Galleons were large, multi-decked sailing ships first used by the Spanish as armed cargo carriers and adopted by other European states from the 16th to 18th centuries during the age of sail and were the principal fleet units drafted for use as warships until the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the mid-1600s. Galleons carried three or more masts with a lateen fore-and-aft rig on the rear masts, were carvel built with a prominent squared off raised stern, used square-rigged sail plans on their fore-mast and main-masts; such ships were the mainstay of maritime commerce into the early 19th century, were drafted into use as auxiliary naval war vessels—indeed, were the mainstay of contending fleets through most of the 150 years of the Age of Exploration—before the Anglo-Dutch wars brought purpose-built ship-rigged warships that thereafter dominated war at sea during the remainder of the age of sail. The term galleon, "large ship", comes from Spanish galeón, "armed merchant ship", from Old French galion, "little ship", from Portuguese galeão, "war ship", from Byzantine Greek galea, "galley" + augmentative suffix -on.
Another possible origin is the Old French word galie, meaning "galley. The galea was a warship of the Byzantine navy, its name may be related to the Greek word galeos, "dogfish shark"; the term was given to certain types of war galleys in the Middle Ages. The Annali Genovesi mentions galleons of 80, 64 and 60 oars, used for battle and on missions of exploration, in the 12th and 13th centuries, it is likely that the galleons and galliots mentioned in the accounts of the crusades were the same vessels. In the early 16th century, the Venetian galleoni was a new class of galley used to hunt down pirates in the Mediterranean; when the term started to be applied to sail-only vessels, it meant, like the English term "man of war", any large warship, otherwise no different from the other sailing ships of the time. In the middle of the 16th century, a lowering of the carrack's forecastle and elongation of the hull gave the ocean-going galleons an unprecedented level of stability in the water, reduced wind resistance at the front, leading to a faster, more maneuverable vessel.
The galleon differed from the older types by being longer and narrower, with a square tuck stern instead of a round tuck, by having a snout or head projecting forward from the bows below the level of the forecastle. In Portugal at least, Portuguese carracks were very large ships for their time, while galleons were under 500 tons, although the Manila galleons were to reach up to 2,000 tons. With the introduction of the galleon in Portuguese India Armadas during the first quarter of the 16th century, carracks' armament was reduced as they became exclusively cargo ships, leaving any fighting to be done to the galleons. One of the largest and most famous of Portuguese galleons was the São João Baptista, a 1,000-ton galleon built in 1534, said to have carried 366 guns. Carracks tended to be armed and used for transporting cargo in all the fleets of other Western European states, while galleons were purpose-built warships, were stronger, more armed, cheaper to build and were therefore a much better investment for use as warships or transports.
There are disputes about its origins and development but each Atlantic sea power built types suited to its needs, while learning from their rivals. It was the captains of the Spanish navy, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and Álvaro de Bazán, who designed the definitive long and narrow hulled galleon for Spain in the 1550s; the galleon was powered by wind, using sails carried on three or four masts, with a lateen sail continuing to be used on the last masts. They were used in both military and trade applications, most famously in the Spanish treasure fleet, the Manila galleons. While carracks played the leading role in early global explorations, galleons played a part in the 16th and 17th centuries. In fact, galleons were so versatile that a single vessel may have been refitted for wartime and peacetime roles several times during its lifespan; the galleon was the prototype of all square-rigged ships with three or more masts for over two and a half centuries, including the full-rigged ship. The principal warships of the opposing English and Spanish fleets in the 1588 confrontation of the Spanish Armada were galleons, with the modified English "race-built" galleons developed by John Hawkins proving decisive, while the capacious Spanish galleons, designed as transports, showed great endurance in the battles and in the great storms on the voyage home.
Galleons were constructed from oak and various hardwoods for hull and decking. Hulls were carvel-built; the expenses involved in galleon construction were enormous. Hundreds of expert tradesmen worked night for months before a galleon was seaworthy. To cover the expense, galleons were funded by groups of wealthy businessmen who pooled resources for a new ship. Therefore, most galleons were consigned for trade, although those captured by rival states were put into military service; the most common gun used aboard a galleon was the demi-culverin, although gun sizes up to demi-cannon were possible. Because of the long periods spent at sea and poor conditions on board, many of the crew perished during the voyage.
The Higher School of Economics the National Research University Higher School of Economics is a state university in Russia. One of Russia's youngest and leading universities, as of 2019 it was ranked 3rd in Russia in the Times Higher Education World University Ranking, 8th in the QS World University Ranking and 10th in the ARWU, it was the only Russian university established after 1991 to make it into either of these rankings. Established in 1992 to support Russia's transition to market economy and specialising in economics and social science, the university has since expanded its curricula to include other disciplines such as mathematics, computer science, biology, media communications and design, among others. HSE's main campus is located in Moscow, with 3 additional subsidiary campuses being located in St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Perm, it has been one of Russia's National Research Universities - a grouping similar to China's C9 League and America's Ivy League – since the establishment of the alliance in 2009, is a member of the Project 5-100 since its creation in 2012.
