Quake Lake is a lake in southwestern Montana in the United States. It was created after an earthquake struck on August 1959, killing 28 people. Today, Quake Lake is 6 miles long. US 287 follows the lake and offers glimpses of the effects of the earthquake and landslide, a visitor center is just off the road; the lake is within Gallatin National Forest. The earthquake measured 7.5 on the Richter magnitude scale and caused an 80-million ton landslide, which formed a landslide dam on the Madison River. The earthquake was the most powerful to hit the state of Montana in historic times; the landslide traveled down the south flank of Sheep Mountain, at an estimated 100 miles per hour, killing 28 people who were camping along the shores of Hebgen Lake and downstream along the Madison River. Upstream the faulting caused by the earthquake forced the waters of Hebgen Lake to shift violently. A seiche, a wave effect created by wind, atmospheric pressure, or seismic activity on water, crested over Hebgen Dam, causing cracks and erosion.
The earthquake created fault scarps up to 20 ft high in the area near Hebgen Lake and the lake bottom itself dropped the same distance. 32,000 acres of the area near Hebgen Lake subsided more than 10 ft. Several geysers in the northwestern sections in Yellowstone National Park erupted and numerous hot springs became temporarily muddied. Within the immediate vicinity of the earthquake and resultant landslide, a few dozen cabins and homes were destroyed. Overall damages to buildings and roads were minor with damage costs placed at 11 million dollars in 1959. Aftershocks up to 6.5 on the Richter magnitude scale continued for several months. At the time, the quake was the second largest to occur in the continental US during the 20th century. Hebgen Dam, built in 1917, is a concrete core and rock fill faced structure that sustained severe damage but continued to hold. Repairs were completed on the dam spillway in a few weeks; the landslide, which occurred downstream from the dam, blocked all the flow of the Madison River which began to fill in the void upstream from the slide.
In less than a month, the waters had created. The lack of a reliable water outlet for this new lake forced one of the largest mobilizations of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers commenced in the western U. S. Before the new landslide was breached by the rising waters, a spillway was constructed to ensure erosion and potential failure of the natural dam would be minimized. In 1967, the U. S. Forest Service’s Earthquake Lake Visitor Center opened its doors for the first season of operation; the center provides interpretive services for more than 50,000 visitors annually. The center provides a panoramic view of the mountain that fell and the lake, formed; this facility hosts interpretive displays on earthquakes, plate tectonics, a working seismograph. It is located in Custer Gallatin National Forest
The Beartooth Mountains are located in south central Montana and northwest Wyoming, U. S. and are part of the 944,000 acres Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness, within Custer and Shoshone National Forests. The Beartooths are the location of Granite Peak, which at 12,807 feet is the highest point in the state of Montana; the mountains are just northeast of Yellowstone National Park and are part of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The mountains are traversed by road via the Beartooth Highway with the highest elevation at Beartooth Pass 10,947 ft ); the name of the mountain range is attributed to a rugged peak found in the range, Beartooth Peak, that has the appearance of a bear's tooth. The Beartooth Mountains sit upon the larger Beartooth Plateau, the largest true high elevation plateau in the United States; the remoteness of the region contributed to its obscurity until the 1870s. The Crow tribe of Native Americans used the valleys of the mountains for hunting game animals and for winter shelter from the harsh winds of the plains.
Though trappers entered the region in the 1830s, formal exploration by the U. S. Government did not occur until 1878. Since almost 400 species of plants have been discovered and the Beartooths are considered to be the most biologically unique mountain range in North America; the region is home to one of the largest populations of grizzly bears outside of Alaska and Canada. Black bears, mountain goats, bighorn sheep, moose, mountain lion, lynx are found here. Since 2000 the wolf has reappeared from the migration of wolves that were transplanted into neighboring Yellowstone National Park from Canada. Plants and grasses exist above the 9,000-foot timberline and Engelmann spruce, subalpine fir, whitebark pine, lodgepole pine are found below; the Beartooth mountains are composed of Precambrian granite and crystalline metamorphic rocks dated at 2.7 to 4 billion years old, making these rocks among the oldest on Earth. The Stillwater igneous complex within the mountains is the location of the largest known deposits of platinum and chromium and the second largest deposits of nickel found in the United States.
