Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena; the historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nation's most visited tourist attractions, with over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008. Siena is famous for its cuisine, museums, medieval cityscape and the Palio, a horse race held twice a year. Siena, like other Tuscan hill towns, was first settled in the time of the Etruscans when it was inhabited by a tribe called the Saina; the Etruscans were a tribe of advanced people who changed the face of central Italy through their use of irrigation to reclaim unfarmable land, their custom of building their settlements in well-defended hill forts. A Roman town called; some archaeologists assert that Siena was controlled for a period by a Gaulish tribe called the Senones. According to local legend, Siena was founded by Senius and Aschius, two sons of Remus and thus nephews of Romulus, after whom Rome was named. After their father's murder by Romulus, they fled Rome, taking with them the statue of the she-wolf suckling the infants, thus appropriating that symbol for the town.
Additionally they rode white and black horses, giving rise to the Balzana, or coat of arms of Siena with a white band atop a dark band. Some claim the name. Other etymologies derive the name from the Etruscan family name Saina, the Roman family name Saenii, or the Latin word senex "old" or its derived form seneo "to be old". Siena did not prosper under Roman rule, it lacked opportunities for trade. Its insular status meant that Christianity did not penetrate until the 4th century AD, it was not until the Lombards invaded Siena and the surrounding territory that it knew prosperity. After the Lombard occupation, the old Roman roads of Via Aurelia and the Via Cassia passed through areas exposed to Byzantine raids, so the Lombards rerouted much of their trade between the Lombards' northern possessions and Rome along a more secure road through Siena. Siena prospered as a trading post, the constant streams of pilgrims passing to and from Rome provided a valuable source of income in the centuries to come.
The oldest aristocratic families in Siena date their line to the Lombards' surrender in 774 to Charlemagne. At this point, the city was inundated with a swarm of Frankish overseers who married into the existing Sienese nobility and left a legacy that can be seen in the abbeys they founded throughout Sienese territory. Feudal power waned, by the death of Countess Matilda in 1115 the border territory of the March of Tuscany, under the control of her family, the Canossa, broke up into several autonomous regions; this resulted in the creation of the Republic of Siena. The Republic existed for over four hundred years, from the 12th century until the year 1555. During the golden age of Siena before the Black Death in 1348, the city was home to 50,000 people. In the Italian War of 1551–59, the republic was defeated by the rival Duchy of Florence in alliance with the Spanish crown. After 18 months of resistance, Siena surrendered to Spain on 17 April 1555, marking the end of the republic; the new Spanish King Felipe II, owing huge sums to the Medici, ceded it to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, to which it belonged until the unification of Italy in the 19th century.
A Republican government of 700 Sienese families in Montalcino resisted until 1559. Siena is located in the central part of Tuscany, in the middle of a vast hilly landscape between the Arbia river valley, the Merse valley, the Elsa valley, the Chianti hills, the Montagnola Senese and the Crete Senesi; the city lies at 322 m above sea level. Siena has a typical inland Mediterranean climate. Average rainfall is 750 mm, with the minimum in July. July is the hottest month, with an average temperature of 22.2 °C, January the coldest. The Siena Cathedral, begun in the 12th century, is a masterpiece of Italian Romanesque-Gothic architecture, its main façade was completed in 1380. The original plan called for an ambitiously massive basilica, the largest in the world, with, as was customary, an east-west nave. However, the scarcity of funds, in part due to war and plague, truncated the project, the Sienese created a subdued version from the original plan's north-south transept; the east wall of the abandoned original folly of a nave still stands.
The Siena Cathedral Pulpit is an octagonal 13th-century masterpiece sculpted by Nicola Pisano with lion pedestals and biblical bas-relief panels. The inlaid marble mosaic floor of the cathedral and labored on by many artists, is among the most elaborate in Italy; the Sacristy and Piccolomini library have well preserved Renaissance frescos by Ghirlandaio and Pinturicchio respectively. Other sculptors active in the church and in the subterranean baptistry are Donatello, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Jacopo della Quercia and others; the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo contains Duccio's famous Maestà and various other works by Sienese masters. More Sienese paintings are to be found in the Pinacoteca, e.g. 13th-century works by Dietisalvi di Speme. The Piazza del Campo, the shell-shaped town square, unfurls before the Palazzo Pubblico with its tall Torre del Mangia; this is part of the site for the Palio horse race. The Palazzo Pubblico, itself a great wor
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the largest, work of his career; the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome, much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality, he was influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was known from his collaborative printmaking. After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models.
