The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
The saltarello is a musical dance form from Italy. The first mention of it is in Add MS 29987, a late-fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century manuscript of Tuscan origin, now in the British Library, it was played in a fast triple meter and is named for its peculiar leaping step, after the Italian verb saltare. This characteristic is the basis of the German name Hoppertanz or Hupfertanz; the saltarello enjoyed great popularity in the courts of medieval Europe. During the 15th century, the word saltarello became the name of a particular dance step, the name of a meter of music, both of which appear in many choreographed dances. Entire dances consisting of only the saltarello step and meter are described as being improvised dances in 15th-century Italian dance manuals. A clearer, detailed description of this step and meter appears in a 16th-century manuscript in the Academia de la Historia in Madrid. During this era, the saltarello was danced by bands of courtesans dressed as men at masquerades; the saltarello gave birth to the quadernaria in Germany, fused into the saltarello tedesco in Italy.
This "German saltarello", in contrast to the Italian variety, was in duple time and began on the downbeat, was known by the name quaternaria. In 1540, Hans Newsidler published an Italian dance under the name Hupff auff, identified it with a parenthetical subtitle: "saltarella". Although a Neapolitan court dance in origin, the saltarello became the typical Italian folk dance of Ciociaria and a favorite tradition of Rome in the Carnival and vintage festivities of Monte Testaccio. After witnessing the Roman Carnival of 1831, the German composer Felix Mendelssohn incorporated the dance into the finale of one of his masterpieces, the Italian Symphony; the only example of a saltarello in the North is saltarello romagnolo of Romagna. The saltarello is still a popular folk dance played in the regions of southern-central Italy, such as Abruzzo, Molise and Marche; the dance is performed on the zampogna bagpipe or on the organetto, a type of diatonic button accordion, is accompanied by a tamburello. The principal source for the medieval Italian saltarello is the Tuscan manuscript Add MS 29987, dating from the late 14th or early 15th century and now in the British Library.
The musical form of these four early saltarelli is the same as the estampie. However, they are in different metres: two are transcribed in 68, one in 34, one in 44; because no choreographies survive from before the 1430s, it is doubtful whether these four dances have any relationship to saltarellos. Tielman Susato included a saltarello in Het derde musikboexken: Danserye. A guitar piece entitled "Saltarello" is attributed to Vincenzo Galilei, written in the 16th century. Odoardo Barri: Six morceaux de salon, for alto-viola and piano Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy used the Saltarello for the fourth movement of his Symphony No. 4 "Italian". Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel: Il saltarello romano, for piano, Op. 6, No. 4 Charles-Valentin Alkan wrote a "Saltarelle" Op. 23, in the final movement of his Sonate de Concert Op. 47 for piano and cello, "Finale alla Saltarella". Berlioz used a saltarello in the Carnival scene of Benvenuto Cellini, reprised in the Roman Carnival Overture. Joachim Raff: Saltarello, for piano, Op. 108 Charles Gounod: Saltarello for orchestra Camille Saint-Saëns: Saltarelle, for men's choir, Op. 74 Camille Saint-Saëns: the last movement of the Piano Concerto No.