Older ages are found in zircon crystals in meta-sedimentary rocks. The most abundant rocks in the Beartooths are 2.9-2.7 billion years old. Huge expansive plateaus are found at altitudes in excess of 10,000 ft with over 25 peaks exceeding 12,000 ft; the mountains have some waterfalls in excess of 300 feet. Winters are severe with heavy incessant winds. 25 small glaciers exist in the Beartooths with Grasshopper Glacier being one of the more distinctive. The highest peaks of the Beartooth Mountains are clustered in three groups, topped by Granite Peak, Mount Wood 12,649 ft, Castle Mountain 12,617 ft; the cluster containing Mount Wood is named the Granite Range. The largest of these three contiguous areas above 10,000 feet, which extends into Wyoming, is the one dominated by Castle Mountain. List of mountain ranges in Montana Ranges of the Rocky Mountains U. S. Forest Service. "Beartooth Ranger District". Custer National Forest. Archived from the original on 25 July 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-11. Wilderness.net.
"Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness". The National Wilderness Preservation System. Retrieved 2006-07-11
The Bridger Range known as the Bridger Mountains, is a subrange of the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Montana in the United States. The range runs in a north–south direction between Bozeman and Maudlow, it is separated from the Gallatin Range to the south by Bozeman Pass. The highest point in the Bridger Range is Sacagawea Peak, visible to the northeast from Bozeman. Although the range is in Gallatin County, a small portion extends into Park County. Bozeman Pass, at an elevation of 5,712 feet, is a narrow pass that lies between Bozeman and Livingston; the entire range is within Gallatin National Forest. The range is named after Jim Bridger, a mountain man of the 19th century who pioneered the Bridger Trail through mountains in southern Wyoming into the Bighorn Basin in 1864. On January 10, 1938, Northwest Airlines Flight 2 crashed in the Bridger Mountains, killing all 10 aboard; this was the first fatal crash of a Northwest Airlines aircraft. The most prominent peaks in the Bridgers include: Sacagawea Peak, 45°53′44″N 110°58′08″W, 9,596 feet Hardscrabble Peak, 45°54′52″N 110°58′57″W, 9,527 feet Naya Nuki Peak, 45°53′30″N 110°57′43″W, 9,449 feet Saddle Peak, 45°47′37″N 110°56′12″W, 9,134 feet Ross Peak, 45°51′31″N 110°57′22″W, 9,012 feet Mount Baldy, 45°44′00″N 110°57′33″W, 7,106 feet Bridger Peak, 45°46′46″N 110°56′20″W, 8,583 feet The Bridger Range is home to the ski area Bridger Bowl.
With the first rope tow installed in 1951, Bridger Bowl became a popular mountain with the locals. The area has a base elevation of 6100 feet. On average the ski area receives 350 inches of snow every year. Backcountry skiing is very popular in the Bridgers, with snow being available on peaks such as Sacagawea from early November until late May/early June. Beginning in the 2008–2009 ski season, Bridger Bowl started to allow backcountry travel from the ski area via access gates on the northern and southern boundaries. Though many hiking trails exist, Sacagawea Peak is a favorite hiking area in the Bridgers; the hike is a short but strenuous 2.2-mile one-way trek through pine forest, alpine tundra and scree fields to the top of Sacagawea Peak. The Bridger Ridge Run is a 20-mile race; the race follows the ridgeline from Fairy Lake to the southern end of the range. Images of the Bridger Range List of mountain ranges in Montana Bridger Bowl Ski Area Bridger Ridge Run Information about geological history Bridger Community
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
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The pronghorn is a species of artiodactyl mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America. Though not an antelope, it is known colloquially in North America as the American antelope, prong buck, pronghorn antelope, prairie antelope, or antelope because it resembles the true antelopes of the Old World and fills a similar ecological niche due to parallel evolution, it is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae. During the Pleistocene epoch, about 12 antilocaprid species existed in North America. Three other genera existed when humans are now extinct; as a member of the superfamily Giraffoidea, the pronghorn's closest living relatives are the giraffes and okapi. The Giraffoidea are in turn members of the infraorder Pecora, making pronghorns more distant relatives of the Cervidae and Bovidae, among others; the scientific name of the pronghorn is Antilocapra americana. The pronghorn is the sole extant member of the family Antilocapridae; this species was first described by American ornithologist George Ord in 1815.
