National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
El Capitan is a vertical rock formation in Yosemite National Park, located on the north side of Yosemite Valley, near its western end. The granite monolith is about 3,000 feet from base to summit along its tallest face, is a popular objective for rock climbers; the formation was named "El Capitan" by the Mariposa Battalion when they explored the valley in 1851. El Capitan was taken to be a loose Spanish translation of the local Native American name for the cliff, variously transcribed as "To-to-kon oo-lah" or "To-tock-ah-noo-lah", it is unclear if the Native American name referred to a specific tribal chief or meant "the chief" or "rock chief". The top of El Capitan can be reached by hiking out of Yosemite Valley on the trail next to Yosemite Falls proceeding west. For climbers, the challenge is to climb up the sheer granite face. There are many named climbing routes, all of them arduous, including Iron Hawk and Sea of Dreams. El Capitan is composed entirely of granite, a pale, coarse-grained granite emplaced 100 mya.
In addition to El Capitan, this granite forms most of the rock features of the western portions of Yosemite Valley. A separate intrusion of igneous rock, the Taft Granite, forms the uppermost portions of the cliff face. A third igneous rock, diorite, is present as dark-veined intrusions through both kinds of granite prominent in the area known as the North America Wall. Along with most of the other rock formations of Yosemite Valley, El Capitan was carved by glacial action. Several periods of glaciation have occurred in the Sierra Nevada, but the Sherwin Glaciation, which lasted from 1.3 million years ago to 1 mya, is considered to be responsible for the majority of the sculpting. The El Capitan Granite is free of joints, as a result the glacial ice did not erode the rock face as much as other, more jointed, rocks nearby. Nonetheless, as with most of the rock forming Yosemite's features, El Capitan's granite is under enormous internal tension brought on by the compression experienced prior to the erosion that brought it to the surface.
These forces contribute to the creation of features such as the Texas Flake, a large block of granite detaching from the main rock face about halfway up the side of the cliff. Between the two main faces, the Southwest and the Southeast, is a prow. While today there are numerous established routes on both faces, the most popular and famous route is The Nose, which follows the south buttress; the Nose was first climbed in 1958 by Warren Harding, Wayne Merry and George Whitmore in 47 days using "siege" tactics: climbing in an expedition style using fixed ropes along the length of the route, linking established camps along the way. The fixed manila ropes allowed the climbers to ascend and descend from the ground up throughout the 18-month project, although they presented unique levels of danger as well, sometimes breaking due to the long exposure to cold temperatures; the climbing team relied on aid climbing, using rope and expansion bolts to make it to the summit. The second ascent of The Nose was in 1960 by Royal Robbins, Joe Fitschen, Chuck Pratt and Tom Frost, who took seven days in the first continuous climb of the route without siege tactics.
The first solo climb of The Nose was done by Tom Bauman in 1969. The first ascent of The Nose in one day was accomplished in 1975 by John Long, Jim Bridwell and Billy Westbay. Today, The Nose takes fit climbers 4–5 full days of climbing. Efforts during the 1960s and 1970s explored the other faces of El Capitan, many of the early routes are still popular today. Among the early classics are Salathé Wall on the southwest face, the North America Wall on the southeast face. Climbed in the 1960s are routes such as: Dihedral Wall. Ascents include: Wall of the Early Morning Light, now known as Dawn Wall, on the Southeast face, adjacent to the prow. Today there are over 70 routes on "El Cap" of various difficulties and danger levels. New routes continue to be established consisting of additions to, or links between, existing routes. After his successful solo ascent of the Leaning Tower, Royal Robbins turned his attention to the Yvon Chouinard-T. M. Herbert Muir Wall route, completing the first solo ascent of El Capitan during a 10-day push in 1968.