His career falls into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria a period of about four years absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region, where his father Giovanni Santi was court painter to the Duke; the reputation of the court had been established by Federico da Montefeltro, a successful condottiere, created Duke of Urbino by Pope Sixtus IV – Urbino formed part of the Papal States – and who died the year before Raphael was born. The emphasis of Federico's court was rather more literary than artistic, but Giovanni Santi was a poet of sorts as well as a painter, had written a rhymed chronicle of the life of Federico, both wrote the texts and produced the decor for masque-like court entertainments, his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the small court of Urbino he was more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Federico was succeeded by his son Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, who married Elisabetta Gonzaga, daughter of the ruler of Mantua, the most brilliant of the smaller Italian courts for both music and the visual arts. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture. Growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Court life in Urbino at just after this period was to become set as the model of the virtues of the Italian humanist court through Baldassare Castiglione's depiction of it in his classic work The Book of the Courtier, published in 1528. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but visited, they became good friends, he became close to other regular visitors to the court: Pietro Bibbiena and Pietro Bembo, both cardinals, were becoming well known as writers, would be in Rome during Raphael's period there.
Raphael mixed in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a full humanistic education however, his mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1, 1494 by his father, who had remarried. Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, he continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master. He had shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been "a great help to his father". A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity, his father's workshop continued and together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello the court painter, Luca Signorelli, who until 1498 was based in nearby Città di Castello. According to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice "despite the tears of his mother".
The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, has been disputed—eight was early for an apprenticeship to begin. An alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. Most modern historians agree that Raphael at least worked as an assistant to Perugino from around 1500. Vasari wrote that it was impossible to distinguish between their hands at this period, but many modern art historians claim to do better and detect his hand in specific areas of works by Perugino or his workshop. Apart from stylistic closeness, their techniques are similar as well, for example having paint applied thickly, using an oil varnish medium, in shadows and darker garments, but thinly on flesh areas. An excess of resin in the varnish causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters; the Perugino workshop w
Triton is a Greek god, the messenger of the sea. He is the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite and goddess of the sea and is herald for his father, he is represented as a merman which has the upper body of a human and the tail, soft dorsal fin, spiny dorsal fin, anal fin, pelvic fins and caudal fin of a fish, "sea-hued", according to Ovid "his shoulders barnacled with sea-shells". Like his father, Poseidon, he carried a trident. However, Triton's special attribute was a twisted conch shell, on which he blew like a trumpet to calm or raise the waves, its sound was such a cacophony, that when loudly blown, it put the giants to flight, who imagined it to be the roar of a dark wild beast. According to Hesiod's Theogony, Triton dwelt with his parents in a golden palace in the depths of the sea; the story of the Argonauts places his home on the coast of Libya. When the Argo was driven ashore in the Gulf of Syrtes Minor, the crew carried the vessel to the "Tritonian Lake", Lake Tritonis, whence Triton, the local deity euhemeristically rationalized by Diodorus Siculus as "then ruler over Libya", welcomed them with a guest-gift of a clod of earth and guided them through the lake's marshy outlet back to the Mediterranean.
When the Argonauts were lost in the desert, he guided them to find the passage from the river back to the sea. Triton was foster parent to the goddess Athena. Pallas was killed by Athena accidentally during a sparring fight between the two goddesses. Triton can sometimes be multiplied into a host of daimones of the sea. In Virgil's Aeneid, book 6, it is told that Triton killed Misenus, son of Aeolus, by drowning him after he challenged the gods to play as well as he did. Over time, Triton's class and image came to be associated with a class of mermaid-like creatures, the Tritons, which could be male or female, formed the escort of marine divinities. Tritons were a race of sea goddesses born from Triton. Triton lived with his parents and Amphitrite, known as Celaeno, in a golden palace on the bottom of the sea. According to Homer it was called Aegae. Unlike their ancestor Poseidon, always anthropomorphic in ancient art, Triton's lower half is that of a fish, while the top half is presented in a human figure.