HSE was founded on November 27, 1992, by Yevgeny Yasin, Yaroslav Kuzminov, Revold Entov, Oleg Ananyin and Rustem Nureev. The founders were well known Russian economists who played important roles in implementing the market reforms; the university's President Alexander Shokhin was Russia's Vice-Prime Minister for economy and finance in 1998, while the Academic Advisor Yevgeny Yasin was one of the major economic advisors to the Russian government in the late 1980s and 1990s and held the post of Russia's Minister of Economic Development between 1994 and 1997. HSE was established to support the new Russian reformist government. From the start, HSE was able to benefit from resources under the European Communities TACIS programme. HSE aimed to renew the training of the Russian business community in economics. In the Soviet Union the teaching of political economy was dominated by Marxist ideology and could not meet international standards. From the mid-1980s Kouzminov, Entov and Ananyin introduced new courses in mathematics and statistics in the leading Russian universities.
Some of the students who attended these courses started teaching at the HSE. Nonetheless, Soviet education in economics was believed not to reflect market standards and a new type of education in social sciences was needed to make new Russian scientists and businessmen understand the market economy. In 1991 with the support of the Russian Government a new university was established. In October 2009, State University HSE was granted the status as National Research University; the university has established and maintained connections with international research and educational institutions including the London School of Economics, the University of Bologna, the Erasmus University Rotterdam, DAAD and many others. On November 30, 2016, Maxim Oreshkin, a graduate of the Economics Department of the Higher School of Economics, was appointed the Minister for Economic Development. One of the main features of the university is that it uses an interdisciplinary approach to education. Another trend in the development of education in HSE is that students have fewer compulsory subjects than before, but they have a wide choice of additional subjects.
The university conducts research for educational reform. HSE was the first Russian university to introduce the 4 + 2 system and supported Russian participation in the Bologna process, it took part in introducing the Unified State Exam aimed to reform admissions to the Russian universities. HSE was one of the first Russian universities to use these exams as part of the admission process. HSE was one of the first educational establishments in Russia to introduce a system of academic credits; each successful year of study at the university represents minimum 60 credits, in line with the international Education Credit Transfer System. The university employs a system of modules. Several components are used to assess students' progress. HSE publishes annual rankings of professors. Faculty of Economics School of Theoretical Economics School of Applied Economics School of Finance School of Mathematics School of Statistics and Data Analysis Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs School of World Economy School of International Affairs School of Asian Studies Faculty of Business and Management School of Business Administration School of Logistics School of Business Informatics Higher School of Business Informatics Institute of Innovation Management International Centre of Training in Logistics Institute of Information Technologies Higher School of Project Management Institute of Communication Management Higher School of Marketing and Business Development International Institute of Administration and Business Faculty of Computer Science School of Software Engineering School of Data Analysis and Artificial Intelligence Big Data and Information Retrieval School Faculty of Mathematics Faculty of Physics Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics Faculty of Law Faculty of Communications and Design School of Media Communications School of Integrated Communications School of Design Faculty of Humanities School of History School of Cultural Studies School of Linguistics School of Philology School of Philosophy School of Foreign Languages Institute for Oriental and Classical Studies Faculty of Social Sci
Chesham Amalgamations is the trading name of Chesham Amalgamations & Investments Limited, a pioneering mergers and acquisitions broking company based in the UK. It was formed in 1962 by Dr Francis Singer and Nicholas Stacey, both Austro-Hungarian, at 36 Chesham Place, with the intention of assisting in "peaceful" mergers and, in this respect, played a small but significant role in the reorganization of UK industry during the Sixties and Seventies; the company was unusual in dealing only with uncontested mergers, so avoided the protracted battles that were harmful to the companies involved. Stacey introduced Sir Miles Thomas Lord Thomas of Remenham, Chairman of the British Overseas Airways Corporation, now British Airways, President and Chairman of the National Savings Committee. Thomas became Chairman of Chesham; the company benefitted from the formation of the Industrial Reorganisation Corporation by the 1966 British Labour government, which had the intention of promoting and helping finance regroupings in industry, which thus encouraged a trend toward bigger business.
In 1966–1967 it concluded US$50 million worth of corporate mergers. By 1969, the company had recruited Sir Neil Shields as its third director. Chesham Amalgamations website The history of Chesham Amalgamations