In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism, as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; the two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory. Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; the term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau; this book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work". According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, in the medieval Christian Church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the "Diggers" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, as well as Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe; as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto; the 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. The event generated a great deal of theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated; the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace and land" which tapp
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence. The term refers to U. S. senator Joseph McCarthy and has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting from the late 1940s through the 1950s. It was characterized by heightened political repression and a campaign spreading fear of Communist influence on American institutions and of espionage by Soviet agents. What would become known as the McCarthy era began before McCarthy's term in 1953. Following the First Red Scare, in 1947, President Truman signed an executive order to screen federal employees for association with organizations deemed "Totalitarian, Communist, or subversive", or advocating "to alter the form of Government of the United States by unconstitutional means." In 1949, a high-level State Department official was convicted of perjury in a case of espionage, the Soviet Union tested an atomic bomb. The Korean War started the next year.
In a speech in February 1950, Senator McCarthy presented an alleged list of members of the Communist Party working in the State Department, which attracted press attention. The term "McCarthyism" was published for the first time in late March of that year in the Christian Science Monitor, in a political cartoon by Herblock in the Washington Post; the term has since taken on a broader meaning. In the early 21st century, the term is used more to describe reckless, unsubstantiated accusations, demagogic attacks on the character or patriotism of political adversaries. During the McCarthy era, hundreds of Americans were accused of being Communists or Communist sympathizers; the primary targets of such suspicions were government employees, those in the entertainment industry and labor-union activists. Suspicions were given credence despite inconclusive or questionable evidence, the level of threat posed by a person's real or supposed leftist associations or beliefs were sometimes exaggerated. Many people suffered loss of destruction of their careers.
Most of these punishments came about through trial verdicts that were overturned, laws that were declared unconstitutional, dismissals for reasons declared illegal or actionable, or extra-legal procedures, such as informal blacklists, that would come into general disrepute. The most notable examples of McCarthyism include the so-called investigations conducted by Senator McCarthy, the hearings conducted by the House Un-American Activities Committee. President Harry S. Truman's Executive Order 9835 of March 21, 1947, required that all federal civil-service employees be screened for "loyalty"; the order said that one basis for determining disloyalty would be a finding of "membership in, affiliation with or sympathetic association" with any organization determined by the attorney general to be "totalitarian, Communist or subversive" or advocating or approving the forceful denial of constitutional rights to other persons or seeking "to alter the form of Government of the United States by unconstitutional means."The historical period that came to be known as the McCarthy era began well before Joseph McCarthy's own involvement in it.
Many factors contributed to McCarthyism, some of them with roots in the First Red Scare, inspired by Communism's emergence as a recognized political force and widespread social disruption in the United States related to unionizing and anarchist activities. Owing in part to its success in organizing labor unions and its early opposition to fascism, offering an alternative to the ills of capitalism during the Great Depression, the Communist Party of the United States increased its membership through the 1930s, reaching a peak of about 75,000 members in 1940–41. While the United States was engaged in World War II and allied with the Soviet Union, the issue of anti-communism was muted. With the end of World War II, the Cold War began immediately, as the Soviet Union installed Communist puppet régimes in areas it had occupied across Central and Eastern Europe; the United States backed anti-communist forces in China. Although the Igor Gouzenko and Elizabeth Bentley affairs had raised the issue of Soviet espionage in 1945, events in 1949 and 1950 increased the sense of threat in the United States related to Communism.
