have been brought to Thailand in the 17th century by Maria Guyomar de Pinha, a woman of mixed Japanese-Portuguese-Bengali ancestry, born in Ayutthaya, became the wife of Constantine Phaulkon, a Greek adviser to King Narai.
The most notable influence from the West must be the introduction of the chili pepper from the Americas in the 16th or 17th century. It, rice, are now two of the most important ingredients in Thai cuisine. During the Columbian Exchange and Spanish ships brought new foodstuffs from the Americas including tomatoes, papaya, pea eggplants, pumpkins, culantro and peanuts. Thai food was traditionally eaten with the hand while seated on mats or carpets on the floor or coffee table in upper middle class family, customs still found in the more traditional households. Today, most Thais eat with a fork and spoon. Tables and chairs were introduced as part of a broader Westernization drive during the reign of King Mongkut, Rama IV; the fork and spoon were introduced by King Chulalongkorn after his return from a tour of Europe in 1897 CE
Eryngium foetidum is a tropical perennial herb in the family Apiaceae. Common names include culantro, shadow beni, Mexican coriander, long coriander, ngò gai, it is native to Mexico, Central America, South America, but is cultivated worldwide, sometimes being grown as an annual in temperate climates. In the United States, the common name culantro sometimes causes confusion with cilantro, a common name for the leaves of Coriandrum sativum, of which culantro is said to taste like a stronger version. E. foetidum is used in seasoning and garnishing in the Caribbean in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Tobago, Guyana, in Peru's Amazon regions. It is used extensively in Cambodia, India, Vietnam and other parts of Asia as a culinary herb, it dries well, making it valuable in the dried herb industry. It is sometimes used as a substitute for coriander. In the United States, E. foetidum grows in Florida, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands. E. foetidum has been used in traditional medicine in tropical regions for burns, fevers, constipation, asthma, worms, infertility complications, snake bites and malaria.
E. Foetidum is known as E. antihystericum. The specific name antihystericum reflects the fact that this plant has traditionally been used for epilepsy; the plant is said to calm a person's'spirit' and thus prevents epileptic'fits', so is known by the common names spiritweed and fitweed. The anticonvulsant properties of this plant have been scientifically investigated. A decoction of the leaves has been shown to exhibit analgesic effects in rats. Eryngial is a chemical compound isolated from E. foetidum. The University of the West Indies at Mona, has investigated the use of enyngial as a treatment for human Strongyloides stercoralis infection, it is used as an ethnomedicinal plant for the treatment of a number of ailments such as fevers, vomiting, fevers, headache, stomachache, arthritis, snake bites, scorpion stings, diarrhea and epilepsy. The main constituent of essential oil of the plant is eryngial. A pharmacological investigation claims to have demonstrated anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, anticarcinogenic and antibacterial activity.
Long coriander page from Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages
Lavandula angustifolia L. officinalis, is a flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean. It is a aromatic shrub growing as high as 1 to 2 metres tall; the leaves are evergreen, 2–6 centimetres long, 4–6 millimetres broad. The flowers are pinkish-purple, produced on spikes 2–8 cm long at the top of slender, leafless stems 10–30 cm long; the species name angustifolia is Latin for "narrow leaf". It was known as Lavandula officinalis, referring to its medicinal properties. English lavender is grown as an ornamental plant, it is popular for its colourful flowers, its fragrance, its ability to survive with low water consumption. It does not grow well in continuously damp soil and may benefit from increased drainage provided by inorganic mulches such as gravel, it does best in Mediterranean climates similar to its native habitat, characterised by wet winters and dry summers. It is tolerant of low temperatures and is considered hardy to USDA zone 5, it tolerates acid soils but favours neutral to alkaline soils, in some conditions it may be short-lived.
The following cultivars of L. angustifolia and its hybrids have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:- Compacta, Dwarf Blue, Dwarf White, Hidcote Pink, Hidcote Superior, Nana Atropurpurea, Nana Rosea, Summerland Supreme, Lady Lavender'Hidcote Superior', a compact evergreen shrub 40 cm x 45 cm with fragrant gray-green foliage and deep violet-blue flowers in summer, prefers full sun, well drained soil, low water, hardy to -30 °C, western Mediterranean species'Munstead' L. angustifolia variety, 30 cm tall, having pink-purple to lavender-blue inflorescences that are fragrant, named after Munstead Wood in Surrey, the home of Gertrude Jekyll'Sarah', grows to 15-60 cm, the flowers are petite, as is the plant, used as a short edging, or as a fragrant addition to the window box, dark violet flowers'Lady Lavender', grows to 45 cm, gray-green foliage and lavender-blue flowers in summer, prefers full sun, well-drained soil, low water, hardy to -30 °C Bowles Early, Hidcote Variety, Loddon Blue, Martha Roderick, Jean Davis, Twickle Purple, Pink Perfume'Hidcote' L. angustifolia variety.
40 to 50 cm tall, with silver-gray foliage and deep violet-blue inflorescences, named after Hidcote Manor in England as it was cultivated there by Major Lawrence Johnston'Jean Davis' 50-60 cm tall, up to 1 m. A pale pink flowered lavender with exceptionally fruity taste'Pink Perfume' 60 cm x 45 cm Alba, Blackhouse Purple, Bridestowe, Gray Lady, Gwendolyn Anley, Hidcote Giant, Irene Doyle, Middachten'Hidcote Giant'. A Lavandula x intermedias lavandin. Vigorous grower with a lovely strong fragrance; this has large deep Lavender-purple flowers on long 60 cm stems.'Vera' 75 to 90 cm. Thought to be the original species lavender, harvested for its oil; the flowers and leaves are used as a herbal medicine, either in the form of lavender oil or as a herbal tea. The flowers are used as a culinary herb, most as part of the North American version of the French herb blend called herbes de Provence. Lavender essential oil, when diluted with a carrier oil, is used as a relaxant with massage therapy. Products for home use, such as lotions, eye pillows and bath oils, etc. are used.
Both the petals and the oil are the most popular ingredients in handmade soap. Dried lavender flowers and lavender essential oil are used as a prevention against clothing moths, which do not like their scent. Lavandula angustifolia is included in the Tasmanian Fire Service's list of low flammability plants, indicating that it is suitable for growing within a building protection zone. Lavandula angustifolia subsp. Angustifolia Lavandula angustifolia subsp. Pyrenaica Lavandula hybrids are referred to as lavandins. Hybrids between L. angustifolia and L. latifolia are called Lavandula x intermedia. They bloom than the ordinary English lavenders. Lavandula Xeriscaping Lavandula angustifolia List of Chemicals