The pronghorn were first seen and described by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, but were not formally recorded or scrutinised till the 1804–1806 expedition by Captain Meriwether Lewis and Second Lieutenant William Clark. The expedition, which aimed to unravel water routes in the continent for commercial purposes, led to the discovery or formal recognition of a variety of flora and fauna of North America. Following the discovery of a few subspecies of the sharp-tailed grouse and Clark came across the pronghorn near the mouth of the Niobrara River, in present-day Nebraska. Clark was the first to kill a pronghorn, described his experience as follows: I walked on shore to find an old Vulcanoe... in my walk I killed a Buck Goat of this Countrey, about the height of the Grown Deer, its body Shorter the horns, not hard and forks 2⁄3 up one prong Short the other round & Sharp arched, is above its Eyes the Color is a light gray with black behind its ears down the neck, its face white round its neck, its Sides and its rump round its tail, Short & white.
Lewis and Clark made several other observations on the behavior of the pronghorn and how the local tribes hunted them. They described the animal, which they referred to as the "Antelope" or the "Goat", as follows: Of all the animals we have seen the Antelope seems to possess the most wonderful fleetness. Shy and timorous they repose only on the ridges, which command a view of all the approaches of an enemy... When they first see the hunters they run with great velocity... The Indians near the Rocky Mountains hunt these animals on horseback, shoot them with arrows; the Mandans' mode of hunting them is to form a large, strong pen or fold, from which a fence made of bushes widens on each side. The animals are surrounded by the hunters, driven towards this pen, in which they imperceptibly find themselves enclosed, are at the mercy of the hunters. Pronghorns have distinct white fur on their rumps, breasts and across their throats. Adult males are 1.3–1.5 m long from nose to tail, stand 81–104 cm high at the shoulder, weigh 40–65 kg.
The females weigh 34 -- 48 kg. The feet have two hooves, with no dewclaws, their body temperature is 38 °C. The orbits are prominent and set high with never an anteorbital pit, their teeth are hypsodont, their dental formula is 0.0.3.33.1.3.3. Each "horn" of the pronghorn is composed of a slender, laterally flattened blade of bone that grows from the frontal bones of the skull, forming a permanent core; as in the Giraffidae, skin covers the bony cores, but in the pronghorn, it develops into a keratinous sheath, shed and regrown annually. Unlike the horns of the family Bovidae, the horn sheaths of the pronghorn are branched, each sheath having a forward-pointing tine. Males have a horn sheath about 12.5–43 cm long with a prong. Females have smaller horns that range from 2.5–15.2 cm and sometimes visible. Males are further differentiated from females in having a small patch of black hair at the angle of the mandible. Pronghorns have a musky odor. Males mark territory with a preorbital scent gland, on the sides of the head.
They have large eyes with a 320° field of vision. Unlike deer, pronghorns possess a gallbladder; the pronghorn is the fastest land mammal in the Western Hemisphere, being built for maximum predator evasion through running. The top speed is hard to measure and varies between individuals, it is cited as the second-fastest land animal, second only to the cheetah. It can, sustain high speeds longer than cheetahs. University of Idaho zoologist John Byers has suggested the pronghorn evolved its running ability to escape from extinct predators such as the American cheetah, since its speed exceeds that of extant North American predators. Compared to its body size, the pronghorn has a large windpipe and lungs to allow it to take in large amounts of ai
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel. The stream encompasses surface and groundwater fluxes that respond to geological, geomorphological and biotic controls. Depending on its location or certain characteristics, a stream may be referred to by a variety of local or regional names. Long large streams are called rivers. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, corridors for fish and wildlife migration; the biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity; the study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology and is a core element of environmental geography. Brook A stream smaller than a creek one, fed by a spring or seep, it is small and forded. A brook is characterised by its shallowness.
