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Galileo (satellite navigation)

Galileo is the global navigation satellite system that went live in 2016, created by the European Union through the European GNSS Agency, headquartered in Prague in the Czech Republic, with two ground operations centres, Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich in Germany and Fucino in Italy. The €10 billion project is named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei. One of the aims of Galileo is to provide an independent high-precision positioning system so European nations do not have to rely on the U. S. GPS, or the Russian GLONASS systems, which could be disabled or degraded by their operators at any time; the use of basic Galileo services is open to everyone. The higher-precision capabilities are available for paying commercial users. Galileo is intended to provide horizontal and vertical position measurements within 1-metre precision, better positioning services at higher latitudes than other positioning systems. Galileo is to provide a new global search and rescue function as part of the MEOSAR system.

The first Galileo test satellite, the GIOVE-A, was launched 28 December 2005, while the first satellite to be part of the operational system was launched on 21 October 2011. As of July 2018, 26 of the planned 30 active satellites are in orbit. Galileo started offering Early Operational Capability on 15 December 2016, providing initial services with a weak signal, is expected to reach Full Operational Capability in 2019; the complete 30-satellite Galileo system is expected by 2020. It is expected that the next generation of satellites will begin to become operational by 2025 to replace older equipment. Older systems can be used for backup capabilities. There are 22 satellites in usable condition, two satellites are in "testing" and two more are marked as not available.. Out of 22 active satellites, 21 belong to FOC and 3 belong to IOV types. Two test FOC satellites are orbiting the Earth in highly-eccentric orbits whose orientation changes with respect to other Galileo orbital planes. However, these satellites are useful for precise positioning and geodesy with a limited usability in navigation.

In 1999, the different concepts of the three main contributors of ESA for Galileo were compared and reduced to one by a joint team of engineers from all three countries. The first stage of the Galileo programme was agreed upon on 26 May 2003 by the European Union and the European Space Agency; the system is intended for civilian use, unlike the more military-oriented systems of the United States and China. The European system will only be subject to shutdown for military purposes in extreme circumstances; the countries that contribute most to the Galileo Project are Italy. The European Commission had some difficulty funding the project's next stage, after several "per annum" sales projection graphs for the project were exposed in November 2001 as "cumulative" projections which for each year projected included all previous years of sales; the attention, brought to this multibillion-euro growing error in sales forecasts resulted in a general awareness in the Commission and elsewhere that it was unlikely that the program would yield the return on investment, suggested to investors and decision-makers.

On 17 January 2002, a spokesman for the project stated that, as a result of US pressure and economic difficulties, "Galileo is dead."A few months however, the situation changed dramatically. European Union member states decided it was important to have a satellite-based positioning and timing infrastructure that the US could not turn off in times of political conflict; the European Union and the European Space Agency agreed in March 2002 to fund the project, pending a review in 2003. The starting cost for the period ending in 2005 is estimated at €1.1 billion. The required satellites were to be launched between 2011 and 2014, with the system up and running and under civilian control from 2019; the final cost is estimated at €3 billion, including the infrastructure on Earth, constructed in 2006 and 2007. The plan was for private companies and investors to invest at least two-thirds of the cost of implementation, with the EU and ESA dividing the remaining cost; the base Open Service is to be available without charge to anyone with a Galileo-compatible receiver, with an encrypted higher-bandwidth improved-precision Commercial Service planned to be available at a cost, but in February 2018 the high accuracy service was agreed to be made available, with the authentication service remaining commercial.

By early 2011 costs for the project had run 50% over initial estimates. Galileo is intended to be an EU civilian GNSS. GPS reserved the highest quality signal for military use, the signal available for civilian use was intentionally degraded; this changed with President Bill Clinton signing a policy directive in 1996 to turn off Selective Availability. Since May 2000 the same precision signal has been provided to the military. Since Galileo was designed to provide the highest possible precision to anyone, the US was concerned that an enemy could use Galileo signals in military strikes against the US and its allies; the frequency chosen for Galileo would have made it impossible for the US to block the Galileo signals with

Halkyn United F.C.