This is debated because their appearance is described differently throughout history. Ordinary Tritons were described in detail by the traveller Pausanias. "The Tritons have the following appearance. On their heads they grow hair like that of marsh frogs not only in color, but in the impossibility of separating one hair from another; the rest of their body is rough with fine scales. Under their ears they have a man's nose, their eyes seem to me blue, they have hands and nails like the shells of the murex. Under the breast and belly is a tail like a dolphin's instead of feet." They are compared to other Merman/Mermaid like beings, such as Merrows and Sirens. They are thought of as the aquatic versions of Satyrs. Another description of Tritons is that of the Centaur-Tritons known as Ichthyocentaurs who are depicted with two horse's feet in place of arms; when Pausanias visited the city of Triteia in the second century CE, he was told that the name of the city was derived from an eponymous Triteia, a daughter of Triton, that it claimed to have been founded by her son, one among several mythic heroes named Melanippus.
Tritons were the trumpeters of the sea, using trumpets made out of a great shell known as a conch. They would blow this shell throughout the sea to calm the waves, or stir them up, all at the command of Poseidon. There are numerous universities and high schools that use Triton as their mascot; these include the following: University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California Eckerd College, St. Petersburg, Florida Edmonds Community College, Washington Iowa Central Community College, Fort Dodge, Iowa Mariner High School, Cape Coral, Florida Notre Dame Academy, Green Bay, Wisconsin San Clemente High School University of Guam, Guam University of Missouri–St. Louis University of Rennes 1, Brittany FranceMany club sports teams, such as junior football leagues and numerous swimming leagues use the symbol of Triton. An example of other uses include Wilfrid Laurier University's orientation week in 2014 that had a colour team named the Green Tritons as part of the weeks events; the largest moon of the planet Neptune has been given the name Triton, as Neptune is the Roman equivalent of Poseidon.
In Wordsworth's sonnet "The World Is Too Much with Us", the poet regrets the prosaic humdrum modern world, yearning for In Jacob Jordaens"The Family of the Artist', now in the Prado, Madrid, a Triton is depicted gripping crushing, a child with its snake-like tail, a scene watched over by an exotic parrot. The significance of this motif in the context of a painting of domestic happiness is unclear, but it may involve a transfer of functions in that the child appears to be blowing on the conch shell in order to frighten away those forces that threaten family peace. A family of large sea snails, the shells of some of which have been used as trumpets since antiquity, are known as "tritons", see Triton; the name Triton is associated in modern industry with tough hard-wearing machines such as the Ford Triton engine and Mitsubishi Triton pickup truck. King Tri
Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, architect and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. Vasari was born on 30 July 1511 in Tuscany. Recommended at an early age by his cousin Luca Signorelli, he became a pupil of Guglielmo da Marsiglia, a skillful painter of stained glass. Sent to Florence at the age of sixteen by Cardinal Silvio Passerini, he joined the circle of Andrea del Sarto and his pupils Rosso Fiorentino and Jacopo Pontormo, where his humanist education was encouraged, he was befriended by Michelangelo. He died on 27 June 1574 in Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, aged 62. In 1529, he visited Rome where he studied the works of Raphael and other artists of the Roman High Renaissance. Vasari's own Mannerist paintings were more admired in his lifetime than afterwards. In 1547 he completed the hall of the chancery in Palazzo della Cancelleria in Rome with frescoes that received the name Sala dei Cento Giorni.
He was employed by members of the Medici family in Florence and Rome, worked in Naples and other places. Many of his pictures still exist, the most important being the wall and ceiling paintings in the Sala di Cosimo I in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, where he and his assistants were at work from 1555, the frescoes begun by him inside the vast cupola of the Duomo were completed by Federico Zuccari and with the help of Giovanni Balducci, he helped to organize the decoration of the Studiolo, now reassembled in the Palazzo Vecchio. In Rome he painted frescos in the Sala Regia. Among his other pupils or followers are included Sebastiano Flori, Bartolomeo Carducci, Domenico Benci, Tommaso del Verrocchio, Federigo di Lamberto, Niccolo Betti, Vittor Casini, Mirabello Cavalori, Jacopo Coppi, Piero di Ridolfo, Stefano Veltroni of Monte San Savino, Orazio Porta of Monte San Savino, Alessandro Fortori of Arezzo, Bastiano Flori of Arezzo, Fra Salvatore Foschi of Arezzo, Andrea Aretino. Aside from his career as a painter, Vasari was successful as an architect.
