Midland County, Texas
Midland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of 2015, the population was 161,077; the county seat is Midland. The county is so named as the county is halfway between Fort Worth and El Paso on the Texas and Pacific Railway. Midland County is included in the Midland, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Midland–Odessa Combined Statistical Area. In 1968, the county lost before the Supreme Court in Avery v. Midland County which required local districts to be nearly equal; the city of Midland had most of the county's population but only elected one of the five county commissioners, found to violate the Fourteenth Amendment. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 902 square miles, of which 900 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water. The Spraberry Trend, the third-largest oil field in the United States by remaining reserves, underlies much of the county. I-20 BL I-20 SH 137 SH 140 SH 158 SH 191 SH 349 Loop 40 Loop 250 Loop 268 Martin County Glasscock County Upton County Ector County Andrews County Reagan County As of the census of 2000, there were 116,009 people, 42,745 households, 30,947 families residing in the county.
The population density was 129 people per square mile. There were 48,060 housing units at an average density of 53 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.32% White, 6.98% Black or African American, 0.64% Native American, 0.93% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 12.17% from other races, 1.92% from two or more races. 29.03% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 42,745 households, out of which 38.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families. 24.20% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.21. In the county, the population was spread out, with 30.20% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 20.90% from 45 to 64, 11.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years.
For every 100 females there were 93.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,082, the median income for a family was $47,269. Males had a median income of $36,924 versus $24,708 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,369. 12.90% of the population and 10.30% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 16.20% are under the age of 18 and 7.90% are 65 or older. Although Midland was Democratic, it has been unabashedly Republican in presidential elections since 1952; the last Democratic presidential candidate to win the county was Harry Truman in 1948. In the presidential election of 1964 in which the incumbent president, Texan Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, won a national landslide victory, it gave 57.8% of its ballots to Republican presidential candidate and Arizona native Barry Goldwater. In 2008, it cast 36,135 votes for Republican John McCain for president, 78% of the vote in Midland County.
Democrat Barack Obama received 21 % of 9,672 votes. Other candidates received 1% of the vote. Midland County is in the 11th Congressional District in Texas and it is represented by Mike Conaway, a Republican; the 11th Congressional District gave George W. Bush 78% of its votes in 2004, higher than any other congressional district in the nation. In Midland County in 2004, Republican George W. Bush received 82% of the vote in Midland County, while Democrat John Kerry received 18%. Midland Odessa Dameron City Germania Pleasant Prairie Lee Slaughter List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Midland County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Midland County Gary Painter, sheriff of Midland County since 1985 Midland County government's website Midland County from the Handbook of Texas Online Midland County Profile of the Texas Association of Counties
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the
A service ribbon, medal ribbon, or ribbon bar is a small ribbon, mounted on a small metal bar equipped with an attaching device, issued for wear in place of a medal when it is not appropriate to wear the actual medal. Each country's government has its own rules on what ribbons can be worn in what circumstances and in which order; this is defined in an official document and is called "the order of precedence" or "the order of wearing." In some countries, some awards are "ribbon only," having no associated medal. According to the Defense Logistics Agency, the U. S. military's standard size for a ribbon bar is 1 3/8 in wide, 3/8 inches tall, with a thickness of 0.8mm. The service ribbon for a specific medal is identical to the suspension ribbon on the medal. For example, the suspension and service ribbon for the U. S. government's Purple Heart medal is purple with a white vertical stripe at each end. However, there are some military awards that do not have a suspension ribbon, but have an authorized ribbon and unit award emblem.
The Soviet Order of Victory is a badge, worn on the military parade uniform. However, a ribbon bar representing the Order of Victory was worn on a military field uniform. Ribbon bars come in a variety of colors. In the case of the U. S. military, it maintains a specific list of colors used on its ribbons, based on the Pantone Matching System and Federal Standard 595 color systems: There is a variety of constructions of service ribbons. In some countries, service ribbons are mounted on a "pin backing", which can be pushed through the fabric of a uniform and secured, with fasteners, on the inside edge; these ribbons can be individually secured and lined up, or they can be all mounted on to a single fastener. After the Second World War, it was common for all ribbons to be mounted on a single metal bar and worn in a manner similar to a brooch. Other methods of wearing have included physically sewing each service ribbon onto the uniform garments. "Orders of wearing" define which ribbons may be worn on which types of uniform in which positions under which circumstances.
