A galaxy cluster, or cluster of galaxies, is a structure that consists of anywhere from hundreds to thousands of galaxies that are bound together by gravity with typical masses ranging from 1014–1015 solar masses. They are the largest known gravitationally bound structures in the universe and were believed to be the largest known structures in the universe until the 1980s, when superclusters were discovered. One of the key features of clusters is the intracluster medium; the ICM consists of heated gas between the galaxies and has a peak temperature between 2–15 keV, dependent on the total mass of the cluster. Galaxy clusters should not be confused with star clusters, such as galactic clusters—also known as open clusters—which are structures of stars within galaxies, or with globular clusters, which orbit galaxies. Small aggregates of galaxies are referred to as galaxy groups rather than clusters of galaxies; the galaxy groups and clusters can themselves cluster together to form superclusters.
Notable galaxy clusters in the nearby Universe include the Virgo Cluster, Fornax Cluster, Hercules Cluster, the Coma Cluster. A large aggregation of galaxies known as the Great Attractor, dominated by the Norma Cluster, is massive enough to affect the local expansion of the Universe. Notable galaxy clusters in the distant, high-redshift Universe include SPT-CL J0546-5345 and SPT-CL J2106-5844, the most massive galaxy clusters found in the early Universe. In the last few decades, they are found to be relevant sites of particle acceleration, a feature, discovered by observing non-thermal diffuse radio emissions, such as radio halos and radio relics. Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, structures such as cold fronts and shock waves have been found in many galaxy clusters. Galaxy clusters have the following properties: They contain 100 to 1,000 galaxies, hot X-ray emitting gas and large amounts of dark matter. Details are described in the "Composition" section; the distribution of the three components is the same in the cluster.
They have total masses of 1014 to 1015 solar masses. They have a diameter from 2 to 10 Mpc; the spread of velocities for the individual galaxies is about 800–1000 km/s. There are three main components of a galaxy cluster, they are tabulated below: Stars, Star clusters, Galaxy clusters, Super clusters Abell catalogue Intracluster medium List of Abell clusters
Hacienda Eknakán is located in the Cuzamá Municipality in the state of Yucatán in southeastern Mexico 48 kilometers southeast of the city of Merida, between the towns of Acanceh and Cuzamá. It is one of the properties, it is unusual in. The name is a word from the Mayan language meaning the black house of the snake. Take the Mérida-Valladolid highway 180 east to the Teya-Peto cut off. Proceed south to Acanceh and take the Carretera Acanceh–Cuzamá southeast to Eknakán; the puebla and hacienda of the same name, is located 4 km prior to reaching Cuzamá. The hacienda was built as a cattle ranch and switched to henequen. Richard Molina Solís purchased "San José Eknacán" in 1872 and three years began the commercial planting of henequen and began increasing the acreage available for planting. In 1901 Molina expanded the operation by purchasing Dzitiná and in 1903 he acquired Hacienda San Isidro Ochil, 20 miles to the south. Agrarian reforms first occurred in Eknakán in 1919 but lands were not ceded to surrounding towns until 1921-22, at which point nearly 1,500 hectares of land were awarded to the town of Seyé.
In 1923 the hacienda lost an additional 861.94 hectares of acreage to Cuzamá. Though the owners appealed all the way to the Supreme Court, the land awards were upheld in 1929 and an additional portion of land given to Acanceh. Despite these disputes, the henequen production remained in private hands on Eknakán until 1935; as the land reforms of 1937 progressed, the hacienda owners’ holdings were reduced to 144 hectares. In the late 1950s into the 1960s in an effort to move away from henequen production, the hacienda was diversified back into livestock poultry and pigs. Another unusual aspect of the hacienda was that the owners performed scientific experiments on their yields of henequen to improve planting methods and yields; the hacienda is owned by Ernesto Molina García. The church in Eknakán is of classic German Gothic architecture, is considered a museum, it has numerous stained-glass windows, in both typical Gothic forms and circular forms creating a diffusion of colored lighting throughout the interior of the church.
The choir loft is supported by white masonry columns. The main altar features columns and wooden ornamentation, which are reached by a staircase of granite. To one side is a chapel with a carved table holding an image of San Francisco and at his feet is a wooden horse. There is a large oil painting of the Virgin in a massive wooden frame. Ancient bells, bowls, a baptismal font, a closet with priestly garments and three wooden chests are on display; the church can be seen throughout the entire area as well as from the adjoining haciendas. Hacienda Eknakán consists of two parts; the first contains the main house and other colonial buildings. In the second, organized around a large square, stand the chapel and the powerhouse, as well as the village for the "acasillados" on its northern side; the oldest constructions are those in the walled area. The main house is on a raised platform and the front and rear façades are flanked with arched porches. Typical eclectic and neoclassical elements are present.