His loggia of the Palazzo degli Uffizi by the Arno opens up the vista at the far end of its long narrow courtyard. It is a unique piece of urban planning that functions as a public piazza, which, if considered as a short street, is unique as a Renaissance street with a unified architectural treatment; the view of the Loggia from the Arno reveals that, with the Vasari Corridor, it is one of few structures that line the river which are open to the river itself and appear to embrace the riverside environment. In Florence, Vasari built the long passage, now called Vasari Corridor, which connects the Uffizi with the Palazzo Pitti on the other side of the river; the enclosed corridor passes alongside the River Arno on an arcade, crosses the Ponte Vecchio and winds around the exterior of several buildings. It was once the home of the Mercado de Vecchio, he renovated the medieval churches of Santa Maria Novella and Santa Croce. At both he removed the original rood screen and loft, remodelled the retro-choirs in the Mannerist taste of his time.
In Santa Croce, he was responsible for the painting of The Adoration of the Magi, commissioned by Pope Pius V in 1566 and completed in February 1567. It was restored, before being put on exhibition in 2011 in Rome and in Naples, it is planned to return it to the church of Santa Croce in Bosco Marengo. In 1562 Vasari built the octagonal dome on the Basilica of Our Lady of Humility in Pistoia, an important example of high Renaissance architecture. In Rome, Vasari worked with Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and Bartolomeo Ammannati at Pope Julius III's Villa Giulia. Called "the first art historian", Vasari invented the genre of the encyclopedia of artistic biographies with his Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori, dedicated to Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, first published in 1550, he was the first to use the term "Renaissance" in print, though an awareness of the ongoing "rebirth" in the arts had been in the air since the time of Alberti, he was responsible for our use of the term Gothic Art, though he only used the word Goth which he associated with the "barbaric" German style.
The Lives included a novel treatise on the technical methods employed in the arts. The book was rewritten and enlarged in 1568, with the addition of woodcut portraits of artists; the work has a consistent and notorious bias in favour of Florentines, tends to attribute to them all the developments in Renaissance art – for example, the invention of engraving. Venetian art in particular, is systematically ignored in the first edition. Between the first and second editions, Vasari visited Venice and while the second edition gave more attention to Venetian art, it did so without achieving a neutral point of view. There are many inaccuracies within his Lives. For example, Vasari writes that Andrea del Castagno killed Domenico Veneziano, not true, given Andrea died several years before Domenico. In another example, Vasari's biography of Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, whom he calls "Il Soddoma," published only in the Lives' second edition after Bazzi's death, condemns the artist as being immoral and vain. Vasari dismisses Bazzi's work as being lazy and offensive, despite the artist's having been named a Cavaliere di Crist
The Ansidei Madonna is a 1505–1507 painting by the Italian High Renaissance artist Raphael, painted during his Florentine period. It shows the Blessed Virgin Mary sitting with the child Christ on her lap. On her right John the Baptist stands, on her left. At the time the painting was commissioned, there were other paintings that made up the grouping for the altarpiece. Of the predellas, the only that remains is Saint John the Baptist Preaching, the others are inexplicably lost. Both the main painting, "Ansidei Madonna", the predella "Saint John the Baptist Preaching", are located at the National Gallery in London; the Virgin sits formally on a high throne, with an adult Saint John the Baptist on the left, Saint Nicholas of Bari to the right. Painted for effect rather than realism, the throne has no arms and the steps are steep, but beautifully set off the arches above and the approach to the throne; the Ansidei Madonna was influenced by the strict expression of divinity of the Umbrian School within his Florentine Period.