The first solo ascents of El Capitan's four classic "siege" routes were accomplished by Thomas Bauman on The Nose in 1969. Other noteworthy early solo ascents were the solo first ascent of Cosmos by Jim Dunn in 1972, Zodiac by Charlie Porter in 1972; these ascents were long 7- to 14-day ordeals that required the solo climber lead each pitch, rappel, clean the climbing gear, reascend the lead rope, haul equipment, food
Clark Range (California)
The Clark Range is a subrange of California's Sierra Nevada in Yosemite National Park. The range extends in a north-south direction from Quartzite Peak to Triple Divide Peak and separates the drainage basins of the Illilouette Creek from the uppermost portions of the Merced River; the range is named after Mount Clark, named after Galen Clark. The highest peak in the range is Merced Peak at 11,726 feet. Metamorphic rock composes most of the Clark Range, with the granite of Mount Clark's summit being the main exception
Half Dome is a granite dome at the eastern end of Yosemite Valley in Yosemite National Park, California. It is a well-known rock formation in the park, named for its distinct shape. One side is a sheer face while the other three sides are smooth and round, making it appear like a dome cut in half; the granite crest rises more than 4,737 ft above the valley floor. The impression from the valley floor that this is a round dome that has lost its northwest half is an illusion. From Washburn Point, Half Dome can be seen as a thin ridge of rock, an arête, oriented northeast-southwest, with its southeast side as steep as its northwest side except for the top. Although the trend of this ridge, as well as that of Tenaya Canyon, is controlled by master joints, 80 percent of the northwest "half" of the original dome may well still be there; as late as the 1870s, Half Dome was described as "perfectly inaccessible" by Josiah Whitney of the California Geological Survey. The summit was reached by George G. Anderson in October 1875, via a route constructed by drilling and placing iron eyebolts into the smooth granite.
Today, Half Dome may now be ascended in several different ways. Thousands of hikers reach the top each year by following an 8.5 mi trail from the valley floor. After a rigorous 2 mi approach, including several hundred feet of granite stairs, the final pitch up the peak's steep but somewhat rounded east face is ascended with the aid of a pair of post-mounted braided steel cables constructed close to the Anderson route in 1919. Alternatively, over a dozen rock climbing routes lead from the valley up Half Dome's vertical northwest face; the first technical ascent was in 1957 via a route pioneered by Royal Robbins, Mike Sherrick, Jerry Gallwas, today known as the Regular Northwest Face. Their five-day epic was the first Grade VI climb in the United States, their route has now been free. Other technical routes ascend the west shoulder; the Half Dome Cable Route hike runs from the valley floor to the top of the dome in 8.2 mi, with 4,800 ft of elevation gain. The length and difficulty of the trail used to keep it less crowded than other park trails, but in recent years the trail traffic has grown to as many as 800 people a day.
The hike can be done from the valley floor in a single long day, but many people break it up by camping overnight in Little Yosemite Valley. The trail climbs past Vernal and Nevada Falls continues into Little Yosemite Valley north to the base of the northeast ridge of Half Dome itself; the final 400 ft ascent is steeply up the rock between two steel cables used as handholds. The cables are raised onto a series of metal poles in late May; the cables are taken down from the poles for the winter in early October, but they are still fixed to the rock surface and can be used. The National Park Service recommends against climbing the route when the cables are down and when the surface of the rock is wet and slippery; the Cable Route is rated class 3, while the same face away from the cables is rated class 5. The Cable Route can be crowded. In past years, as many as 1,000 hikers per day have sometimes climbed the dome on a summer weekend, about 50,000 hikers climb it every year. Since 2011, all hikers who intend to ascend the Cable Route must now obtain permits before entering the park.
Permits are checked by a ranger on the trail, no hikers without permits are allowed to hike beyond the base of the sub-dome or to the bottom of the cables. Hikers caught bypassing the rangers to visit either the sub-dome or main dome without a permit face fines of up to $5,000 and/or 6 months in jail. Backpackers with an appropriate wilderness permit can receive a Half Dome permit when they pick up their wilderness permit with no additional reservation required. Rock climbers who reach the top of Half Dome without entering the subdome area can descend on the Half Dome Trail without a permit; the top of Half Dome is a flat area where climbers can relax and enjoy their accomplishment. The summit offers views of the surrounding areas, including Little Yosemite Valley and the Valley Floor. A notable location to one side of Half Dome is the "Diving Board", where Ansel Adams took his photograph "Monolith, The Face of Half Dome" on April 10, 1927. Confused with "the Visor," a small overhanging ledge at the summit, the Diving Board is on the shoulder of Half Dome.