For example, miniature medals on dinner dress, full medals on parade dress, ribbons on dress shirts, but no decorations on combat dress and working clothing. Some countries maintain a standard practice of wearing full service ribbons on combat utility clothing. Others prohibit this; these regulations are similar to the regulations regarding display of rank insignia and regulations regarding saluting of more senior ranks. The reasoning for such regulations is to prevent these displays from enabling opposing forces to identify persons of higher rank and therefore aid them in choosing targets which will have a larger impact on the battlefield. In times of war, it is not uncommon for commanders and other high value individuals to wear no markings on their uniforms and wear clothing and insignia of a lower ranking soldier. Service medals and ribbons are worn in rows on the left side of the chest. In certain commemorative and/ or memorial circumstances, a relative may wear the medals or ribbons of a dead relative on the right side of the chest.
Medals and ribbons not mentioned in the "Order of wear" are generally worn on the right side of the chest. Sequencing of the ribbons depends on each country's regulations. In the United States, for example, those with the highest status—typically awarded for heroism or distinguished service—are placed at the top of the display, while foreign decorations are last in the bottom rows; when medals are worn, ribbons with no corresponding medals are worn on the right side. The study and collection of ribbons, among other military decorations, is known as phaleristics. Keith Payne, VC, OAMHis Excellency General The Honourable Sir Peter Cosgrove, AK, MC Sir Hans Jesper Helsø former General and Chief of Defence. Ecuadorian General of the Army Paco Moncayo Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel Admiral of the Fleet Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma In the U. S. military, the different services have different methods of wearing ribbon bars. In the U. S. Navy, they are worn in rows of three with no spacing between rows.
For U. S. Navy members who have three or more ribbons, they can elect to wear only their three highest-ranked ones instead of all of them. In the U. S. Marine Corps, they can be worn with optional staggering. In the U. S. Army staggered with spacing in between rows. A U. S. serviceman's complete ribbon display is referred to colloquially as a "ribbon rack" or "rack" for short. Field Marshal S. H. F. J. Manekshaw Phaleristics Order List of military decorations List of prizes and awards Awards and decorations of the United States military Danish service ribbons
The Celtic cross is a form of Christian cross featuring a nimbus or ring that emerged in Ireland and Britain in the Early Middle Ages. A type of ringed cross, it became widespread through its use in the stone high crosses erected across the islands in regions evangelized by Irish missionaries, from the 9th through the 12th centuries. A staple of Insular art, the Celtic cross is a Latin cross with a nimbus surrounding the intersection of the arms and stem. Scholars have debated its exact origins; the form gained new popularity during the Celtic Revival of the 19th century. The shape decorated with interlace and other motifs from Insular art, became popular for funerary monuments and other uses, has remained so, spreading well beyond Ireland. Ringed crosses similar to older Continental forms appeared in Ireland and Scotland in incised stone slab artwork and artifacts like the Ardagh chalice. However, the shape achieved its greatest popularity by its use in the monumental stone high crosses, a distinctive and widespread form of Insular art.
These monuments, which first appeared in the 9th century take the form of a ringed cross on a stepped or pyramidal base. The form has obvious structural advantages, reducing the length of unsupported side arms. There are a number of theories as to its origin in Britain; some scholars consider the ring a holdover from earlier wooden crosses, which may have required struts to support the crossarm. Others have seen it as deriving from indigenous Bronze Age art featuring a wheel or disc around a head, or from early Coptic crosses based on the ankh. However, Michael W. Herren, Shirley Ann Brown, others believe it originates in earlier ringed crosses in Christian art. Crosses with a ring representing the celestial sphere developed from the writings of the Church Fathers; the "cosmological cross" is an important motif in Coelius Sedulius's poem Carmen Paschale, known in Ireland by the 7th century. It is not clear; the first examples date to about the 9th century and occur in two groups: at Ahenny in Ireland, at Iona, an Irish monastery off the Scottish coast.
