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Galaxy formation and evolution

The study of galaxy formation and evolution is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time, the processes that have generated the variety of structures observed in nearby galaxies. Galaxy formation is hypothesized to occur from structure formation theories, as a result of tiny quantum fluctuations in the aftermath of the Big Bang; the simplest model in general agreement with observed phenomena is the Lambda-CDM model—that is, that clustering and merging allows galaxies to accumulate mass, determining both their shape and structure. Because of the inability to conduct experiments in outer space, the only way to “test” theories and models of galaxy evolution is to compare them with observations. Explanations for how galaxies formed and evolved must be able to predict the observed properties and types of galaxies. Edwin Hubble created the first galaxy classification scheme known as the Hubble tuning-fork diagram.

It partitioned galaxies into ellipticals, normal spirals, barred spirals, irregulars. These galaxy types exhibit the following properties which can be explained by current galaxy evolution theories: Many of the properties of galaxies indicate that there are fundamentally two types of galaxies; these groups divide into blue star-forming galaxies that are more like spiral types, red non-star forming galaxies that are more like elliptical galaxies. Spiral galaxies are quite thin and rotate fast, while the stars in elliptical galaxies have randomly oriented orbits; the majority of giant galaxies contain a supermassive black hole in their centers, ranging in mass from millions to billions of times the mass of our Sun. The black hole mass is tied to the host galaxy spheroid mass. Metallicity has a positive correlation with the absolute magnitude of a galaxy. There is a common misconception that Hubble believed incorrectly that the tuning fork diagram described an evolutionary sequence for galaxies, from elliptical galaxies through lenticulars to spiral galaxies.

This is not the case. Astronomers now believe that disk galaxies formed first evolved into elliptical galaxies through galaxy mergers. Current models predict that the majority of mass in galaxies is made up of dark matter, a substance, not directly observable, might not interact through any means except gravity; this observation arises because galaxies could not have formed as they have, or rotate as they are seen to, unless they contain far more mass than can be directly observed. The earliest stage in the evolution of galaxies is the formation; when a galaxy forms, it has a disk shape and is called a spiral galaxy due to spiral-like "arm" structures located on the disk. There are different theories on how these disk-like distributions of stars develop from a cloud of matter: however, at present, none of them predicts the results of observation. Olin Eggen, Donald Lynden-Bell, Allan Sandage in 1962, proposed a theory that disk galaxies form through a monolithic collapse of a large gas cloud.

The distribution of matter in the early universe was in clumps that consisted of dark matter. These clumps interacted gravitationally, putting tidal torques on each other that acted to give them some angular momentum; as the baryonic matter cooled, it contracted toward the center. With angular momentum conserved, the matter near the center speeds up its rotation. Like a spinning ball of pizza dough, the matter forms into a tight disk. Once the disk cools, the gas is not gravitationally stable, so it cannot remain a singular homogeneous cloud, it breaks, these smaller clouds of gas form stars. Since the dark matter does not dissipate as it only interacts gravitationally, it remains distributed outside the disk in what is known as the dark halo. Observations show that there are stars located outside the disk, which does not quite fit the "pizza dough" model, it was first proposed by Leonard Searle and Robert Zinn that galaxies form by the coalescence of smaller progenitors. Known as a top-down formation scenario, this theory is quite simple yet no longer accepted.

More recent theories include the clustering of dark matter halos in the bottom-up process. Instead of large gas clouds collapsing to form a galaxy in which the gas breaks up into smaller clouds, it is proposed that matter started out in these “smaller” clumps, many of these clumps merged to form galaxies, which were drawn by gravitation to form galaxy clusters; this still results in disk-like distributions of baryonic matter with dark matter forming the halo for all the same reasons as in the top-down theory. Models using this sort of process predict more small galaxies than large ones, which matches observations. Astronomers do not know what process stops the contraction. In fact, theories of disk galaxy formation are not successful at producing the rotation speed and size of disk galaxies, it has been suggested that the radiation from bright newly formed stars, or from an active galactic nucleus can slow the contraction of a forming disk. It has been suggested that the dark matter halo can pull the galaxy, thus stopping disk contraction.

The Lambda-CDM model is a cosmological model that explains the formation of the universe after the Big Bang. It is a simple model that predicts many properties observed in the universe, including the relative frequency of different galaxy types.

2012–13 Quaid-e-Azam Trophy

The Quaid-e-Azam Trophy is the premier first-class domestic cricket competition in Pakistan. This season, 14 teams including Bahawalpur will compete in a newly revamped structure; the 2012–13 season Tournament starting from December 26, 2012. Named after Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, the Trophy was introduced in 1953 to help pick the squad for Pakistan's Test tour of England in the forthcoming year; the competition has been contested sometimes by regional teams, sometimes by departments, sometimes by a mixture of the two. Seven regional teams competed in the first competition. However, in 1956–57, it was decided that Karachi and Punjab would have to enter three teams each, in order to make the teams more evenly matched. Karachi teams have dominated the trophy. In 2012–13 season of the Quaid-e-Azam Trophy, Fourteen regional teams are divided in two Groups; the top four teams from each group will proceed to the Super League of the tournament and remaining six teams will proceed to Plate League.

