The Gallaeci, Callaeci or Callaici were a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia, the north-western corner of Iberia, a region corresponding to what is now northern Portugal, western Asturias and western Castile and León in Spain and during the Roman period. They spoke a Q-Celtic language related to Northeastern Hispano-Celtic called Gallaic, Gallaecian, or Northwestern Hispano-Celtic; the region was annexed by the Romans in the time of Caesar Augustus during the Cantabrian Wars, a war which initiated the assimilation of the Gallaeci into Latin culture. The fact that the Gallaeci did not adopt writing until contact with the Romans constrains the study of their earlier history. However, early allusions to this people are present in ancient Greek and Latin authors prior to the conquest, which allows the reconstruction of a few historical events of this people since the second century BC. Thanks to Silius Italicus, it is known that between the years 218 and 201 BC, during the Second Punic War, some Gallaecian troops were involved in the fight in the ranks of Carthaginian Hannibal against the Roman army of Scipio Africanus.
Silius described them as a contingent combined with Lusitanian forces and led by a commander named Viriathus, gave a short description of them and their military tactics: The first known military conflict between Gallaeci and Romans is mentioned in Appian of Alexandria's book Iberiké, narrating events during the Lusitanian War. In 139 BC, after being cheated by the Lusitanian chief Viriatus, Quintus Servilius Caepio's army devastated few Gallaecian and Vettonian regions; the attack on these Southern Gallaecian peoples, near the border with Vettones, was punishment for Gallaecian support to Lusitanians. Orosius mentioned that Brutus surrounded the Gallaeci, who were unaware, crushed sixty thousand of them who had come to the assistance of the Lusitani; the Romans were victorious only after a desperate and difficult battle and fifty thousand of them were slain in that battle, six thousand were captured, only some escaped. The legates Antistius and Firmius fought appalling battles and subdued the further parts of Gallaecia and mountainous and bordering the Atlantic.
Archaeologically, the Gallaeci were a local Atlantic Bronze Age people. During the Iron Age they received several influences, including from other Iberian cultures, from central-western Europe, from the Mediterranean; the Gallaeci dwelt in hill forts, the archaeological culture they developed is known by archaeologists as "Castro culture", a hill-fort culture with round houses. The Gallaecian way of life was based in land occupation by fortified settlements that are known in Latin language as "castrum" or oppida, being able to vary its size from a small village of less than one hectare, great walled citadels with more than 10 hectares denominated oppida being these latter more common in the Southern half of their traditional settlement around the Ave river; this livelihood in hillforts was common throughout Europe during the Bronze and Iron Ages, getting in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, the name of'Castro culture" or "hillfort's culture", which alludes to this type of settlement prior to the Roman conquest.
However, several Gallaecian hillforts continued to be inhabited until the 5th century AD. These fortified villages or cities tended to be located in the hills, rocky promontories and peninsulas near the seashore, as it improved visibility and control over territory; these settlements were strategically located for a better control of natural resources, including mineral ores such as iron. The Gallaecian hillforts and oppidas maintained a great homogeneity and presented clear commonalities; the citadels, functioned as city-states and could have specific cultural traits. The Gallaecian political organization is not known with certainty, but it is probable that they were divided into small independent states that comprised in its interior a great number of small hillforts, these stated were ruled by local petty kings, which the Romans called princeps as in other parts of Europe. Commonalities, including political ones, were effective and support between the cities that attempted to halt the Roman conquest of the Gallaecian lands and an successful attempt by Gallaecian warriors to drive the Romans out of Lusitania through the destruction of Roman settlements reaching the south of the Iberian Peninsula.