From 1919 when the cables were erected through 2011, there have been six fatal falls from the cables. The latest fatality occurred on May 21, 2018. Lightning strikes can be a risk while near the summit. On July 27, 1985, five hikers were struck by lightning; the Cable Route was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2012. 1875 George G. Anderson via drilled spikes on the east slope. 1946 Salathe Route on southwest face, FA by John Salathe and Anton Nelson 1957 Northwest Face, FA by Royal Robbins, Jerry Gallwas and Mike Sherrick. First Grade VI in North America. 1963 Direct Northwest Face, FA by Royal Robbins and Dick McCracken 1969 Tis-sa-ack, FA by Royal Robbins and Don Peterson. 1973 First "clean ascent" of NW face by Dennis Hennek, Doug Robinson, Galen Rowell, Hennek is on the cover of June 1974 National Geographic leading a nut protected traverse see Super Topo too 1987 The Big Chill, FA by Jim Bridwell, Peter Mayfield, Sean Plunkett and Steve Bosque 1989 Shadows, FA by Jim Bridwell, Charles Row, Cito Kirkpatrick, William Westbay 1997 Blue Shift FA by Jay Smith and Karl McConachie.
1964 Salathe Route, FFA by Fran
Sequoiadendron giganteum is the sole living species in the genus Sequoiadendron, one of three species of coniferous trees known as redwoods, classified in the family Cupressaceae in the subfamily Sequoioideae, together with Sequoia sempervirens and Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Giant sequoia specimens are the most massive trees on Earth; the common use of the name sequoia refers to Sequoiadendron giganteum, which occurs only in groves on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. The etymology of the genus name has been presumed—initially in The Yosemite Book by Josiah Whitney in 1868—to be in honor of Sequoyah, the inventor of the Cherokee syllabary. An etymological study published in 2012, concluded that the name was more to have originated from the Latin sequi since the number of seeds per cone in the newly-classified genus fell in mathematical sequence with the other four genera in the suborder. Giant sequoia specimens are the most massive individual trees in the world.
They grow to an average height of 50–85 m with trunk diameters ranging from 6–8 m. Record trees have been measured at 94.8 m tall. Trunk diameters of 17 m have been claimed via research figures taken out of context; the specimen known to have the greatest diameter at breast height is the General Grant tree at 8.8 m. Between 2014 and 2016, specimens of coast redwood were found to have greater trunk diameters than all known giant sequoias; the trunks of coast redwoods taper at lower heights than those of giant sequoias which have more columnar trunks that maintain larger diameters to greater heights. The oldest known giant sequoia is 3,500 years old based on dendrochronology. Giant sequoias are among the oldest living organisms on Earth. Giant sequoia bark is fibrous and may be 90 cm thick at the base of the columnar trunk; the bark provides significant protection from fire damage. The leaves are evergreen, awl-shaped, 3–6 mm long, arranged spirally on the shoots; the giant sequoia regenerates by seed.
The seed cones are 4–7 cm long and mature in 18–20 months, though they remain green and closed for as long as 20 years. Each cone has 30–50 spirally arranged scales, with several seeds on each scale, giving an average of 230 seeds per cone. Seeds are dark brown, 4–5 mm long, 1 mm broad, with a 1-millimeter wide, yellow-brown wing along each side; some seeds shed when the cone scales shrink during hot weather in late summer, but most are liberated by insect damage or when the cone dries from the heat of fire. Young trees start to bear cones after 12 years. Trees may produce sprouts from their stumps subsequent to injury. Giant sequoias of all ages may sprout from their boles when branches are lost to breakage. A large tree may have as many as 11,000 cones. Cone production is greatest in the upper portion of the canopy. A mature giant sequoia disperses an estimated 300–400 thousand seeds annually; the winged seeds may fly as far as 180 m from the parent tree. Lower branches die from being shaded, but trees younger than 100 years retain most of their dead branches.
Trunks of mature trees in groves are free of branches to a height of 20–50 m, but solitary trees retain lower branches. Because of its size, the tree has been studied for its water pull. Water from the roots can be pushed up only a few meters by osmotic pressure but can reach extreme heights by using a system of branching capillarity in the tree's xylem and sub-pressure from evaporating water at the leaves. Sequoias supplement water from the soil with fog, taken up through air roots, at heights to where the root water cannot be pulled; the natural distribution of giant sequoias is restricted to a limited area of the western Sierra Nevada, California. They occur in scattered groves, with a total of 68 groves, comprising a total area of only 144.16 km2. Nowhere does it grow in pure stands, although in a few small areas, stands do approach a pure condition; the northern two-thirds of its range, from the American River in Placer County southward to the Kings River, has only eight disjunct groves.