Above the Madonna's throne is inscribed "Hail, Mother of Christ." This compares to the more natural poses and interaction found in Madonna, the Christ Child and infant John the Baptist in paintings of his Roman period. Per Ruskin of the National Gallery, the painting is considered one of the greatest paintings in history, as such an embodiment of the best of Christianity, for several reasons. First, the execution was near well-weathered the test of centuries of time; the gold within the painting looks real, but was painted by affect. Secondly, another test of a great painting, the characters look serene. Third, the painting attracts attention to the spirit or soul of a character, rather than their appearance. And, you see joy, contentment or beauty in the face of the subject, not negative connotations, such as pain or vileness; each subject and the landscape of "Ansidei Madonna" evokes serenity and divinity: Madonna, by her complete devotion to her child, Christ child through his secure faith in his mother, St. John through his contemplative expression of his spiritual journey, Bishop Nicholas of Bari through spiritual knowledge, the soothing landscape and the open, infinite sky, closest to God.
The three balls at Bishop Nicholas' feet may symbolize the holy trinity, or the three bags of gold he is said to have thrown into the window of a poor man's home for his daughters' welfare. Raphael's years in Florence exposed him to a plethora of artistic influences, first his teacher Perugino and others, such as Donatello's sculptured marble, Masaccio's frescoes, Michelangelo's David, Leonardo da Vinci's paintings, so much more which Raphael used to develop his fine-tuned sense of style and execution as seen in the "Ansidei Madonna". Raphael achieved excellence in Ansidei Madonna through execution of every minute detail. A master at the young age of twenty-three, Raphael brought new life to well-represented subjects, through careful, methodic performance. Care is represented by what one does – and what one does not do, or more clearly: "There is a saying that a true artist is known best by what he omits." Consider the landscape behind our subjects, it is clean and serene, not overdone with unnecessary detail.
When color is used, it is used decidedly and for effect, such as the jeweled robe, the chaplet of red coral. In 1508 Raphael arrived in Rome at the age of twenty-five and a great reputation as a master of the arts, known for such works as "Madonna of the Grand Duke", "Madonna of the Goldfinch", "Ansidei Madonna" and more; the Virgin Mary, Saint John and Bishop Nicholas are isolated from one another, without interchange, a style common in the Umbrian school, Perugino. Niccolò Ansidei commissioned Raphael to paint an altarpiece of a group of paintings titled "The Madonna and Child with Saint John the Baptist and Saint Nicholas of Bari" for his family chapel dedicated to Saint Nicholas in the church of San Fiorenzo, Perugia. Two paintings formed the predella for Raphael's altarpiece the "Ansidei Madonna." The first, "Saint John the Baptist Preaching", was placed beneath the image of Saint John in the main altarpiece, is now owned by the National Gallery. The panels that depicted her betrothal, positioned below the Virgin and Child and another below Saint Nicholas of one of his miracles have not survived.
There is some question about dates, of the painting. Original understanding was that the painting was begun in 1505, fitting with Raphael's style at that time influenced by Perugino. Careful observation revealed that the painting was dated 1507. One can reasonably assume, based upon the Raphael's style, that the work began in 1505 and was finished in 1507; the chapel that held "Ansidei Madonna" was dismantled in 1763 when the church of San Fiorenzo was remodeled. The chapel was reassembled and now contains a 19th-century copy of its original altarpiece, the "Ansidei Madonna", by Raphael; the work was bought by young Lord Robert Spenser in 1764, for an undisclosed, but large sum of money as a gift to his brother, the 4th Duke of Marlborough. Placed in Blenheim Palace, one of the most magnificent buildings in Europe and home of the Duke of Marlborough, the work was sometimes known as the "Blenheim Madonna.""Ansidei Madonna", considered "one of the most perfect pictures of the world", of the Blenheim Collection was sold by George Spencer-Churchill, 8th Duke of Marlborough, under the Lord Cairn's Act for ₤75,000 or nearly unanimously cited at ₤70,000, about $350,000, to the London National Gallery in 1885.
At the time, this was three times the highest amount paid for a painting in large part because there were few Rap
Imperia Cognati, was a Roman courtesan. She has been considered the first celebrity of the class of courtesans, created in Rome in the late 15th century. In the 15th century, the courtiers of the Papal court begun with the habit of hiring female escorts to accompany them in court life; as the Papal courtiers were clerics who were banned from marrying, the women they consorted with could not be marriageable, but at the same time, they must be educated and know their etiquette to be able to converse and participate in formal court life. This was the development of a new class of prostitutes in Christian Europe: the courtesan, which spread from Rome to other parts of Europe, Imperia was to become the first famous representative of this new type of prostitute. Courtesans by custom kept a main client as a steady supporter, while in addition entertaining others as temporary clients. Imperia was born the daughter of a Roman prostitute, her father was called Paris, either by given name or „De Paris“ as a toponymic surname.
