The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa and Callisto. They were first seen by Galileo Galilei in December 1609 or January 1610, recognized by him as satellites of Jupiter in March 1610, they were the first objects found to orbit a planet other than the Earth. They are among the largest objects in the Solar System with the exception of the Sun and the eight planets, with radii larger than any of the dwarf planets. Ganymede is the largest moon in the Solar System, is bigger than the planet Mercury, though only around half as massive; the three inner moons—Io, Ganymede—are in a 4:2:1 orbital resonance with each other. Because of their much smaller size, therefore weaker self-gravitation, all of Jupiter's remaining moons have irregular forms rather than a spherical shape; the Galilean moons were observed in either 1609 or 1610 when Galileo made improvements to his telescope, which enabled him to observe celestial bodies more distinctly than ever. Galileo's observations showed the importance of the telescope as a tool for astronomers by proving that there were objects in space that cannot be seen by the naked eye.
The discovery of celestial bodies orbiting something other than Earth dealt a serious blow to the then-accepted Ptolemaic world system, a geocentric theory in which everything orbits around Earth. Galileo named his discovery the Cosmica Sidera, but the names that prevailed were chosen by Simon Marius. Marius discovered the moons independently at nearly the same time as Galileo, 8 January 1610, gave them their present names, derived from the lovers of Zeus, which were suggested by Johannes Kepler, in his Mundus Jovialis, published in 1614; these were the only four moons of Jupiter to be known, until the discovery of the "fifth moon of Jupiter" in 1892. As a result of improvements Galileo Galilei made to the telescope, with a magnifying capability of 20×, he was able to see celestial bodies more distinctly than was possible before; this allowed Galilei to observe in either December 1609 or January 1610 what came to be known as the Galilean moons. On January 7, 1610, Galileo wrote a letter containing the first mention of Jupiter's moons.
At the time, he saw only three of them, he believed them to be fixed stars near Jupiter. He continued to observe these celestial orbs from January 8 to March 2, 1610. In these observations, he discovered a fourth body, observed that the four were not fixed stars, but rather were orbiting Jupiter. Galileo's discovery proved the importance of the telescope as a tool for astronomers by showing that there were objects in space to be discovered that until had remained unseen by the naked eye. More the discovery of celestial bodies orbiting something other than Earth dealt a blow to the then-accepted Ptolemaic world system, which held that Earth was at the center of the universe and all other celestial bodies revolved around it. Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius, which announced celestial observations through his telescope, does not explicitly mention Copernican heliocentrism, a theory that placed the Sun at the center of the universe. Galileo accepted the Copernican theory. A Chinese historian of astronomy, Xi Zezong, has claimed that a "small reddish star" observed near Jupiter in 362 BCE by Chinese astronomer Gan De may have been Ganymede, if true, might predate Galileo's discovery by around two millennia.
The observations of Simon Marius are another noted example of observation, he reported observing the moons in 1609. However, because he did not publish these findings until after Galileo, there is a degree of uncertainly around his records. In 1605, Galileo had been employed as a mathematics tutor for Cosimo de' Medici. In 1609, Cosimo became Grand Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany. Galileo, seeking patronage from his now-wealthy former student and his powerful family, used the discovery of Jupiter's moons to gain it. On February 13, 1610, Galileo wrote to the Grand Duke's secretary: "God graced me with being able, through such a singular sign, to reveal to my Lord my devotion and the desire I have that his glorious name live as equal among the stars, since it is up to me, the first discoverer, to name these new planets, I wish, in imitation of the great sages who placed the most excellent heroes of that age among the stars, to inscribe these with the name of the Most Serene Grand Duke." Galileo asked whether he should name the moons the "Cosmian Stars", after Cosimo alone, or the "Medician Stars", which would honor all four brothers in the Medici clan.
The secretary replied. On March 12, 1610, Galileo wrote his dedicatory letter to the Duke of Tuscany, the next day sent a copy to the Grand Duke, hoping to obtain the Grand Duke's support as as possible. On March 19, he sent the telescope he had used to first view Jupiter's moons to the Grand Duke, along with an official copy of Sidereus Nuncius that, following the secretary's advice, named the four moons the Medician Stars. In his dedicatory introduction, Galileo wrote: Scarcely have the immortal graces of your soul begun to shine forth on earth than bright stars offer themselves in the heavens which, like tongues, will speak of and celebrate your most excellent virtues for all time. Behold, four stars reserved for your illustrious name... which... make their journeys and orbits with a marvelous speed around the star of Jupiter... Like children of the same family... Indeed, it appears the Maker of the Stars himself, by clear arguments, admonished me to call these new planets by the illustrious name of Your Highness before all others.