2, Op. 22 is a Saltarelle Eugène Ketterer: Saltarelle, for piano, Op. 266 Daniel van Goens: Saltarello for cello and piano, Op. 35 Ernst Haberbier: Saltarello for piano. Op. 54 Max Mayer: Fünf Klavierstücke, Op. 6 F. Laurent-Rollandez: Saltarello for piano, Op. 18 Franz Ries: Nocturne et Saltarello, for violin and piano S. B. Mills: Saltarello, for piano, Op. 26 Bernhard Molique: Saltarella, for violin and piano, Op. 55 H. T. Manicus: Saltarello, for piano George Grothe: Saltarello Galop, for piano Emil Kronke: Saltarello, for piano, Op. 32 George Frederick Bristow: Saltarello, for piano August Marten: 4 Charakterstücke for violin and piano, Op. 8 Georg Goltermann: Saltarello, for cello and piano, Op. 59, No. 2 Gustav Satter: Saltarello, for piano, Op. 147 Gabriel Verdalle: Salatarello for solo harp, Op. 23 One of Frank Bridge's Miniatures for Piano Trio is a saltarello Jean Antiga: Saltarello: danse italienne, for piano George Enescu: Nocturne et Saltarello, for cello and piano Theodor Kullak: Saltarello di Roma, for piano, Op. 49 Carl Gottschalksen: Saltarello: Sorento ved Napoli: Italiensk Suite 3, for piano Edward German: Saltarello, for flute or piccolo and piano Anton Strelezki: Saltarello, danza napolitana, for piano, Op. 18 Henri Piccolini: Saltarello one-step, for orchestra Sydney Smith: Saltarello, for piano four-hands Jules Demersseman: Solo de Concert, Op. 82 No. 6 for flute and piano.
The closing movement is entitled "Saltarello" Leonardo De Lorenzo: Saltarello, for flute, op. 27 Paul Mason: Saltarello, for piano Émile-Robert Blanchet: Saltarello, for piano Anton Schmoll: Saltarello, for piano, Op. 50, No. 19 Jeraldine Saunders Herbison: Saltarello, for cello and piano, Op. 30, no. 2 Maurice Jean Baptiste Ghislain Guillaume: Capriccietto and Saltarello, for clarinet and piano, Op. 23 Guido Papini: Saltarello, for violin and piano, Op. 55, No. 2 Charles Robert Yuille-Smith: Saltarello
Cesare Negri was an Italian dancer and choreographer. He was nicknamed il Trombone, an ugly or jocular name for someone "who likes to blow his own horn". Born in Milan, he founded a dance academy there in 1554, he was an active court choreographer for the nobility in Milan. He wrote Le Grazie d'Amore, the first text on ballet theory to expound the principle of the five basic positions, it was republished in 1604 as Nuove Inventioni di Balli. Like other masters of the time as mentioned above, Césare Negri wanted to reap the fruits of his work in a theoretical and practical treatise, so he wrote the treatise "Thanks of Love" in 1602 Whose second edition appeared under the title of "New Inventions of Dance", in 1604, where they describe the five fundamental positions of the academic dance, it is a work that contains three parts, of which the second rule 55 technical rules, while in the third figure with choreographic descriptions. He is found in his new work, such as the tram, the leap of fiocó, a kind of launch made in the street: it was to touch a knot of ribbons suspended ceiling with the tip of the foot During the jump Negri is The first that defends the feet in the fuore, origin of the call "in dehors".
It describes steps of a technical difficulty superior and executed with greater speed like the pirouette on a foot or the turns in the air, that the present dancers continue practicing. Other steps we find in pranks. There are some notions of pedagogy in the sense in which they explain that the defined steps can serve as preparation for others, the use of a support to exercise in performing. All this technique described will be affected with the heavy costumes and ornaments, which make impossible its execution; this book writes it dedicating it to King of Spain at this time. Two Spanish dances appear: Canario, and contains the first descriptions of dances created for a show organized with the wedding motif of the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia with the Archduke Albert of Austria. Names of important dancers that we find in this book son Antonio de Idiaquez, Diego de Ghivarra, Ottavia Cauenaga and Mendozza or Donna Maria Ordugna. Negri, as mentioned above, arranged, on November 30, 1598, the entry into Milan of Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain.
As on June 26, 1574, in that same city, a masquerade of 25 entrances of floats symbolizing the states of the soul. These dances are performed by a variable number of performers; some of them are built in an alternation of musical rhythms: Pavan, vigorous and canary, where a slow and solemn step is alternated with great inventiveness and originality at faster and more animated steps, where most of the dancers A good show The common characteristics of these treatments are explanations and rules for the performance of dances and social behavior that should be observed by the whole knight or lady, including rules descriptions of the steps with their possible variants, detailed explanation of the dances preceded Of an illustration and dedication, including the musical score. Cesare Negri composed Bianco Fiore for lute, a famous piece for the interpretation and transcription of the guitarist Andres Segovia. Bianco Fiore by Cesare Negri, played by Daniele Magli Italian folk dance Cesare. Nuove Inventioni di Balli.