The second area houses the buildings dedicated to production once the property was converted to agriculture. There is the machine room, the cellar and the packaging area. Cenote Papak'al is on the grounds of the hacienda and accessed near some of the ruins of the hacienda. From the entrance to the cave, there is an underground chamber about 50 meters long and 40 meters wide, with a floor to ceiling height of 20 meters which descends into a pool of clear water. There is a massive line of stalagmites present; the submerged part of the cave consists of 380 meters of recognized passages, which were first explored in 1982. All of the henequen plantations ceased to exist as autonomous communities with the agrarian land reform implemented by President Lazaro Cardenas in 1937, his decree turned the haciendas into collective ejidos, leaving only 150 hectares to the former landowners for use as private property. Figures before 1937 indicate populations living on the farm. After 1937, figures indicate those living in the community, as the remaining Hacienda Eknakán houses only the owner's immediate family.
According to the 2010 census conducted by the INEGI, the population of the city was 698 inhabitants, of whom 364 were men and 334 were women. Since that time, the inhabitants are enumerated in the City of Mérida figures. Bracamonte, P and Solís, R. Los espacios Ed. UADY, Mérida, 1997. Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán, "Los municipios de Yucatán", 1988. Kurjack, Edward y Silvia Garza, Atlas arqueológico del Estado de Yucatán, Ed. INAH, 1980. Patch, Robert, La formación de las estancias y haciendas en Yucatán durante la Ed. UADY, 1976. Peón Ancona, J. F. "Las antiguas haciendas de Yucatán", en Diario de Yucatán, Mérida, 1971
Sir Paul Richard Maguire, styled The Hon. Mr. Justice Maguire, is a High Court Judge in Northern Ireland. Prior to that he was a politician. Maguire was called to the Bar in 1978 and became Queen’s Counsel in 2006, he lectured at Queen’s University and served as a part-time Chairman of the Employment Tribunals. Maguire unsuccessfully stood for election to Belfast City Council for the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland in 1981, he was elected at the 1982 Northern Ireland Assembly election for North Belfast. He stood for the Alliance party in the equivalent Westminster constituency of North Belfast at the 1983 general election, taking 9.1% of the vote again at the Belfast North by-election in 1986, when he increased his vote share to 16.7%. In the mid-1980s, Maguire left politics and focused on his legal career, rising to become Queen's Counsel by the 2000s, representing the Government in a number of high-profile cases. In 2010, he was appointed to head an inquiry into Peter Robinson's knowledge of his wife's improper financial affairs.
He was a member of the human rights advisory committee of the Bar Council. In 2012, he was named a judge of the High Court of Northern Ireland. At his High Court swearing in ceremony in May 2012 the Lord Chief Justice, Sir Declan Morgan, said that Mr. Justice Maguire had a distinguished career at the Bar and as senior Crown Counsel and that he would be " an invaluable and honourable addition to our High Court bench", he was knighted in the 2013 Special Honours
The Field of Mars is a large square in the centre of Saint Petersburg. Over its long history it has been alternately a meadow, pleasure garden, military parade ground, revolutionary pantheon and public meeting place; the space now covered by the Field of Mars was an open area of swampy land between the developments around the Admiralty, the imperial residence in the Summer Garden. It was drained by the digging of canals in the first half of the eighteenth century, served as parkland, hosting a tavern, post office and the royal menagerie. Popular with the nobility, several leading figures of Petrine society established their town houses around the space in the mid eighteenth century. Under Peter the Great it was laid out with paths for walking and riding, hosted military parades and festivals. During this period, under Peter's successors it was called the "Empty Meadow" and the "Great Meadow". Empresses Anna and Elizabeth built their Summer Palaces here, it was redeveloped into a pleasure park with pavilions and walkways for promenading.
Theatres were built on the land during this period, with the imperial patronage, the square became the "Tsaritsyn Meadow". New townhouses and palaces developed along the square's boundaries and across its frontage onto the Neva. During the reigns of Emperor Paul I and his son Alexander I, the square took on more of a martial purpose, with the construction of military monuments in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In acknowledgement of this, its role in hosting military reviews and parades, it was renamed the "Field of Mars" in 1805; the square was part of the further development of the area by architect Carlo Rossi in the late 1810s, involving new buildings around the perimeter, the extension of streets and frontages. During the nineteenth century the Field of Mars alternately hosted large military reviews, public festivals. Sports and other leisure activities took place into the early twentieth century. After February 1917 the square became the ceremonial burial place of a number of those killed during the February Revolution.
Construction of a memorial, the Monument to the Fighters of the Revolution, took place between 1917 and 1919 at the centre of the Field of Mars. The monument became the centre of an early pantheon of those who died in the service of the nascent Soviet state, burials of some of the dead of the October Revolution and the Russian Civil War, as well as prominent figures in the government, took place between 1917 and 1933. Between 1918 and 1944 the Field of Mars was renamed the "Victims of the Revolution Square"; the square was laid out with vegetable gardens to help feed the city during the siege of Leningrad, hosted an artillery battery. Restorations took place after the war, including the installation of the first eternal flame in Russia. In the post-Soviet period the Field of Mars has become a popular location for demonstrations and protests; the square covers an area of nearly 9 hectares. Bordering the Field of Mars to the north are the Marble Palace, Suvorov Square, the Betskoy and the Saltykov Mansions, separated from the square by Millionnaya Street.