Galileo called his discovery the Cosmica Sidera, in honour of C
"You'll Think of Me" is a song by Elvis Presley from his 1969 double album From Memphis to Vegas / From Vegas to Memphis. Its first release on record was in August or September 1969 on a single as the reverse side to "Suspicious Minds". On December 1, 1970 the single "Suspicious Minds" / "You'll Think of Me" was re-released as part of RCA Victor's Gold Standard Series; the single "Suspicious Minds" was certified Gold by RIAA for sales in 1 million copies in the United States on October 28, 1969. On March 27, 1992, it was certified Platinum, it was the South African single of the year. The song was written by Mort Shuman. Presley recorded it on January 1969 at the American Sound Studio in Memphis, Tennessee. Robert Matthew-Walker writes in his book Heartbreak Hotel: the Life and Music of Elvis Presley: In the last song,'You'll Think Of Me', there is a strangely disconnected opening which builds to the basic tempo; the song, which lasts four minutes, is long for the material, but Presley manages to hold it together through the layers of sound.
7" single 7" single 7" single 7" single 7" single 7" single 7" single "Suspicious Minds" "You'll Think of Me" 7" EP Suspicious Minds "Suspicious Minds" "Known Only to Him" "You'll Think of Me" "Joshua Fit The Battle"CD single "Suspicious Minds" "Suspicious Minds" "You'll Think of Me" "Suspicious Minds" Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Elvis Presley – Suspicious Minds / You'll Think Of Me at Discogs
Aquaculture of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, is the cultivation of kelp for uses such as food, dietary supplements or potash. Giant kelp contains compounds such as iodine, other minerals vitamins and carbohydrates. At the beginning of the 20th century California kelp beds were harvested for their potash. Commercial interest increased during the 1970s and the 1980s due to the production of alginates, for biomass production for animal feed due to the energy crisis; however commercial production for M. pyrifera never developed. With the end of the energy crisis and the decline in alginate prices, research into farming Macrocystis declined; the supply of M. pyrifera for alginate production relied on restoration and management of natural beds during the early 1990s. Other functions such as substrate stabilization were explored in California, where the “Kelp bed project” transplanted 3-6m adult specimens to increase the stability of the harbor and promote diversity. Research is investigating its use as feed for other aquaculture species such as shrimp.
China and Chile are the largest producers of aquatic plants, each producing over 300,000 tonnes in 2007. How much of this total can be attributed to M. pyrifera is unclear. Both countries culture a variety of species. China produces a larger variety of seaweeds including chlorophytes. Experiments in Chile are exploring hybrids of M. integrifolia. The most common method of cultivating M. pyrifera was developed in China in the 1950s. It is called the long line cultivation system, where the sporelings are produced in a cooled water greenhouse and planted in the ocean attached to long lines; the depth at which they are grown varies. This species alternates generations in its life cycle, cycling between a large sporophyte and a microscopic gametophyte; the sporophyte is harvested as seaweed. The mature sporophytes form, they are found on the underside of the leaves and produce the motile zoospores that germinate into the gametophyte. To induce sporalation, plants are dried for up to twelve hours and placed in a seeding container filled with seawater of about 9-10 °C.
Photoperiod is controlled during growth phases. A synthetic twine of about 2 – 6mm in diameter is placed on the bottom of the same container after sporalation; the released zoospores begin to germinate into male and female gametophytes. Upon maturity these gametophytes release sperm and egg cells that fuse in the water column and attach themselves to the same substrate as the gametophytes; these plants are reared into young sporophytes for up to 60 days. These strings are either wrapped around or are cut up into small pieces and attached to a larger diameter cultivation rope; the cultivation ropes vary, but extend 60m with floating buoys attached. The depths vary. In China, M. pyrifera is cultivated on the surface with floating buoys attached every 2-3m and the ends of the rope attached to a wooden peg anchored to the substrate. Individual ropes are hung at 50 cm intervals. In Chile M. pyrifera is grown at a depth of 2m using buoys to keep the plants at a constant depth. These are let alone to grow until harvest.
Problems that afflict this method include management of the transition from spore to gametophyte and embryonic sporophyte which are done on a terrestrial facility with careful control of water flow, temperature and light. The Japanese use a forced cultivation method where 2 years of growth is achieved within a single growing season by controlling inputs. In China a project for offshore/deep water cultivation used various farm structures to facilitate growth, including pumping nutrients from deep water into the beds; the greatest benefit for this approach was that the algae were released from size constraints of shallow waters. Issues with operational and farm designs plagued deep water cultivation and ended further exploration; the duration of cultivation varies by farming intensity. This species is harvested after two growth seasons. M. pyrifera, artificially cultivated on ropes is harvested by a pulley system, attached to boats that pull the individual lines on the vessels for cleaning. Other countries such as the US rely on grown M. pyrifera, use boats to harvest the surface canopy several times per year.