The Ahenny group is earlier. However, it is possible. A variety of crosses bear inscriptions in an early medieval Irish alphabet. Standing crosses in Ireland and areas under Irish influence tend to be shorter and more massive than their Anglo-Saxon equivalents, which have lost their headpieces. Irish examples with a head in cross form include the Cross of Kells, Ardboe High Cross, the crosses at Monasterboice, the Cross of the Scriptures and those in Scotland at Iona and the Kildalton Cross, which may be the earliest to survive in good condition. Surviving, free-standing crosses are in Cornwall, including St Piran's cross at Perranporth, Wales. Other stone crosses are found in the former Northumbria and Scotland, further south in England, where they merge with the similar Anglo-Saxon cross making tradition, in the Ruthwell Cross for example. Most examples in Britain were destroyed during the Protestant Reformation. By about A. D. 1200 the initial wave of cross building came to an end in Ireland.
Popular legend in Ireland says that the Christian cross was introduced by Saint Patrick or Saint Declan, though there are no examples from this early period. It has been claimed that Patrick combined the symbol of Christianity with the sun cross to give pagan followers an idea of the importance of the cross. By linking it with the idea of the life-giving properties of the sun, these two ideas were linked to appeal to pagans. Other interpretations claim that placing the cross on top of the circle represents Christ's supremacy over the pagan sun. Notable high crosses with the Celtic shape in Ireland Ahenny, County Tipperary Ardboe County Tyrone Carndonagh, County Donegal Drumcliff, County Sligo Dysert O'Dea Monastery, County Clare Glendalough County Wicklow St. Kevin's Cross Killamery, County Kilkenny Fahan, County Donegal Monasterboice, County Louth Clonmacnoise Cross of the Scriptures, County Offaly Clonmacnoise North Cross, County Offaly Clonmacnoise South Cross, County Offaly Kells, County Meath Moone, County KildareNotable high crosses in Scotland Iona Abbey Crosses Inchbraoch Cross Kildalton Cross Meigle 1 Cross St. Martin's Cross at Iona AbbeyNotable Celtic crosses in India Mateer Memorial Church, India The Celtic Revival of the mid-19th century led to an increased use and creation of Celtic crosses in Ireland.
In 1853, casts of several historical high crosses were exhibited at the Dublin Industrial Exhibition. In 1857, Henry O'Neill published Illustrations of the Most Interesting of the Sculptured Crosses of Ancient Ireland; these two events stimulated interest in the Celtic cross as a symbol for a renewed sense of heritage within Ireland. New versions of the high cross were designed for fashionable cemetery monuments in Victorian Dublin in the 1860s. From Dublin, the revival spread to the rest of the country and beyond. Since the Celtic Revival, the ringed cross became an emblem of Celtic identity, in addition to its more traditional religious symbolism. Modern interest in the symbol increased because of Euphemia Ritchie; the two worked on the Isle of Iona in Scotland from 1899 to 1940 and popularised use of the Celtic cross in jewelry. Using the Celtic cross in fashion is still popular today. Since its revival in the 1850s, the Celtic cross has been used extensively as grave markers. Straying fr
A gold frame is an attachment to a military decoration, issued by the militaries of some countries. The gold frame is designed to enclose an award ribbon and is a means of distinguishing the ribbon's special quality or denoting some additional achievement to the award's basic criteria; the gold frame is an automatic attachment to a ribbon decoration. In certain cases, awards may be issued both with and without the gold frame depending upon the level of achievement; such is the case in the United States Air Force which denotes the gold frame as a "gold border". The Air Force Expeditionary Service Ribbon may be presented with a gold border when the decoration is presented for service in a designated combat zone; the gold frame and gold border is a device for ribbon awards only, there are no provisions for issuing the attachment for medals. Awards and decorations of the United States military Awards and decorations of the National Guard Authorized foreign decorations of the United States military
Mentioned in dispatches
A member of the armed forces mentioned in dispatches is one whose name appears in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which his or her gallant or meritorious action in the face of the enemy is described. In some countries, a service member's name must be mentioned in dispatches as a condition for receiving certain decorations. Service men and women of the British Empire or the Commonwealth who are mentioned in despatches are not awarded a medal for their action, but receive a certificate and wear an oak leaf device on the ribbon of the appropriate campaign medal. A smaller version of the oak leaf device is attached to the ribbon. Prior to 2014 only one device could be worn on a ribbon, irrespective of the number of times the recipient was mentioned in despatches. Where no campaign medal is awarded, the oak leaf is worn directly on the coat after any medal ribbons. In the British Armed Forces, the despatch is published in the London Gazette. Before 1914 nothing was worn in uniform to signify a mention in despatches, although sometimes a gallantry medal was awarded.