The Soviet Union tested an atomic bomb in 1949, earlier than many analysts had expected, raising the stakes in the Cold War. That same year, Mao Zedong's Communist army gained control of mainland China despite heavy American financial support of the opposing Kuomintang. Many U. S. policy people did not understand the situation in China, despite the efforts of China experts to explain conditions. In 1950, the Korean War began, pitting U. S. U. N. and South Korean forces against Communists from North China. During the following year, evidence of increased sophistication in Soviet Cold War espionage activities was found in the West. In January 1950, Alger Hiss, a high-level State Department official, was convicted of perjury. Hiss was in effect found guilty of espionage. In Britain, Klaus Fuchs confessed to committing espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union while working on the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the War. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were arrested in 1950 in the United States on charges of stealing atomic-bo
Bernard B. Jacobs Theatre
The Bernard B. Jacobs Theatre called the Royale Theatre and the John Golden Theatre, is a Broadway theatre located at 242 West 45th Street in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Designed by architect Herbert J. Krapp, it opened as the Royale Theatre on January 11, 1927, with a musical entitled Piggy. Produced by William B. Friedlander, Piggy had a weak script, but the popular comedian Sam Bernard played the starring role and carried the show for 79 performances. Bernard died. Built as part of a three theater complex, alongside the 800-seat Theatre Masque, the 1,600-seat Majestic, the Lincoln Hotel, the theater features an ornate stone facade, with vaulted large windows above the street frontage; the landmarked interior features murals by Willy Pogany and one balcony level all under an expansive vaulted plasterwork ceiling. With a seating capacity just over 1,100, the theater has been home to both plays and musical productions in its ninety-year history. Producer John Golden leased the theatre and renamed it for himself from 1932 to 1937.
The Shubert Organization assumed ownership and leased the theatre to CBS Radio. In 1940, the Royale was restored to use as a legitimate theatre under its original name. On May 9, 2005, it was renamed for longtime Shubert Organization president Bernard B. Jacobs. 1928: Diamond Lil 1933: Both Your Houses 1934: Small Miracle 1940: Du Barry Was a Lady 1941: The Corn Is Green 1946: The Glass Menagerie 1947: Our Lan' 1949: The Madwoman of Chaillot 1952: New Faces of 1952 1954: The Immoralist 1954: The Boy Friend 1955: The Matchmaker 1957: The Tunnel of Love 1958: The Entertainer 1958: Gigi 1960: Becket 1961: The Night of the Iguana 1964: The Subject Was Roses 1965: The Owl and the Pussycat. Jacobs Theatre; the production grossed $1,447,598 over nine performances, for the week ending December 30, 2012. List of New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan from 59th to 110th Streets National Register of Historic Places listings in Manhattan from 59th to 110th Streets Official website Bernard B. Jacobs Theatre at the Internet Broadway Database Bernard B.
Jacobs Theatre | PlaybillVault.com New York Theatre Guide
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a supporting role while working within the film industry; the award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Supporting Actor winner. At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony held in 1937, Gale Sondergaard was the first winner of this award for her role in Anthony Adverse. Winners in both supporting acting categories were awarded plaques instead of statuettes. Beginning with the 16th ceremony held in 1944, winners received full-sized statuettes. Nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS. Since its inception, the award has been given to 81 actresses. Dianne Wiest and Shelley Winters have received the most awards in this category with two awards each. Despite winning no awards, Thelma Ritter was nominated on six occasions, more than any other actress.
As of the 2019 ceremony, Regina King is the most recent winner in this category for her role as Sharon Rivers in If Beale Street Could Talk. In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, correspond to the year of film release in Los Angeles County. All Academy Award acting nominees BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Female Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Supporting Actress Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role Crouse, Richard. Reel Winners: Movie Award Trivia. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-55002-574-3. Kinn, Gail. Inside Oscar: The Unofficial History of the Academy Awards. New York, United States: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-34540-053-6. OCLC 779680732. Oscars.org Oscar.com The Academy Awards Database
Faust is a tragic play in two parts by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe known in English as Faust, Part One and Faust, Part Two. Although staged in its entirety, it is the play with the largest audience numbers on German-language stages. Faust is considered by the greatest work of German literature; the earliest forms of the work, known as the Urfaust, were developed between 1772 and 1775. Urfaust has twenty-two scenes, one in prose, two prose and the remaining 1,441 lines in rhymed verse; the manuscript is lost, but a copy was discovered in 1886. The first appearance of the work in print was Faust, a Fragment, published in 1790. Goethe completed a preliminary version of what is now known as Part One in 1806, its publication in 1808 was followed by the revised 1828–29 edition, the last to be edited by Goethe himself. Goethe finished writing Faust Part Two in 1831. In contrast to Faust Part One, the focus here is no longer on the soul of Faust, sold to the devil, but rather on social phenomena such as psychology and politics, in addition to mystical and philosophical topics.