It has thus been speculated that Paris de Grassis, the master of ceremonies of pope Julius II, could have been her father when he was young. Imperia called herself in documents Imperia Cognati, while in her will she referred to herself as Imperia de Paris, she has been referred to by the name of Lucrezia, the name of her daughter and not her own given name. There are further uncertainties about the place of her birth. Besides 1486, there are sources claiming her being born on 3 August 1481, five years earlier; the place of her birth is claimed to be Rome, or more specific the Via Alessandrina in the district of Borgo. However, it is said she hailed from Ferrara, she either chose the name of Imperia early on as her business name or only started offering her body after the birth of her daughter. Either way, soon after her entrance into the business, she was considered the archetype of a courtesan. Contemporary sources praised her intelligence; the banker Agostino Chigi was the regular and main client of Imperia, at this point called the richest banker in the world.
He financed Imperia to maintain what was called a royal standard of living, she kept both a palace in Rome and a country villa outside the city. As was the custom for courtesans, she spent her days by the window, where she displayed her appearance to passers by, she was known to be courted by the men of the Papal court, but her tactic was to remain exclusive and accept only few clients, while she still surrounded herself with courtiers from noble families. Those friends include Raffael. Several anecdotes survived showing her salacious wit: Above her doorstep was an inscription inviting only those who would bring esprit and good mood and who would leave money or a considerable present when leaving. There was the saying that Rome was blessed by the Gods twice: Mars gave them the Imperium Romanum while Venus gave them the Imperia. Filippo Beroaldo the younger and librarian Angelo di Bufalo, banker Agostino Chigi, banker Angelo Colocci, papal secretary under Leo X Tommaso Inghirami, papal librarian Blosio Palladio and architect Raffael, painter Jacopo Sadoleto a cardinal Legends surround Imperia's death.
It was said she poisoned herself on 13 August 1512, prepared her will and died two days despite Chigi bringing the most skilled physicians to her deathbed. Several reasons for her committing suicide are rumored: She had been genuinely in love with Angelo del Bufalo, her longtime client but now ending their contact. Another states she felt replaced by Chigi's younger mistress, again others provide indications for an affair of honor involving pope Julius II demanding her death. Author Pietro Aretino, her contemporary, claimed however that Imperia died rich and dignified in her own house. Agostino Chigi financed a stately funeral in Rome, sensational for a prostitute, her monument in San Gregorio al Celio didn't survive to the present day. At the age of 17 or 14 she gave birth to the daughter Lucrezia; the paternity of the child is unclear but many historians suppose Chigi to be Lucrezia's father. In Imperia's will of 1512, Lucrezia was named heir with the cantor of the papal chapel Paolo Trotti as her stepfather.
Imperia made Agostino Chigi, Ulisse Lanciarini da Fano as well as Paolo and Diana di Trevi the executors of her will and asked Chigi to arrange a marriage for her daughter. Lucrezia grew up in Siena or in the convent of St. Mary in Campo Marzio, leading a sheltered and virtuous life before marrying Arcangelo Colonna and having two sons; until 1521, there was a court battle with her grandmother Diana, given only 100 ducats from the will of Imperia. On 9 January 1522, Lucrezia poisoned herself as the only way of fending off the advances of cardinal Raffaele Petrucci, she survived the suicide attempt and was considered an more virtuous woman. Existence of Imperia's second daughter by Chigi, hasn't been proven in documents and is doubted by historians. Imperia La Divina is portrayed in contemporary literature, such as a novel of Matteo Bandello, was subject of many legends and stories, she was a friend of Raphael and the model of several of his work: as a muse, as Galatea in Villa Farnesina, as Sappho in the Vatican Palace and as a Sibyl on Chigi's designated tomb at Santa Maria della Pace.
