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Galley

A galley is a type of ship, propelled by rowing. The galley is characterized by its long, slender hull, shallow draft, low freeboard. All types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, but human effort was always the primary method of propulsion; this allowed galleys to navigate independently of currents. The galley originated among the seafaring civilizations around the Mediterranean Sea in the late second millennium BC and remained in use in various forms until the early 19th century in warfare and piracy. Galleys were the warships used by the early Mediterranean naval powers, including the Greeks, Illyrians and Romans, they remained the dominant types of vessels used for war and piracy in the Mediterranean Sea until the last decades of the 16th century. As warships, galleys carried various types of weapons throughout their long existence, including rams and cannons, but relied on their large crews to overpower enemy vessels in boarding actions, they were the first ships to use heavy cannons as anti-ship weapons.

As efficient gun platforms, they forced changes in the design of medieval seaside fortresses as well as refinement of sailing warships. The zenith of galley usage in warfare came in the late 16th century with battles like that at Lepanto in 1571, one of the largest naval battles fought. By the 17th century, sailing ships and hybrid ships like the xebec displaced galleys in naval warfare, they were the most common warships in the Atlantic Ocean during the Middle Ages, saw limited use in the Caribbean, the Philippines, the Indian Ocean in the early modern period as patrol craft to combat pirates. From the mid-16th century galleys were in intermittent use in the Baltic Sea, with its short distances and extensive archipelagoes. There was a minor revival of galley warfare in the 18th century in the wars among Russia and Denmark; the term "galley" derives from the Medieval Greek galea, a smaller version of the dromon, the prime warship of the Byzantine navy. The origin of the Greek word is unclear but could be related to galeos, dogfish shark.

The word "galley" has been attested in English from c. 1300 and has been used in most European languages from around 1500 both as a general term for oared warships, from the Middle Ages and onward more for the Mediterranean-style vessel. It was only from the 16th century. Before that in antiquity, there was a wide variety of terms used for different types of galleys. In modern historical literature, "galley" is used as a general term for various types of oared vessels larger than boats, though the "true" galley is defined as the ships belonging to the Mediterranean tradition. Ancient galleys were named according to the number of oars, the number of banks of oars or lines of rowers; the terms are based on contemporary language use combined with more recent compounds of Greek and Latin words. The earliest Greek single-banked galleys are called penteconters. For galleys with more than one row of oars, the terminology is based on Latin numerals with the suffix -reme from rēmus, "oar". A monoreme has one bank of oars, a bireme two, a trireme three.

Since the maximum banks of oars was three, any expansion above that did not refer to additional banks of oars, but of additional rowers for every oar. Quinquereme was a "five-oar", but meant that there were several rowers to certain banks of oars which made up five lines of oar handlers. For simplicity, they have by many modern scholars been referred to as "fives", "sixes", "eights", "elevens", etc. Anything above six or seven rows of rowers was not common, though a exceptional "forty" is attested in contemporary source. Any galley with more than three or four lines of rowers is referred to as a "polyreme". Archaeologist Lionel Casson has used the term "galley" to describe all North European shipping in the Early and High Middle Ages, including Viking merchants and their famous longships, though this is rare. Oared military vessels built on the British Isles in the 11th to 13th centuries were based on Scandinavian designs, but were referred to as "galleys". Many of them were similar to close relatives of longship types like the snekkja.

By the 14th century, they were replaced with balingers in southern Britain while longship-type "Irish galleys" remained in use throughout the Middle Ages in northern Britain. Medieval and early modern galleys used a different terminology than their ancient predecessors. Names were based on the changing designs that evolved after the ancient rowing schemes were forgotten. Among the most important is the Byzantine dromon, the predecessor to the Italian galea sottila; this was the first step toward the final form of the Mediterranean war galley. As galleys became an integral part of an advanced, early modern system of warfare and state administration, they were divided into a number of ranked grades based on the size of the vessel and the number of its crew; the most basic types were the following: large commander "lantern galleys", half-galleys, fustas and fregatas. Naval historian Jan Glete has described as a sort of predecessor of the rating system of the Royal Navy and other sailing fleets in Northern Europe.