Some of the most famous cities were the wealthy and famously resistant city of Cinania, the notable city of Avobriga and its neighboring citadel, which allied with Rome, but became the leader for the Gallaeci resistance. The ruins of these cities may still exist today in Northern Portugal, although the location of each is still not attributed with certainty to some of the main Castro culture ruins; each Gallaecian considered himself a member of the hillfort where lived and the state / people to whom they belonged, that the Romans called populus, among all some of them left us their names: Arrotrebae, Praestamarici, etc. Gallaeci tribes: The Romans named the entire region north of the Douro, where the Castro culture existed, in honour of the castro people that settled in the area of Calle — the Callaeci; the Romans established a port in the south of the region which they called Portus Calle, today's Porto, in northern Portugal. When the Romans first conquered the Callaeci they ruled them
Charlotte Maria Offlow Johnson Wahl is a British artist. She is the mother of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Born Charlotte Offlow Fawcett in Oxford, Charlotte Johnson Wahl is the daughter of Frances and James Fawcett, she was the granddaughter of Americans Elias Avery Lowe, a palaeographer of Russian Jewish descent, Helen Tracy Lowe-Porter, a translator. She read English at Oxford University, was the first married female undergraduate at Lady Margaret Hall, she interrupted her studies to go to the US with her husband Stanley Johnson whom she met at Oxford and married in Marylebone, London in 1963. She returned and was awarded a second-class honours degree. Charlotte Johnson Wahl is recorded as having "made her name as a professional portrait painter" for Crispin Tickell, Joanna Lumley, Jilly Cooper, Simon Jenkins, others, but she paints landscapes which have been described as echoing the Vorticist style, she continues to paint. Her paintings sell for £1,000 to £5,000. Two of Wahl's paintings are in the collection of the Bethlem Museum of the Mind.
Charlotte Johnson Wahl is the mother of Boris Johnson, the UK Prime Minister, the former MP Jo Johnson, the journalist Rachel Johnson, the entrepreneur Leo Johnson. Charlotte and Stanley divorced in 1979. Charlotte Johnson Wahl married American professor Nicholas Wahl in 1988, but was widowed in 1996, she was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease at the age of 40. It was revealed by her son, Boris Johnson, during his speech to the Conservative Party conference that his mother voted for the United Kingdom to leave the European Union in the 2016 referendum; this was Boris Johnson's preferred outcome. Charlotte Johnson Wahl - Home of Johnson Wahl's 2015 exhibition Mall Galleries: Charlotte Johnson Wahl - Mall Galleries on Johnson Wahl
The Nelson complexity index is a measure to compare the secondary conversion capacity of a petroleum refinery with the primary distillation capacity. The index provides an easy metric for quantifying and ranking the complexity of various refineries and units. To calculate the index, it is necessary to use complexity factors, which compare the cost of upgrading units to the cost of crude distillation unit, it was developed by Wilbur L. Nelson in a series of articles that appeared in the Oil & Gas Journal from 1960 to 1961. In 1976, he elaborated on the concept in another series of articles, again in Gas Journal. NCI = ∑ i = 1 N F i ∗ C i C C D U Where: F i is a complexity factor C i is a unit capacity C C D U is a capacity of crude distillation unit N is a number of all unitsThe NCI assigns a complexity factor to each major piece of refinery equipment based on its complexity and cost in comparison to crude distillation, assigned a complexity factor of 1.0. The complexity of each piece of refinery equipment is calculated by multiplying its complexity factor by its throughput ratio as a percentage of crude distillation capacity.
Adding up the complexity values assigned to each piece of equipment, including crude distillation, determines a refinery’s complexity on the NCI. The NCI indicates not only the investment intensity or cost index of the refinery but its potential value addition. Thus, the higher the index number, the greater the cost of the refinery and the higher the value of its products. In the second edition of the book Petroleum Refinery Process Economics, author Robert Maples notes that U. S. refineries rank highest in complexity index, averaging 9.5, compared with Europe's at 6.5. The Jamnagar refinery belonging to India-based Reliance Industries Limited is now one of the most complex refineries in the world with a Nelson complexity index of 14; the new refinery began trial production on December 25, 2008. The former BP Texas City, Texas refinery, newly acquired by Marathon Petroleum as their Galveston Bay Refinery has a Nelson complexity index of 15.3 in 2013. The Oil and Gas Journal annually calculates and publishes a list of refineries with their associated Nelson complexity index scores.
Some factors for various processing units: If an oil refinery has a crude distillation unit, vacuum distillation unit, catalytic reforming unit the NCI will be 1* + 2* + 5* = 1.0 + 1.2 + 1.5 = 3.7. Oil and Gas Journal, Nelson Complexity index