For 1914–1918 and up to 10 August 1920, the device consisted of a spray of oak leaves in bronze worn on the ribbon of the Victory Medal. Those who did not receive the Victory Medal wore the device on the British War Medal. Established in 1919, it was retrospective to August 1914, it was not a common honour with, for example, only twenty-five members of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment in the First World War mentioned in despatches. In all, 141,082 mentions were recorded in the London Gazette between 1914 and 1920. From 1920 to 1993, the device consisted of a single bronze oak leaf, worn on the ribbon of the appropriate campaign medal, including the War Medal for a mention during the Second World War; the Canadian Armed Forces still use the bronze oak leaf device. Since 1993 a number of changes have been made in respect of United Kingdom armed forces: For awards made from September 1993, the oak leaf has been in silver; the criteria were made more specific, it now being defined as an operational gallantry award for acts of bravery during active operations.
From 2003, in addition to British campaign medals, the MiD device can be worn on United Nations, NATO and EU medals. In a change introduced in 2014, up to three MiD devices may be worn on a single campaign medal and ribbon bar for those with multiple mentions, backdated to 1962. Prior to this change if the serviceman was mentioned in despatches more than once, only a single such device was worn. Prior to 1979, a mention in despatches was one of three awards that could be made posthumously, the others being the Victoria Cross and George Cross; the 1979 reform allowed. Soldiers can be mentioned multiple times; the British First World War Victoria Cross recipient John Vereker Field Marshal Viscount Gort, was mentioned in despatches nine times, as was the Canadian general Sir Arthur Currie. The Australian general Gordon Bennett was mentioned in despatches a total of eight times during the First World War, as was Field Marshal Sir John Dill. Below are illustrations of the MiD device being worn on a variety of campaign medal ribbons: Australian service personnel are no longer eligible to be mentioned in dispatches.
Since 15 January 1991, when the Australian Honours System was established, the MiD has been replaced by the Australian decorations: the Commendation for Gallantry and the Commendation for Distinguished Service. The equivalents of the MiD for acts of bravery by civilians and by soldiers not engaged with the enemy have been reformed; the reformed and comprehensive system is now as follows: The Commendation for Gallantry is now the fourth level decoration for gallantry. The Commendation for Brave Conduct recognises acts of bravery carried by soldiers not directly fighting the enemy and by civilians in war or peace; the Commendation for Distinguished Service, a third level distinguished service decoration, recognises distinguished general service, for exemplary performance in fields such as training and administration. A mention in dispatches – in French, Citation à l'ordre du jour – gives recognition from a senior commander for acts of brave or meritorious service in the field; the Mention in dispatches is among the list of awards presented by the Governor General of Canada.
Mention in dispatches has been used since 1947, in order to recognize distinguished and meritorious service in operational areas and acts of gallantry which are not of a sufficiently high order to warrant the grant of gallantry awards. Eligible personnel include all Army and Air Force personnel including personnel of the Reserve Forces, Territorial Army and other lawfully constituted armed forces, members of the Nursing Service and civilians working under or with the armed forces. Personnel can be mentioned in dispatches posthumously and multiple awards are possible. A recipient of a mention in a dispatch is entitled to wear an emblem, in the form of a lotus leaf on the ribbon of the relevant campaign medal, they are issued with an official certificate from the Ministry of Defence. Under the current Pakistani military honours system, the Imtiazi Sanad is conferred upon any member of the Pakistani Armed Forces, mentioned in dispatches for an act of gallantry that does not qualify for a formal gallantry award.