The remaining southern groves are concentrated between the Kings River and the Deer Creek Grove in southern Tulare County. Groves range in size from 12.4 km2 with 20,000 mature trees, to small groves with only six living trees. Many are protected in Giant Sequoia National Monument; the giant sequoia is found in a humid climate characterized by dry summers and snowy winters. Most giant sequoia groves are on granitic-based alluvial soils; the elevation of the giant sequoia groves ranges from 1,400–2,000 m in the north, to 1,700–2,150 metres to the south. Giant sequoias occur on the south-facing sides of northern mountains, on the northern faces of more southerly slopes. High levels of reproduction are not necessary to maintain the present population levels. Few groves, have sufficient young trees to maintain the present density of mature giant sequoias for the future; the majority of giant sequoias are undergoing a gradual decline in density since European settlement. While the present day distribution of this species is limited to a small area of C
Denver Dell Pyle was an American film and television actor. He was well-known for a number of TV roles from the 1960s through the 1980s, including his portrayal of Briscoe Darling Jr. in several episodes of The Andy Griffith Show, as Jesse Duke in The Dukes of Hazzard during 1979–1985, as Mad Jack in the NBC television series The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams, as well as the titular character's father, Buck Webb, in CBS's The Doris Day Show. In many of his roles, he portrayed either authority figures, or gruff, demanding father figures as comic relief. Pyle was born in Bethune, Colorado on May 11, 1920 to his wife Maude. After graduating from high school, Pyle attended Colorado State University, but dropped out to enter show business. Pyle was a drummer and band member until the United States entered World War II, when he joined the United States Merchant Marine. After the war, Pyle embarked on his film career, he starred on television during the 1950s and 1960s. Pyle bore a slight physical resemblance to actor Slim Pickens and both men were adept at playing characters with southern drawls though neither was southern.
The two co-starred in the 1976 movie release Hawmps! Pyle guest-starred 14 times between 1951 and 1953 on the syndicated television series The Range Rider with Jock Mahoney and Dick Jones, appeared as an outlaw in a 1951 episode of the television series The Lone Ranger titled "Backtrail", episode 71, "The Outcast", episode 166, "Woman in the White Mask", episode 187, "Cross of Santo Domingo". In 1953, Pyle appeared as Emil Hatch in episode 46 of The Adventures of Superman entitled "Beware the Wrecker", he had a part in the 1955 Audie Murphy film To Hell and Back, appeared twice on NBC's 1955–1956 Western anthology series Frontier. Pyle appeared twice as an unidentified bank robber in Duncan Renaldo's syndicated Western series The Cisco Kid. In 1954, he was cast as a henchman of the outlaw Sam Bass in Stories of the Century. Pyle was twice cast on CBS's The Public Defender in the role of George Hansen, three times on the religious anthology series, Crossroads on ABC, he acted the part of a police detective in the 1956 film noir Please Murder Me, starring Raymond Burr.
Pyle was cast as Carter in the 1955 episode "Joey's Father" on Fury. Three years he played an arsonist in the episode "The Fire Watchers" of the same series. In 1956, Pyle appeared as Vance Kiley in the episode called "Quicksand" in the TV Western series Thee Lone Ranger. In 1958, Pyle starred with Judith Evelyn in the episode "Man in the Moon" of the NBC docudrama about the Cold War Behind Closed Doors, hosted by and starring Bruce Gordon, he appeared as a professor in the syndicated Men into Space series' 1959 episode "Moonquake". In an episode of Ripcord, he played a suicidal parachutist. Pyle appeared twice each on the CBS Western series My Friend Flicka and NBC's The Restless Gun with John Payne, he guest-starred with Grant Withers in the 1959 episode "Tumbleweed Ranger" of Tris Coffin's syndicated Western series 26 Men, billed as true stories of the Arizona Rangers. He appeared seven times on Richard Boone's CBS Western Have Gun – Will Travel, his final appearance on the show in 1960 as the character Croft in "The Puppeteer".
