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Gallantry Cross (South Vietnam)

The Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross known as the Vietnamese Gallantry Cross or Vietnam Cross of Gallantry is a military decoration of the former Government of South Vietnam. The medal was created on August 15, 1950 and was awarded to military personnel and Armed Forces units and organizations in recognition of deeds of valor or heroic conduct while in combat with the enemy. Individuals who received the medal, a citation were cited at the Armed Forces, Division, Brigade or Regiment level; the Republic of Vietnam authorized members of units and organizations that were cited, to wear the Gallantry Cross Unit Citation Emblem with Palm and Frame. The medal is gold in color, 35 mm wide, it consists of a Celtic cross with two crossed swords between the arms. The cross is superimposed over a wreath; the center of the cross contains a disc with the outline of the country of Vietnam between two palm branches joined at the bottom. A scroll is on top of the map and is inscribed "QUOC-GIA LAO-TUONG"; the suspension ribbon of the medal is 35 mm wide and is made up of the following stripes: 9 mm of Old Glory Red.

The center stripe has sixteen strands of Old Glory Red. DegreesThe Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross was awarded in four degrees, with a basic medal followed by higher degrees which were the equivalent of personal citations on an organizational level; the degrees of the Gallantry Cross are as follows: Gallantry Cross with Palm: cited at the Armed Forces level Gallantry Cross with Gold Star: cited at the Corps level Gallantry Cross with Silver Star: cited at the Division level Gallantry Cross with Bronze Star: cited at the Regiment or Brigade levelRibbon devicesThe devices to the Gallantry Cross are not worn but instead are upgraded to the next higher device which would replace the previous device for wear on the decoration. U. S. Marine Corps uniform regulations in 2003 state the recipient should wear only one Gallantry Cross award regardless of the number received. For multiple awards, wear as many authorized devices as will fit on one medal suspension ribbon or ribbon bar. Wear the devices for subsequent awards in order of seniority from the wearer's right.

The first palm is 6⁄8 inch on the service ribbon. Subsequent palms are 3⁄8 inch on the service ribbon. Stars are ​3⁄8 inch. Service versionsThe Gallantry Cross was awarded to members of all military branches, as well as service members of foreign and allied militaries; the named decorations were the Air Gallantry Cross and Navy Gallantry Cross. These decorations were awarded under a different authority, with different criteria, were considered separate decorations; the Unit Citation Emblem of the colors of the Gallantry Cross is awarded to personnel in the South Vietnamese military and Allied military units that have been cited and presented a decoration, prescribed to be awarded on a collective basis. Known as the Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation with Palm, the Unit Citation Emblem in the colors of the Gallantry Cross with Palm, was created on January 20, 1968 and was issued with the Gallantry Cross ribbon bar with a ​5⁄32 by ​9⁄16 inch bronze palm and a gold frame; the former South Vietnamese military awarded the Gallantry Cross to specific military units that distinguished themselves to the same level as would be required for the individual award.

Regulations for the issuance of the Vietnam Gallantry Cross permit the wearing of both the individual and unit award since both are considered separate awards. The Gallantry Cross was awarded to every Allied nation; the Gallantry Cross became the most awarded Vietnamese decoration to foreigners, second only to the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal. FourragereThe South Vietnamese military Fourragere in the colors of the Gallantry Cross represented a military unit cited two times, it was a brilliant golden-yellow, with red intermixed. Department of the Army message 111030Z from April 1974, established the policy that only one emblem for a unit award was authorized to be worn at a time; this change resulted in the fourragere being no longer authorized for wear, as it was representative of multiple awards. U. S. authorizationRepublic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation: U. S. Department of Defense: U. S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam and its subordinate units, 8 Feb 1962 to 28 Mar 1973 U.

S. Army and its subordinate units, 20 July 1965 to 28 Mar 1973 This permits all personnel who served in Vietnam to wear the RVN Gallantry Cross unit citation. Republic of Vietnam Meritorious Unit Citation. S. Navy and Marine Corps: In addition to specific ships/units, all personnel who served "in country" Vietnam, 8 February 1962 to 28 March 1973; the United States military began authorizing the Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross in March 1968 with retroactive presentation of the decoration to 1961. In 1974, Army General Order Number 8 confirmed eligibility for the Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm and Frame Unit Citation to every military unit of the United States Army which had served under the Military Assistance Command from 1961 to 1974, orders, specific as to dates and units, do exist for specific Army commands as well as for members of other services not affected by the Army General Order. Award requestsThe National Personnel Reco

People's Democratic Party (Spain, 1974)

The People's Democratic Party was a Spanish political party of liberal centre, integrated in the Union of the Democratic Centre. Its president was Fernando Chueca, his Secretary General was Ignacio Camuñas; the party was founded by Ignacio Camuñas in December 1974 on the basis of the Circle of Studies New Generation, created in 1972. By 1976 the party was part of the Democratic Convergence Platform and Democratic Coordination, but withdrew from the latter in June of that same year. On 24 September 1976, together with Democratic Left of Catalonia, the Social-Liberal Coalition was established. Fernando Chueca Goitia, founder of the Spanish Social Democratic Union, left the party in July 1976 to join the People's Democratic Party, where he was elected president in December of that year; the party was admitted as a member of the Liberal International during the Congress that took place in Barcelona in October 1976. The party was legalized on February 17, 1977. In the general elections of 1977 the party obtained 6 deputies within UCD: Ignacio Camuñas, José Manuel Paredes Grosso, Francisco Ruiz Risueño, Manuel Bermejo and José María Bravo de Laguna.

Subsequently, on December 16, 1977, the party agreed to dissolve and become a full member of UCD

Olaus Michael Schmidt

Olaus Michael Schmidt was a Norwegian judge and politician. A Supreme Court Assessor by profession, he served one term in the Norwegian Parliament, was the Minister of Justice and the Police for four non-consecutive terms between 1838 and 1848. Schmidt was born in Trondhjem as the son of Johanne Christine Beck. Claus was from Flensborg in Slesvig. Olaus had several brothers, including the Constitutional Founding Father Peter Schmidt, Jr.. In 1816 he married Sophie Magdalene Carite Sommerfeldt, she was the daughter of Anna Sophie Hagerup. On the paternal side she was a niece of politician Ole Hannibal Sommerfeldt and an aunt of Karl Linné Sommerfeldt and priest and politician Christian Sommerfeldt. On the maternal side she was a first cousin of Wolfgang Wenzel von Haffner. Olaus Michael Schmidt enrolled as a student in 1801, graduated with the cand.theol. Degree in 1806, he was hired as a school teacher, but left this job in 1810 to study law at the University of Copenhagen. He graduated with the cand.jur.

Degree in 1812. He became an assessor in the district court of Christianssand in 1817, was promoted to Chief Justice at the same place in 1828, he had been elected to the Parliament of Norway in 1827. He only served one term. In 1829 he became national Supreme Court Assessor. However, he was not finished on national political scene. On 22 January 1838 he was appointed Minister of the Police, he held this post until 1 July the same year, when he was appointed as a member of the Council of State Division in Stockholm. On 1 August 1839 he returned as Minister of Justice. On 1 September 1842 he returned to serve one year in Stockholm, he got his third spell as Minister of Justice from 1 September 1843 to 1 April 1845. One final tenure in Stockholm followed, he retired. Olaus Michael Schmidt died in 1851 in Töplitz, three years after the death of his wife