In 1920 the Minister of Defence of the Union of South Africa was empowered to award a multiple-leaved bronze oak leaf emblem to all servicemen and servicewomen mentioned in dispatches during the First World War for valuable services in action. The emblem, regarded as a decoration, was worn on the ribbon of the Victory Medal. Only one emblem was
Supreme Court of Texas
The Supreme Court of Texas is the court of last resort for civil appeals in the U. S. state of Texas. A different court, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, is the court of last resort for criminal matters; the Court is composed of eight Associate Justices. It was established in 1846 to replace the Supreme Court of the Republic of Texas; the Court meets in Downtown Austin, Texas in a building located on the state Capitol grounds, behind the Texas State Capitol. By statute, the Texas Supreme Court has administrative control over the State Bar of Texas, an agency of the judiciary; the Texas Supreme Court has the sole authority to license attorneys in Texas, appoints the members of the Board of Law Examiners which, under instructions of the Supreme Court, administers the Texas bar examination. The Texas Supreme Court is the only state supreme court in the United States in which the manner in which it denies discretionary review can imply approval or disapproval of the merits of the lower court's decision and in turn may affect the geographic extent of the precedential effect of that decision.
In March 1927, the Texas Legislature enacted a law directing the Texas Supreme Court to summarily refuse to hear applications for writs of error when it believed the Court of Appeals opinion stated the law. Thus, since June 1927, over 4,100 decisions of the Texas Courts of Appeals have become valid binding precedent of the Texas Supreme Court itself because the high court refused applications for writ of error rather than denying them and thereby signaled that it approved of their holdings as the law of the state. While Texas' unique practice saved the state supreme court from having to hear minor cases just to create uniform statewide precedents on those issues, it makes for lengthy citations to the opinions of the Courts of Appeals, since the subsequent writ history of the case must always be noted in order for the reader to determine at a glance whether the cited opinion is binding precedent only in the district of the Court of Appeals in which it was decided, or binding precedent for the entire state.
The Court has eight associate justices. Each member of the Court must be at least 35 years of age, a citizen of Texas, licensed to practice law in Texas, must have practiced law for at least ten years; the Clerk of the Court serves a four-year term. The Chief Justice and the Associate Justices are elected to staggered six-year terms in statewide partisan elections; when a vacancy arises the Governor of Texas may appoint Justices, subject to Senate confirmation, to serve out the remainder of an unexpired term until the next general election. As of 2017, seven of the current Justices, a majority, were appointed by Governor Rick Perry; the current Justices, like all the Judges of the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, are all Republican. The place numbers have no special meaning as all justices are elected statewide, except that the Chief Justice position is considered "Place 1". Hortense Sparks Ward, who became the first woman to pass the Texas Bar Exam in 1910, was appointed Special Chief Justice of an all-female Texas Supreme Court 15 years later.
All of the court's male justices recused themselves from Johnson v. Darr, a 1924 case involving the Woodmen of the World, since nearly every member of the Texas Bar was a member of that fraternal organization, paying personal insurance premiums that varied with the claims decided against it, no male judges or attorneys could be found to hear the case. After ten months of searching for suitable male replacements to decide the case, Governor Pat Neff decided on January 1, 1925, to appoint a special court composed of three women; this court, consisting of Ward, Hattie Leah Henenberg, Ruth Virginia Brazzil, met for five months and ruled in favor of Woodmen of the World. On July 25, 1982, Ruby Kless Sondock became the court's first regular female justice, when she was appointed to replace the Associate Justice James G. Denton who had died of a heart attack. Sondock served the remainder of Denton's term, which ended on December 31, 1982, but did not seek election to the Supreme Court in her own right.
Rose Spector became the first woman elected to the court in 1992 and served until 1998 when she was defeated by Harriet O'Neill. Judicial Committee on Information Technology Created in 1997 JCIT was established to set standards and guidelines for the systematic implementation and integration of information technology into the trial and appellate courts in Texas. JCIT approaches this mission by providing a forum for state-local, inter-branch, public-private collaboration, development of policy recommendations for the Supreme Court of Texas. Court technology, the information it carries, are sprawling topics, Texas is a diverse state with decentralized funding and decision-making for trial court technology. JCIT provides a forum for discussion of court information projects. With this forum, JCIT reaches out to external partners such as the Conference of Urban Counties, the County Information Resource Agency, Texas.gov, TIJIS, advises or is consulted by the Office of Court Administration on a variety of projects.
Three themes recur in the JCIT conversation: expansion and governance of electronic filing.