Honoré de Balzac described. The story plays at the time of the Council of Konstanz, 100 years before the death of Im
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more known by his first name Michelangelo was an Italian sculptor, painter and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Considered by many the greatest artist of his lifetime, by some the greatest artist of all time, his artistic versatility was of such a high order that he is considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his rival, the fellow Florentine and client of the Medici, Leonardo da Vinci. A number of Michelangelo's works of painting and architecture rank among the most famous in existence, his output in these fields was prodigious. He sculpted two of the Pietà and David, before the age of thirty. Despite holding a low opinion of painting, he created two of the most influential frescoes in the history of Western art: the scenes from Genesis on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome, The Last Judgment on its altar wall.
His design of the Laurentian Library pioneered Mannerist architecture. At the age of 74, he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peter's Basilica, he transformed the plan so that the western end was finished to his design, as was the dome, with some modification, after his death. Michelangelo was the first Western artist. In fact, two biographies were published during his lifetime. One of them, by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that Michelangelo's work transcended that of any artist living or dead, was "supreme in not one art alone but in all three". In his lifetime, Michelangelo was called Il Divino, his contemporaries admired his terribilità—his ability to instil a sense of awe. Attempts by subsequent artists to imitate Michelangelo's impassioned personal style resulted in Mannerism, the next major movement in Western art after the High Renaissance. Michelangelo was born on 6 March 1475 in Caprese, known today as Caprese Michelangelo, a small town situated in Valtiberina, near Arezzo, Tuscany.
For several generations, his family had been small-scale bankers in Florence. At the time of Michelangelo's birth, his father was the town's Judicial administrator and podestà or local administrator of Chiusi della Verna. Michelangelo's mother was Francesca di Neri del Miniato di Siena; the Buonarrotis claimed to descend from the Countess Mathilde of Canossa—a claim that remains unproven, but which Michelangelo believed. Several months after Michelangelo's birth, the family returned to Florence. During his mother's prolonged illness, after her death in 1481, Michelangelo lived with a nanny and her husband, a stonecutter, in the town of Settignano, where his father owned a marble quarry and a small farm. There he gained his love for marble; as Giorgio Vasari quotes him: "If there is some good in me, it is because I was born in the subtle atmosphere of your country of Arezzo. Along with the milk of my nurse I received the knack of handling chisel and hammer, with which I make my figures." As a young boy, Michelangelo was sent to Florence to study grammar under the Humanist Francesco da Urbino.
However, he showed no interest in his schooling, preferring to copy paintings from churches and seek the company of other painters. The city of Florence was at that time Italy's greatest centre of learning. Art was sponsored by the Signoria, the merchant guilds, wealthy patrons such as the Medici and their banking associates; the Renaissance, a renewal of Classical scholarship and the arts, had its first flowering in Florence. In the early 15th century, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi, having studied the remains of Classical buildings in Rome, had created two churches, San Lorenzo's and Santo Spirito, which embodied the Classical precepts; the sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti had laboured for fifty years to create the bronze doors of the Baptistry, which Michelangelo was to describe as "The Gates of Paradise". The exterior niches of the Church of Orsanmichele contained a gallery of works by the most acclaimed sculptors of Florence: Donatello, Andrea del Verrocchio, Nanni di Banco; the interiors of the older churches were covered with frescos, begun by Giotto and continued by Masaccio in the Brancacci Chapel, both of whose works Michelangelo studied and copied in drawings.
During Michelangelo's childhood, a team of painters had been called from Florence to the Vatican to decorate the walls of the Sistine Chapel. Among them was Domenico Ghirlandaio, a master in fresco painting, figure drawing and portraiture who had the largest workshop in Florence. In 1488, at age 13, Michelangelo was apprenticed to Ghirlandaio; the next year, his father persuaded Ghirlandaio to pay Michelangelo as an artist, rare for someone of fourteen. When in 1489, Lorenzo de' Medici, de facto ruler of Florence, asked Ghirlandaio for his two best pupils, Ghirlandaio sent Michelangelo and Francesco Granacci. From 1490 to 1492, Michelangelo attended the Humanist academy the Medici had founded along Neo-Platonic lines. There his work and outlook were influenced by many of the most prominent philosophers and writers of the day, including Marsilio Ficino, Pico della Mirandola and Poliziano. At th