The second part formed the principal occupation of Goethe's last years. The original 1808 German title page of Goethe's play read simply: "Faust. / Eine Tragödie". The addition of "erster Teil" was retrospectively applied by publishers when the sequel was published in 1832 with a title page which read: "Faust. / Der Tragödie zweiter Teil". The two plays have been published in English under a number of titles, are referred to as Faust, Parts One and Two; the principal characters of Faust Part One include: Heinrich Faust, a scholar, sometimes said to be based on Johann Georg Faust, or on Jacob Bidermann's dramatized account of the Legend of the Doctor of Paris, Cenodoxus. The demon Mephistopheles makes a bet with God: he says that he can lure God's favourite human being, striving to learn everything that can be known, away from righteous pursuits; the next scene takes place in Faust's study where Faust, despairing at the vanity of scientific and religious learning, turns to magic for the showering of infinite knowledge.
He suspects, that his attempts are failing. Frustrated, he ponders suicide, but rejects it as he hears the echo of nearby Easter celebrations begin, he is followed home by a stray poodle. In Faust's study, the poodle transforms into Mephistopheles. Faust makes an arrangement with him: Mephistopheles will do everything that Faust wants while he is here on Earth, in exchange Faust will serve the Devil in Hell. Faust's arrangement is that if he is pleased enough with anything Mephistopheles gives him that he wants to stay in that moment forever he will die in that moment; when Mephistopheles tells Faust to sign the pact with blood, Faust complains that Mephistopheles does not trust Faust's word of honor. In the end, Mephistopheles wins the argument and Faust signs the contract with a drop of his own blood. Faust has a few excursions and meets Margaret, he is attracted to her and with jewelry and with help from a neighbor, Mephistopheles draws Gretchen into Faust's arms. With Mephistopheles' aid, Faust seduces Gretchen.
Gretchen's mother dies from a sleeping potion, administered by Gretchen to obtain privacy so that Faust could visit her. Gretchen discovers. Gretchen's brother condemns Faust, challenges him and falls dead at the hands of Faust and Mephistopheles. Gretchen is convicted of the murder. Faust tries to save Gretchen from death by attempting to free her from prison. Finding that she refuses to escape and Mephistopheles flee the dungeon, while voices from Heaven announce that Gretchen shall be saved – "Sie ist gerettet" – this differs from the harsher ending of Urfaust – "Sie ist gerichtet!" – "she is condemned." Rich in classical allusion, in Part Two the romantic story of the first Faust is put aside, Faust wakes in a field of fairies to initiate a new cycle of adventures and purpose. The piece consists of five acts each representing a different theme. Faust goes to Heaven, for he loses only half of the bet. Angels, who arrive as messengers of divine mercy, declare at the end of Act V: "He who strives on and lives to strive/ Can earn redemption still".
Throughout Part One, Faust remains unsatisfied. The first part takes place in Faust's own local, temporal milieu. In contrast, Part Two takes place in macrocosmos. In 1821, a partial English verse translation of Faust was published anonymously by the London publisher Thomas Boosey and Sons, with illustrations by the German engraver Moritz Retzsch; this translation was attributed to the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge by Frederick Burwick and James C. McKusick in their 2007 Oxford University Press edition, Faustus: From the German of Goethe, Translated by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. In a letter dated 4 September 1820, Goethe wrote to his son August that Coleridge was translating Faust. However, this attribution is c
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
The Life of Emile Zola
The Life of Emile Zola is a 1937 American biographical film about 19th-century French author Émile Zola, starring Paul Muni and directed by William Dieterle, a German emigré. It is notable as the second biographical film to win the Oscar for Best Picture, it premiered at the Los Angeles Carthay Circle Theatre to great success both critically and financially. Contemporary reviews ranked it as the best biographical film made up to that time. In 2000, it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Produced during the Great Depression and after the Nazi Party had taken power in Germany, the film explored one man acting against anti-Semitic injustice in France in the late 19th century, when Zola became involved in the Dreyfus affair and worked to gain the officer's release, but early 21st-century studies noted this film as an example of Hollywood's timidity at the time: anti-Semitism was never mentioned in the film, nor was "Jew" said in dialogue.