Halkyn United Football Club is a Welsh football club representing the Flintshire villages of Halkyn, Pentre Halkyn and Rhosesmor, near Mold, in Wales. They play their home games at Pant Newydd, home to Halkyn Cricket Ground. For the 2018-19 season the where renamed Halkyn Mountain Football Club Halkyn United Football Club was formed in 1945 in the aftermath of the Second World War and became founder members of the old Halkyn Mountain League, a forerunner to the Clwyd League, it is believed that during this period of the club's history the club played their home games on various grounds within the village of Pentre Halkyn. The earliest honours won by Halkyn were the Mountain League in 1956 and the League Cup in 1959. After years playing in the Mountain League, the club joined the Clwyd League in 1975 and played their home matches in Pentre Halkyn on a field owned by the council; this field was adjacent to the Village Park in Pentre Halkyn, the changing facilities being the nearby community centre.

Many of the current long-serving officials involved with the club's modern-day success started to arrive at the club in the late 1980s and the 1990s. In the 1992–93 season under manager George Thelwell the club won the Clwyd League Division One title and with it promotion to the Premier League. In the first season in the Premier League despite finishing midway in the league United won both the Presidents Cup and the Arrows Cup. Further progress up the pyramid system was achieved, in the season 1994–95 Halkyn achieved promotion as champions from the Clwyd East Football League to the Welsh Alliance League. Success continued with the prestigious Barritt Cup making its way to Halkyn in the season 1995–96 and the Cookson Cup the following season. Throughout their four years in the Welsh Alliance the club made steady progress. In the 1997–98 season a fourth-place finish was achieved behind runaway champions Holyhead Hotspurs. However, the following season brought the club down to earth with an indifferent season culminating in a mid-table finish.

The 1999–2000 season proved the most successful in the club's history, as they won the Tyn Lon Rover Welsh Alliance by a clear 11 points whilst remaining unbeaten in the League. Added to that the club progressed to the fourth round of the Welsh Cup including an away victory at League of Wales outfit Haverfordwest County; the club managed to stay in the Cymru Alliance for a few seasons, but the 2005–06 season proved too much of a challenge for them, they finished bottom of the table. This ensured the club would be relegated, would play their football in the Welsh Alliance for the 2006–07 season. Promotion to the Cymru Alliance meant work was required at Pant Newydd to bring the ground up to the required standard. A makeshift stand was built and changes made to the rooms and the showers. More changes are in the pipeline. In the 2015-16 season the club resigned their place in the Welsh Alliance League Division 2, they joined the Clwyd East Football League for the subsequent season. In the 2016–17 season the club resigned their place in the Clwyd East Football League after 20 games, with all results expunged from the league's records.

For the 2017–18 season the club were renamed Halkyn Mountain Football Club and were again granted a place in the Clwyd East Football League. The club again withdrew from the league, this time in August 2018 before any matches were played."The Derby" is against neighbours Holywell Town. Other local/rival clubs include Rhydymwyn, Brynford United, Flint Town United, Mold Alexandra, Caerwys, Greenfield. Key: P = Played.

Hastings-class sloop

The Hastings class known as the Folkestone class, was a class of sloop which were built for the Royal Navy and the Royal Indian Navy in the interwar period. In total five ships were built, went on to see service in the Second World War; the Hastings were a follow on of the previous Bridgewater class and utilised features developed from the lessons learnt from the convoy escorts of the First World War. They were intended to be multifunctional vessels. Features included a high, sustained forecastle to improve operations in high seas, they were fitted with turbine machinery to improve performance; this turned out to be a drawback as the turbine machinery could not be mass-produced and the design was superseded by the Second World War in favour of classes that could be brought into service. Five ships were built in four for the Royal Navy and one for the Royal Indian Navy, they were launched in 1930 and all saw service in the Second World War. HMS Scarborough was disarmed before the outbreak and was rearmed with a 4 inches high angle anti-aircraft gun, a 12-pounder gun and 15 depth charges, this number being increased to 80.

One, HMS Penzance was lost during the war after being torpedoed by U-37. The remaining Royal Navy ships were decommissioned after the war and had all been scrapped by 1949; the sole Indian ship, HMIS Hindustan was involved in the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny, was subsequently transferred to the Pakistan Navy in 1948 on its formation, was renamed Karsaz. She was broken up in 1951. Hague, Arnold. Sloops: A History of the 71 Sloops Built in Britain and Australia for the British and Indian Navies 1926–1946. Kendal, England: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-67-3. British and Empire Warships of the Second World War, H T Lenton, Greenhill Books, ISBN 1-85367-277-7 Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1922-1946, Ed. Robert Gardiner, Naval Institute Press, ISBN 0-87021-913-8 Hastings class at Uboat.net Sloop classes, including Hastings Convoy Escort Movements for Hastings-class sloops