To the west are the former barracks of the Pavlovsky Regiment. The Moyka River forms the boundary to the south, across from, the Mikhailovsky Palace and Garden; the east side is bounded by the Swan Canal, which separates the Field of Mars from the Summer Garden. In the early 18th century the land which became the Field of Mars was a marshy area with trees and shrubs, lying between the Neva to the north, the Mya and Krivusha rivers to the south. With the establishment of the imperial residence in the Summer Garden in 1704, the area became a buffer zone separating the royal property from the rest of the city. Between 1711 and 1721 two canals, the Swan, the Red, were dug to the east and west with the purpose of draining the land; this created a rectangular parcel of land called Pustoi, meaning "Empty" - after the trees that grew here were felled, from the 1720s, the "Great Meadow". A tavern was built in the northwestern part of the land in 1712, being rebuilt in 1714 as a post office. Between 1713 and 1717 the area hosted the royal menagerie, containing various birds and animals, including an elephant.
With the construction of the Red Canal, the menagerie was transferred to Hamovaya Street. With the completion of the Red Canal in 1721, the western edge of the Big Meadow became a popular site for the nobility to construct large townhouses; those that settled in the area included Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Alexander Rumyantsev, Adam Veyde, Pavel Yaguzhinsky, Peter the Great's daughter, Elizabeth Petrovna. With the canals dug to carry away water, the land was soon drained, on the orders of Peter the Great, it was levelled and sown with grass, with alleys laid out for walking and riding; the Great Meadow became a location for military festivals. Celebrations of the 1721 Treaty of Nystad were held here, with a triumphal arch built to commemorate the treaty; the area became known as "Amusement Field". The Gottorp Globe was installed on the field shortly after its arrival in Saint Petersburg, housed in the former elephant quarters. A special building was constructed for it, opened to the public for a time, before the globe was moved to the Kunstkamera on Vasilyevsky Island in summer 1726.
Scott Petri was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from the 178th Legislative District. He was the Chairman of the House Ethics Committee, he served as a member of the Liquor Control Committees. Petri serves as executive director of the Philadelphia Parking Authority. Prior to being elected to the House, Petri was a practicing attorney, he served as counsel to Upper Makefield Township and New Britain, he served on the Upper Makefield Township planning commission and as solicitor to the township. In 2002, Petri defeated Philadelphia sportscaster Carl Cherkin to succeed retiring Rep. Roy Reinard, he has been re-elected to each succeeding session of the House. Petri filed his Statement of Candidacy with the Federal Election Commission in October 2015 for the PA-8 2016 Congressional Race. A graduate of Villanova University School of Law, Petri earned a Bachelor of Arts degree cum laude from Washington and Jefferson College in Washington, is a graduate of Downingtown Senior High School.
He resides in Pennsylvania with his wife and son. At 6'8", Petri was the tallest member of the General Assembly. 2015 - "State Public Official of the Year" by Pennsylvania Bio.2014 - National Federation of Independent Business - "Guardian of Small Business" award. 2012 - "State Public Official of the Year" by Pennsylvania Bio. Representative Scott Petri's official web site
Save Your Breath is an album by Canadian jazz pianist Kris Davis, recorded in 2014 and released on the Portuguese Clean Feed label. For this project, Davis assembled the band Infrasound, an unusual octet consisting of four bass clarinets, guitar and piano, she created the music on a commission from The Shifting Foundation. The album was mixed by rock engineer Ron Saint Germain. In his review for AllMusic, Dave Lynch says about Infrasoud that "is a monster band capable of delivering a gargantuan punch."The Down Beat review by John Ephland notes that "Whether it’s the new-music classical vibe interfacing with the down-home sense of abandon or the sound of the instruments themselves and the novel assortment Davis has brought on board, Save Your Breath seems to have something for everyone."In a review for All About Jazz Glenn Astarita describes the album as "a musical journey that may be akin to navigating through a dense forest via snaking trails, rolling hills and dusky caves." All compositions by Kris Davis"Union Forever" – 9:27 "Jumping Over Your Shadow" – 10:37 "Always Leave Them" – 10:01 "Whirly Swirly" – 11:53 "The Ghost of Your Previous Fuckup" – 9:41 "Save Your Breath" – 14:50 Ben Goldberg – bass clarinet, contra alto clarinet, clarinet Oscar Noriega – bass clarinet, clarinet Joachim Badenhorst – bass clarinet, clarinet Andrew Bishop – contrabass clarinet, clarinet Nate Radley – guitar Gary Versace – organ Jim Black – drums Kris Davis – piano