This is possible due to fast growth while reproductive parts are left undamaged. In the UK, legislation defines giant kelp as a nuisance. Invasive specimens are mechanically removed; the demand for M. pyrifera centers on fertilizers and feed for abalone and sea urchins. Offsetting current carbon emissions would require some 50 trillion trees. An alternative offset would be to cultivate kelp forests. Kelp can grow at 2 feet per day, 30 times faster than terrestrial plants. Planting kelp across 9% of the oceans could provide the same offset. Additionally, the kelp would support a fish harvest of 2 megatons per year and reduce ocean acidification. Large scale open ocean forestry would require added nutrients; as of 2017, the Wrigley Institute of Environmental Studies was testing farming of kelp near Catalina Island for conversion to a biofuel by thermochemical liquefaction. Small-scale cultivation uses kelp as a replacement for kale. Edible seaweed Kelp forest Seaweed farming Ocean fertilization Blue carbon
The long-billed pipit or brown rock pipit is a passerine bird which has a wide distribution. A number of subspecies have been created for the populations in Africa, through the Arabian peninsula and South Asia; the systematics of this complex is yet to be clarified. Most birds are short distance migrants; this is a complex group with several similar looking birds with disjunct distributions and the exact patterns of phylogeny are yet to be determined. Several subspecies that were placed within this species have been raised to full species status; the wood pipit, an inhabitant of miombo woodland in south-central Africa, was treated as a subspecies of this bird but is now regarded as a separate species. Some authorities split Bannerman's pipit, a bird of mountain grassland in West Africa; the Nicholson's pipit is a split non-migratory species from southern Africa. The nominate race was described by Thomas C. Jerdon in 1840 from peninsular India; this form occurs into the Nilgiris and Palni Hills. A darker race travancoriensis was described by Sidney Dillon Ripley in 1953 for the form restricted south of the Palghat Gap.
Subspecies decaptus described by Richard Meinertzhagen is found in Afghanistan and parts of northwestern India, while jerdoni is found along the Himalayan foothills east to Nepal. The population yamethini is somewhat disjunct and found in Myanmar. Several other races are described from Africa; this is a medium-large pipit, 16–17.5 cm long, but is an undistinguished looking species on the ground sandy grey above and whitish or pale buff below. It is similar to the tawny pipit, but is larger, has a longer tail and a longer dark bill; the long-billed pipit's flight is strong and direct, it gives a characteristic chupp call, similar to desert lark. Its song is like that of the tawny pipit, but slower and more varied, sri...churr...sri...churr…sri..churr. Like its relatives, long-billed pipit eats insects; the long-billed pipit's breeding habitat is dry open slopes with low vegetation. The nest is with 2-4 eggs being laid; the Internet Bird Collection Long-billed pipit - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds
Martin J. Levitt was a supervisory trainer, union buster and a union organizer on and off over a 20-year period before 1987 when he changed direction, he went from anti union to anti management and founded Justice for Labor Foundation and wrote about his career in his autobiography released in 1993 entitled Confessions of a Union Buster which he authored with Terry Conrow Toczynski. The book found success among labor unions due to the lurid details he outlined about union busting tactics he claims to have used. Levitt says he entered the field in 1969 "as a young man with no particular feelings about unions but with a desire to use his considerable wits and smooth tongue to get ahead." Levitt claims to have been "one of the multimillion-dollar industry's best talents...caught up in the money and intellectual pleasure of the pursuit." During his so-called reformed career he was known for holding seminars, newspaper articles and some national television interviews such as 60 minutes and the TODAY show.
In the book Levitt details his work history from an inexperienced consultant first hired by a former IBEW union organizer named John Sheridan who had earned his stripes as a disciple of Nathan Shefferman who wrote a guide to union busting. Levitt recalled during his interview that Sheridan's 2nd in command Nick Sangalis did a background check and found "one" criminal skeleton in his closet: a conviction for receiving stolen property which, as detailed in his book, would become one of a long list of criminal convictions along with chronic alcoholism and mental illness for which the latter was diagnosed in 1977. Levitt's book details his addictions to money and alcohol and parallels he drew to his serial criminal history including forgeries, check fraud, insurance fraud, abusive outbursts, rehab centers and prison with what he ofttimes claimed to be what caused his illegal union busting activities at some 200 organizations, his consulting career was atypical and went through upheavels until it culminated in what he terms was his "awakening" in 1987 when out of desperation he called the AFL-CIO offices in Washington DC and spoke to the publisher of the RUB sheet saying "they had one less union buster to worry about". and soon thereafter he became a self-proclaimed authority on union busting.