Creek In North America and New Zealand, a small to medium-sized natural stream. Sometimes navigable by motor craft and may be intermittent. In parts of Maryland, New England, the UK and India, a tidal inlet in a salt marsh or mangrove swamp, or between enclosed and drained former salt marshes or swamps. In these cases, the stream is the tidal stream, the course of the seawater through the creek channel at low and high tide. River A large natural stream, which may be a waterway. Runnel the linear channel between the parallel ridges or bars on a shoreline beach or river floodplain, or between a bar and the shore. Called a swale. Tributary A contributory stream, or a stream which does not reach a static body of water such as a lake or ocean, but joins another river. Sometimes called a branch or fork. There are a number of regional names for a stream. Allt is used in Highland Scotland. Beck is used in Lincolnshire to Cumbria in areas which were once occupied by the Danes and Norwegians. Bourne or winterbourne is used in the chalk downland of southern England.
Brook. Burn is used in North East England. Gill or ghyll is seen in Surrey influenced by Old Norse; the variant "ghyll" is used in the Lake District and appears to have been an invention of William Wordsworth. Nant is used in Wales. Rivulet is a term encountered in Victorian era publications. Stream Syke is used in lowland Cumbria for a seasonal stream. Branch is used to name streams in Virginia. Creek is common throughout the United States, as well as Australia. Falls is used to name streams in Maryland, for streams/rivers which have waterfalls on them if such falls have a small vertical drop. Little Gunpowder Falls and The Jones Falls are rivers named in this manner, unique to Maryland. Kill in New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey comes from a Dutch language word meaning "riverbed" or "water channel", can be used for the UK meaning of'creek'. Run in Ohio, Michigan, New Jersey, Virginia, or West Virginia can be the name of a stream. Run in Florida is the name given to streams coming out of small natural springs.
River is used for larger springs like the Silver Rainbow River. Stream and brook are used in Midwestern states, Mid-Atlantic states, New England. Bar A shoal that develops in a stream as sediment is deposited as the current slows or is impeded by wave action at the confluence. Bifurcation A fork into two or more streams. Channel A depression created by constant erosion. Confluence The point at which the two streams merge. If the two tributaries are of equal size, the confluence may be called a fork. Drainage basin The area of land. A large drainage basin such as the Amazon River contains many smaller drainage basins. Floodplain Lands adjacent to the stream that are subject to flooding when a stream overflows its banks. Gaging station A site along the route of a stream or river, used for reference marking or water monitoring. Headwaters The part of a stream or river proximate to its source; the word is most used in the plural where there is no single point source. Knickpoint The point on a stream's profile where a sudden change in stream gradient occurs.
Mouth The point at which the stream discharges via an estuary or delta, into a static body of water such as a lake or ocean. Pool A segment where the water is deeper and slower moving. Rapids A turbulent, fast-flowing stretch of a stream or river. Riffle A segment where the flow is shallower and more turbulent. River A large natural stream, which may be a waterway. Run A somewhat smoothly flowing segment of the stream. Source The spring, or other point of origin of a stream. Spring The point at which a stream emerges from an underground course through unconsolidated sediments or through caves. A stream can with caves, flow aboveground for part of its course, underground for part of its course. Stream bed The bottom of a stream. Stream corridor Stream, its floodplains, the transitional upland fringe Streamflow The water moving through a stream channel. Thalweg The river's longitudinal section, or the line joining the deepest point in the channel at each stage from source to mouth. Waterfall or cascade The fall of water where the stream goes over a sudden drop called a knickpoint.
The stream expends kinetic energy in "trying" to eliminate the