He guest-starred in 1960 in several other Westerns, including Pony Express, The Man from Blackhawk, Tombstone Territory. He guest-starred in the episode "Trail of the Dead", the story of five missing prospectors, of Rod Cameron's modern Western syndicated series State Trooper, he appeared with Sammy Jackson in the episode "Resurrection" of the syndicated American Civil War drama, The Gray Ghost. He was cast as Big Red in the 1959 episode "Woman in the River" of the ABC/Warner Bros. detective series Bourbon Street Beat, starring Andrew Duggan and Richard Long. He made several appearances as Jr. on The Andy Griffith Show. Pyle was cast in a number of Western movies by John Ford, including The Horse Soldiers with William Holden and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, he played a Tennessee soldier in John Wayne's The Alamo. He portrayed Sam Houston in several episodes of CBS's The Adventures of Jim Bowie, he guest-starred as a law enforcement officer in Jim Davis' other syndicated series, Rescue 8, appeared, as well, in an episode of the ABC sitcom, The Real McCoys.
Pyle was cast in the 1960 episode "Three Wise Men" of ABC's Stagecoach West as an outlaw who promises to turn himself into the authorities if he can spend Christmas with his family. About this time, Pyle appeared in the segment "Lawyer in Petticoats" of William Bendix's 1960 NBC Western series Overland Trail, thereafter in 1961 in "Hand of Vengeance" of the syndicated Western series Two Faces West. Pyle was cast as Jed Corrigan in the 1961 episode "The Tramp" of the NBC family drama series National Velvet. Pyle guest-starred twice on the CBS series Route 66 with Martin Milner and George Maharis, first in 1961 in the episode "The Newborn" and again in 1962 in "A Long Piece Of Mischief", he appeared as the father of the doomed family in the dystopian episode "Black Leather Jackets" of The Twilight Zone. In 1963, Pyle guest-starred on The Dick Van Dyke Show as Uncle George in the episode "Uncle George", he appeared in the 1963–1964 season of ABC's drama about college life Channing. He portrayed the character Brill in the 1964 episode, "Johnny Ride the Pony: One, Three", of the NBC education drama series, Mr. Novak, starring James Franciscus.
Pyle appeared 14 times on Gunsmoke, seven times on
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, the 45th largest city in the United States. With a population of 425,195 as of 2017, it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area. An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, incorporation was approved on March 25, 1854, which made Oakland a city. Oakland is a charter city. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, north coastal scrub, its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock and improving its infrastructure.
It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians; the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. In 1772, the area that became Oakland was colonized, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio; the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Vicente; the portion of the parcel, now Oakland was called Encinal—Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which led to the city's name. During the 1850s—just as gold was discovered in California—Oakland started growing and developing because land was becoming too expensive in San Francisco.
The Chinese were struggling financially, as a result of the First Opium War, the Second Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, so they began migrating to Oakland in an effort to provide for their families in China. However, the Chinese struggled to settle because they were discriminated against by the white community and their living quarters were burned down on several occasions; the majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China and they had diseases, so plague spread into San Francisco though the Chinese were inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. In 1852, the Town of Oakland became incorporated by the state legislature. During this time, Oakland had 75-100 inhabitants, two hotels, a wharf, two warehouses, only cattle trails. Two years on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year.
The city and its environs grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland. A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century; the first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what became known as the Key System, the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit. Oakland was one of the worst affected cities in California, impacted by the plague epidemic. Quarantine measures were set in place at the Oakland ports requiring the authorities at the port to inspect the arriving vessels for the presence of infected rats. Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever.
By 1908, over 5,000 people were detained in quarantine. Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the United States Public Health Service were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease. During this period Oakland did not have sufficient health facilities, so some of the infected patients were treated at home; the State Board of Health along with Oakland advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague which killed a dozen people in Oakland; this started when a man killed a squirrel. After eating the squirrel, he fell ill four days and another household member contracted the plague; this in turn was passed on either indirectly to about a dozen others. The officials in Oakland acted by issuing death certificates to monitor the spread of plague. At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oaklan