The French navy and the British Royal Navy built a series of "galley frigates" from c. 1670–1690 that were small two-decked sailing cruisers with a set of oarports on the lower deck. The three British galley frigates had distinctive names – James Galley, Charles Galley, Mary G

Pappachen Pradeep

Naduparambil Pappachen Pradeep is an Indian footballer. A defender by trade, Pradeep hails from Thodupuzha in Kerala, he was the captain of India's U23 team. Pradeep used to play as a striker during his youth career and represented his state, Kerala, at Under-17 and Under-21 levels. At the age of 17 he soon was transformed into a midfielder, he represented India at various age group levels, including the Under-20 team that reached the quarterfinals of the 2002 AFC Under-20 Championships. Pradeep continued helping them to win four Kerala League titles, his first call up to the senior team was during the 2005 SAFF Cup in Bangladesh, which India went on to win. In 2006, Pradeep made his first big move at club level as he joined National League champions Mahindra United. There Pradeep developed a quality of being versatile as he at times played as a fullback; the man from Kerala captained the India Under-20 side that reached the last eight of the 2006 AFC Challenge Cup. He won the IFA Shield and reached the quarter-finals of the AFC Cup with Mahindra and caught the eye of newly appointed India coach Bob Houghton.

He was used as a left back by the English tactician but by the start of the 2007 Nehru Cup, Pradeep was in the India squad as a goal scoring midfielder. India's first goal in that competition was scored by the man from Kerala but his best moment came in the final, he worked as player scout for ISL side Kerala Blasters. For the 2010 -- 11 I-League season Pradeep scored two goals in four games, he scored his third goal against Dempo for Viva on 8 April 2011. During the off season after the I-League 2010-11 season Pradeep signed for I-League club Mohun Bagan A. C; the India international did not have a 2011–12 I-League season to remember as he was on the fringes of the first team at Mohun Bagan. NP Pradeep signed for Dodsal F. C. in 2012, along with the likes of Surkumar Singh & Mohammed Rafi. It is said that head coach Bimal Ghosh and his liking for the city of Mumbai were the two main reasons for him choosing to sign up with the 2nd-tier I-League side. On 6 April 2013, he scored a 2nd-minute goal at Bangalore against Rangdajied United F.

C. though the Tigers lost the match 1–3. On 24 November 2013 it was announced that Pradeep has signed for Mumbai on loan from IMG RELIANCE with three other players Khelemba Singh, Mohammed Rafi and Peter Costa, he made his debut on 2 December 2013 against East Bengal F. C. at the Balewadi Sports Complex in which he scored a goal in 65th minute and played till the 76th minutes before being replaced by Sandjar Ahmadi as Mumbai won the match 3–2. Pradeep is a regular on the Indian National Team, he plays as an attacking midfielder and has scored scorching long rangers. He scored a goal against Yemen. Pradeep has represented India in the Vancouver Whitecaps Invitational in 2006 scoring a goal there as well, he played well in India's exposure trip to Portugal in 2007 where they played Portuguese club sides. His most memorable performance was in the Nehru Cup 2007 where he scored 2 stunning goals, including the goal in the finals versus Syria which won India the cup. Incidentally he opened and closed the scoring in the Nehru Cup 2007.

Pradeep is remarked by critics as a player whose talents and skills can surpass former Indian captain I. M. Vijayan. Since Pradeep has been a regular in the first eleven of the senior national team, helping them to win two more trophies. In the Asian Cup 2011 Pradeep played a vital defensive role for India. Despite his efforts India crashed out of the Asian Cup after three defeats in the group stage. Scores and results list India's goal tally first. After retiring from football, Pradeep now works as a scout for Reliance Foundation Young Champs. Interview in Mohun Bagan Official Website Pradeep's scorcher in the Nehru Cup 2007 final India winning Nehru Cup N. Pappachen Pradeep – FIFA competition record

Collinsville coal mine

The Collinsville Coal Mine is a coal mine located near Collinsville in Central Queensland, Australia. The open-cut mine lies in the northern Bowen Basin. Collinsville produces steaming coal for both domestic use and export. Exports leave the country via Abbot Point; the mine has coal reserves amounting to 196 million tonnes of coking coal, one of the largest coal reserves in Asia and the world. Collinsville has an annual production capacity of 6 million tonnes of coal. Mining began at the site in 1919; because it is close to the Port of Townsville where American coal-fired warships were based during World War II men were requisition to the mine. On 1 May 1952, 150 miners took part in Queensland's first stay down strike; the men stayed in the underground mine to protest the lack of payment for a days work. The miners were unable to enter the mine on 15 April due to a lack of winchman. In 1954, seven miners lives were lost at the mine in the Collinsville coal mine disaster. A mining heritage centre was opened 50 years to commemorate the disaster.

Mount Isa Mines gained a controlling interest in 1972. In 2003, MIM was purchased by Xstrata. Management of the mine was continued by Thiess until early 2013. In July 2013, more than 300 workers were dismissed in an effort to return the mine to profitability. Coal in Australia List of mines in Australia