The Super League consist of two groups A and B. The Top Teams of each group from Super League will qualify for the Final. Plate League consists two pools A and B; the Top Teams of each Pool will qualify for the Plate League Final. The Plate League consists of the bottom three teams from each group of the groups stage who fail to qualify for the Supper League; the teams are split into two pools, Pool A and B. Pool A will consist of the 5th and 7th position teams form Group I and 6th position team form Group II. Pool B will consist of the 5th and 7th position teams form Group II and 6th position team form Group I; the Super League consists of the top four teams from each group of the groups stage. The teams are split into two groups, Groups A and B. Group A will consist of the top 2 teams from Groups I and 3rd and 4th position teams form Group II. Group B will consist of the top two teams from Groups II and 3rd and 4th position teams form Group I; the new regional teams are allowed to recruit five players from the old department sides, of whom four can be part of the playing XI.

In a bid to give bowlers exposure to internationally recognized cricket balls, the board has made the use of Kookaburra balls mandatory for the tournament. Points AllocationPoints in the Group stage, Six Bottom stage and Super Eight stage are awarded as follows: Match win Outright win – 9 1st innings tie – 6 1st Innings loss – 6Match Tie 1st Innings lead – 5 1st Innings loss – 2Match Draw 1st innings win – 3 1st innings tie – 2 1st innings loss – 0Abandoned Match Abandoned without any play – 0 No Decision on 1st innings – 0Order in the table: Total points Match Won Fewest Match Lost December 24, 2012: The Quaid-i-Azam Trophy – the country's premier First-class cricket competition – has been a testing ground for cricketers in the domestic circuit since 1953; this year, 14 teams including Bahawalpur will compete in a newly revamped structure and is a chance for players to impress ahead of Pakistan's South Africa tour in January 2013. December 25, 2012: The revised schedule of the First Round of Quaid-e-Azam 2012–13, the first round matches will now start from 28 December 2012.

The reaming revised schedule will be released shortly. Points Table Source:CricinfoFixtures and Results Source:Cricinfo Points Table Source:CricinfoFixtures and Results Source:Cricinfo Points Table Source:CricinfoFixtures and Results Source:Cricinfo Points Table Source:CricinfoFixtures and Results Source:Cricinfo Points Table Source:CricinfoFixtures and Results Source:Cricinfo Points Table Source:Cricinfo Fixtures and Results Source:Cricinfo Last updated 22 February 2013 Last updated 22 February 2013 Last updated 22 February 2013 Last updated 22 February 2013 Wahab Riaz from Lahore Shalimar took a hat-trick against Lahore Ravi with the wickets of Abid Ali, Ahmed Shehzad and Adnan Akmal Quaid-e-Azam Trophy 2012–13 – Official Quaid-e-Azam Trophy 2012–13 – ESPNcricinfo Quaid-e-Azam Trophy 2012–13 – CricketArchive

Jāti (Buddhism)

In Buddhism, Jāti, "birth", refers to physical birth. Within the teachings on the Four Noble Truths, jāti refers to physical birth, is qualified as dukkha: "Now this, monks, is the noble truth of dukkha: birth is dukkha, aging is dukkha, death is dukkha." In traditional Buddhist thought, there are four forms of birth: birth from an egg —like a bird, fish, or reptile. Jāti is the eleventh link within the eleventh Nidāna of paṭiccasamuppāda, where it can refer both to rebirth and to the arising of mental phenomena; the Vibhanga, the second book of the Theravada Abbidhamma, treats it in both ways. In the Suttantabhajaniya it is described as rebirth, conditioned by becoming, gives rise to old age and death in a living being. In the Abhidhammabhajaniya it is treated as the arising of mental phenomena. Single suttasPiyadassi Thera. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta: Setting in Motion the Wheel of Truth. Retrieved 2007-06-13 from "Access to Insight" at

Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Paticca-samuppada-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of Dependent Co-arising. Retrieved 2007-06-20 from "Access to Insight" at Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Maha-satipatthana Sutta: The Great Frames of Reference. Retrieved 2007-06-20 from "Access to Insight" at Bhikkhu, Tittha Sutta: Sectarians, AN 3.61, retrieved 12 November 2007Sutta-collectionsBodhi, The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya, Boston: Wisdom Publications, ISBN 0-86171-331-1 Nanamoli, The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya, Boston: Wisdom Publications, ISBN 0-86171-072-XCommentaries and interpretationsAjahn Sumedho, The Four Noble Truths, Amaravati Publications Ajahn Sucitto, Turning the Wheel of Truth: Commentary on the Buddha's First Teaching, Shambhala Das, Awakening the Buddha Within, Broadway Books, Kindle Edition Epstein, Thoughts Without A Thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist Perspective, Basic Books, Kindle Edition Goldstein, One Dharma: The Emerging Western Buddhism, HarperCollins Moffitt, Dancing with Life: Buddhist Insights for Finding Meaning and Joy in the Face of Suffering, Kindle Edition Nhat Hanh, The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching, Three River Press Rahula, What the Buddha Taught, Grove Press, Kindle Edition Trungpa, The Truth of Suffering and the Path of Liberation, Shambhala Tulku, Daring Steps Toward Fearlessness: The Three Vehicles of Tibetan Buddhism, Snow LionScholarlyGethin, Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University Press Kalupahana, David J.

A history of Buddhist philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited Keown, Dictionary of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-860560-9

Giardino botanico Gole del Sagittario

The Botanical Garden at the Sorgenti del Cavuto is a botanical garden in Anversa degli Abruzzi, province of L'Aquila, central-southern Italy. The garden was established in 1999, is managed by the municipality of Anversa degli Abruzzi in agreement with the World Wide Fund for Nature, it contains about 380 native plant species. The Botanical Garden is the latest offshoot of the Riserva delle Gole del Sagittario near Anversa degli Abruzzi; the Botanical Garden is accessed. The Sorgenti del Cavuto flow directly into the river Sagittario, the main tributary of the Aterno-Pescara; the garden has an irrigated nursery whose water is provided by the Sagittario and the Sorgenti del Cavuto. These rivers feed a power plant. Various Authors. Opuscolo Anversa degli Abruzzi. Comune di Anversa degli Abruzzi. List of botanical gardens in Italy Abruzzo e Appennino description Abruzzo Region tourist description Index Seminum, Giardino Botanico delle Gole del Sagittario

Michael D. West

Michael D. West is a gerontologist, a pioneer in stem cells, cellular aging and telomerase, he is the founder and CEO of AgeX Therapeutics, a startup focused on the field of interventional gerontology. Prior to joining BioTime, West was Chairman of the Board, Chief Scientific Officer and CEO of Advanced Cell Technology, another biotechnology company focused on stem cell research. ACT changed its name to Ocata Therapeutics, was acquired by Japanese pharmaceutical company Astellas Pharma for US$379M or $8.50 per share in February 2016. Prior that, West was founder and Chief Scientific officer of Geron, for which he secured venture capital investment from Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Domain Associates. At Geron, West initiated and managed programs in telomere biology relating to aging and human embryonic stem cell technology. West organized the first collaborative effort to isolate human pluripotent stem cells for the purpose of manufacturing products in regenerative medicine in collaboration with James Thomson at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, John Gearhart at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Roger Pedersen at the University of California, San Francisco.

In their telomerase research and colleagues at Geron cloned the RNA component of telomerase and collaborated with Thomas Cech, with whom they cloned the catalytic component of the enzyme telomerase, sponsored collaborative research in the laboratory of Carol Greider at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Geron published evidence of the role of telomerase in cancer and cell immortalization in collaboration with Woodring Wright and Jerry Shay at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. For the company's Scientific and Clinical Advisory Board, he recruited Günter Blobel, Leonard Hayflick, Carol Greider, James Watson, others. West has been a keynote speaker at events including World Stem Cell and is associated with 146 patents in the United States, Australia and elsewhere. West has authored and co-edited books on topics including animal cloning, gerontology, stem cells, stem cell biology, regenerative medicine. 2002 Principles of Cloning ISBN 0-12-174597-X 2003 The Immortal Cell, by Michael D. West, Doubleday ISBN 978-0-385-50928-2 2004 Handbook of Stem Cells: Volume 1 Embryonic Stem Cells ISBN 0-12-436642-2 2004 Handbook of Stem Cells: Volume 2 Adult and Fetal Stem Cells ISBN 0-12-436644-9 2006 Essentials of Stem Cell Biology ISBN 0-12-088442-9 2010 The Future of Aging ISBN 9048139988 2010 The Future of Aging: Pathways to Human Life Extension ISBN 978-90-481-3998-9 tissue engineering somatic cell nuclear transfer Dr. West's webpage Audio: Dr. West interviewed on Bloomberg Radio's "The Hays Advantage" February 11, 2010

Javier Martínez González

Javier'Javi' Martínez González is a Spanish footballer who plays as a goalkeeper. Martínez was born in Province of Cuenca. During his career, spent in the third division, he played for hometown's Albacete Balompié, AD Ceuta, UB Conquense, Real Oviedo and CD Quintanar del Rey. In the 2006–07 season the 19-year-old appeared in 13 Segunda División games for the first club, in an eventual sixth-place finish. Martínez represented Spain at the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Javi Martínez at BDFutbol Javi Martínez at Soccerway