Some explicitly anti-Nazi films were cancelled in this period, other content was modified. This was the period when Hollywood had established the Production Code, establishing an internal censor, in response to perceived threats of external censorship. Set in the mid through late 19th century, the film depicts Zola's early friendship with Post-Impressionist painter Paul Cézanne, his rise to fame through his prolific writing, it explores his involvement late in life in the Dreyfus affair. Struggling writer Émile Zola shares a drafty Paris attic with painter Paul Cézanne. A chance encounter with a street prostitute hiding from a police raid inspires his first bestseller, Nana, an exposé of the steamy underside of Parisian life. Zola writes other successful books, he becomes rich and famous, marries Alexandrine, settles down to a comfortable life in his mansion. One day, his old friend Cézanne, still unknown, visits him before leaving the city, he accuses Zola of having become complacent because of his success, a far cry from the zealous reformer of his youth.
Meanwhile, a French secret agent steals a letter addressed to a military officer in the German embassy. The letter confirms. With little thought, the army commanders decide, he is courtmartialed and imprisoned on Devil's Island in French Guiana. Colonel Picquart, the new chief of intelligence, discovers evidence implicating Major Walsin-Esterhazy as the spy, but Picquart is ordered by his superiors to remain silent to avert official embarrassment and he is reassigned to a distant post. Years go by. Dreyfus's loyal wife Lucie pleads with Zola to take up her husband's cause. Zola is reluctant to give up a comfortable life, but she brings forth new evidence to pique his curiosity, he published an open letter, known as "J'accuse", in the newspaper accusing the army of covering up the monstrous injustice. Zola escapes from an angry mob incited by military agents provocateurs; as expected, Zola is charged with libel. His attorney, Maitre Labori does his best against the presiding judge's refusal to allow him to introduce evidence about the Dreyfus affair and the perjury committed by all the military witnesses, except for Picquart.
Zola is sentenced to a year in prison. He reluctantly accepts his friends' advice to avoid risk of becoming a martyr and instead flee to England, to continue the campaign on behalf of Dreyfus. A new French Army administration admits that Dreyfus is innocent. Walsin-Esterhazy flees the country in disgrace. Zola dies of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning due to a faulty stove the night before the public ceremony in which Dreyfus is exonerated. Contemporary reviews were unanimous in their praise. Frank S. Nugent of The New York Times wrote, "Rich, dignified and strong, it is at once the finest historical film made and the greatest screen biography, greater than The Story of Louis Pasteur with which the Warners squared their conscience last year... Paul Muni's portrayal of Zola is, without doubt, the best thing he has done." Variety said it was "a vibrant and emotional story... It is finely made and merits high rating as cinema art and significant recognition as major showmanship." Harrison's Reports described it as "A dignified, at times stirring historical drama, brilliantly directed, superbly acted by Paul Muni, as Zola, the great French writer."
John Mosher of The New Yorker praised it as "a picture of considerable distinction" with "no nonsense." The Life of Emile Zola topped Film Daily's year-end poll of 531 critics as the best film of 1937. Certain scenes were interpreted at the time as "indirect attacks on Nazi Germany." As David Denby writes about the movie in 2013, "At the end, in an outpouring of the progressive rhetoric, typical of the thirties, Zola makes a grandiloquent speech on behalf of justice and truth and against nationalist war frenzy." But the film was curiously silent about the issue at its core: that Dreyfus was Jewish and being persecuted under French anti-Semitism. In 2013 two academic books were published on Hollywood in this period, studied by other scholars in the early 21st century; the works by Australian Ben Urwand and American Thomas Doherty explored Hollywood's response to the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany, reassessed this movie in that context. Critic David Denby wrote a long overview article about the issue in The New Yorker.