His critics believe he was a clever opportunist who found one more way to exploit labor unions as an end to his means. "My awakening came in late 1987. I was living on a five-acre wooded estate in an exclusive community. I traveled and lodged first class, drove only the finest luxury cars. By I had directed more than 200 anti-union campaigns--and lost only five--and had trained craven managers to go and do at their own companies. I was at one of the best and one of the richest. No, I was not driven from the field by need. I was driven by horror and remorse"; the last chapter of Levitt's book contradicts. In 1987, the year of his awakening, Levitt was unemployed, back in rehab, had been indicted for felony insurance fraud and car theft, had lost his house to debt, in need of a relative to pay off the $150,000 balance of his mortgage, most in need of a way to earn a living. Contrary to his reported feelings of "horror and remorse", his "need" did not lead him to redemption but to yet another union busting job AFTER he famously called the AFL-CIO to repent his "dirty deeds".
In 1988 he busted the Teamsters at Structural Composite Industries in Pomona CA and claims to have earned $40,000. After busting the Teamsters, he went to San Diego to address the Brotherhood of Carpenters as a reformed union buster. David Sickler, "He strikes me as a cheesy hustler, he made a living fighting us and now he wants to make a living showing us how bad he was to us. He's never been big on morality. Levitt's detractors have viewed him as an opportunist possessing a forked tongue; some say his claims were untrue Levitt described himself as a golden tongued con artist: "When Nick Sangalis, Sheridan's second in command ratified my hiring, he commented “the kid from Cleveland was the best damned bullshit artist I’ve met”. The Culinary Union blocked the AFL-CIO's efforts to have Martin Levitt write a "bust the union busters" brochure and a training film for organizers due to their mistrust from an experience with him years previous as an organizer in 1975, it started with his firing from 3M for failure to pay back a corporate loan of $5000.
With that firing he took a job with World Airways as a supervisory trainer but was fired after a few months for conduct unbecoming which made him seek work. He began "counter organizing" on his own at Rusty Scupper where he met Chuck Irvine, the president and chief organizer of Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union and Bartenders International Union Local 28 who asked him to join them as an organizer; as he'd done in the past with other employers, he managed to get a $5000 loan but was soon outed as a double agent and found himself unemployable by both sides, in bankruptcy again and seeking work. Barbara Noble, a NY Times writer, asked in her article if Levitt was just a bad apple or was he representative of people in his field, she said, "He seems to take a compromise view that his more unfortunate personal proclivities-- greased by scotch and vodka -- allowed him to avoid his conscience". In one breath he claims his book is an act of contrition for victims of his union campaigns but makes no visible apology to the victime of his forgeries and fraudulent check scams.
Which got him in far more trouble than a
The IWA Puerto Rico Heavyweight Championship, was a secondary championship defended in the International Wrestling Association in Puerto Rico. Championship was announced on June 16, 2008 via IWA's website on IWA's TV Show "Impacto Total"; the title was shown to the public on June 28, 2008 by IWA's Promoter "Edwin Vazquez Ortega" at Yabucoa, Puerto Rico it was announced that the inaugural champion was going to be decided in a Tournament. The inaugural tournament took place at three dates: On July 5, 2008 at San Juan, Puerto Rico On July 12, 2008 at Bayamon, Puerto Rico and the final on the "Summer Attitude" live event on July 19, 2008 at Bayamon, Puerto Rico. On September 6, 2008 at "Armagedon" show in Bayamon, the title changed hands in a Tag Team Match, where the IWA Hardcore Championship was on the line. In the match El Bacano & Vengador Boricua defeated Zaeir Arafat & Hardam Kadafi to win those titles respectly. On October 4, 2008 at "Golpe de Estado" show the IWA Hardcore and IWA World Cruiserweight Championships were unified to this title and the new champion was "Noel Rodriguez" who defeated Zaer Arafat, Rick Stanley, Hardam Kadafi, Manson, Rainstein and Niche in an Elimination Match.
On April 3, 2010 the championship was defended outside Puerto Rico for the first time when QT Marshall defeated Ray Beez on "I Believe in Wrestling" live Event "Believe XVI" on Florida, United States. On November 20, 2010, Triple Mega Champion "Dennis Rivera" was stripped of the title by IWA's president Miguel Perez as he had not defended it in 2 months