Milan: G. Bordone, 1604. Facsimile of original available from Library of Congress: Dance Instruction Manuals Kendall, G. Yvonne. "Le Gratie d'Amore 1602 by Cesare Negri: Translation and Commentary." Stanford University PhD Thesis, 1985. 2 vols. McGinnis, Katherine Tucker. "Your Most Humble Subject, Cesare Negri Milanese." In Dance and the Body Politick, 1250-1750, edited by Jennifer Nevile, 211-228. Indiana University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-253-21985-5 Nvove Inventioni di Balli From the Collections at the Library of Congress The Nuove Inventioni di Balli in digital lute tablature
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, executed two-and-a-half years after Elizabeth's birth. Anne's marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, Elizabeth was declared illegitimate, her half-brother, Edward VI, ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters and the Roman Catholic Mary, in spite of statute law to the contrary. Edward's will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. In 1558 upon Mary's death, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel, she depended on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley.
One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England, it was expected that Elizabeth would produce an heir. She was succeeded by her first cousin twice removed, James VI of Scotland, she had earlier been responsible for the imprisonment and execution of James's mother, Queen of Scots. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate. One of her mottoes was "video et taceo". In religion, she was tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. After the pope declared her illegitimate in 1570 and released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life, all of which were defeated with the help of her ministers' secret service. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers of Spain, she only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands and Ireland.
By the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. England's defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history; as she grew older, Elizabeth became celebrated for her virginity. A cult grew around her, celebrated in the portraits and literature of the day. Elizabeth's reign became known as the Elizabethan era; the period is famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor in an era when government was ramshackle and limited, when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones.
After the short reigns of her half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity. Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace and was named after her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard, she was the second child of Henry VIII of England born in wedlock to survive infancy. Her mother was Anne Boleyn. At birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England, her older half-sister, had lost her position as a legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, to marry Anne, with the intent to sire a male heir and ensure the Tudor succession. She was baptised on 10 September 1533. A canopy was carried at the ceremony over the three-day old child by her uncle Viscount Rochford, Lord Hussey, Lord Thomas Howard, Lord Howard of Effingham. Elizabeth was two years and eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May 1536, four months after Catherine of Aragon's death from natural causes.
Elizabeth was deprived of her place in the royal succession. Eleven days after Anne Boleyn's execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of their son, Edward, in 1537. From his birth, Edward was undisputed heir apparent to the throne. Elizabeth was placed in his household and carried the chrisom, or baptismal cloth, at his christening. Elizabeth's first governess, Margaret Bryan, wrote that she was "as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as I knew any in my life". Catherine Champernowne, better known by her married name of Catherine "Kat" Ashley, was appointed as Elizabeth's governess in 1537, she remained Elizabeth's friend until her death in 1565. Champernowne taught Elizabeth four languages: French, Flemish and Spanish. By the time William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English and Italian. Under Grindal, a talented and skilful tutor, she progressed in French and Greek. After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham, a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be engaging.
By the time her formal education ended in 1550, Elizabeth was one of the best educated women of her generation. At the end of her life, Elizabeth was believed to speak Welsh, Cornish and Irish in addition to the languages men
Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey
Atlantic Highlands is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey, in the Bayshore Region. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 4,385, a decline of 320 from the 4,705 in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 76 from the 4,629 in the 1990 Census. Atlantic Highlands contains Mount Mitchill, the highest point on the eastern seaboard south of Maine, rising 266 feet above sea level; the borough's name comes from its location overlooking the Atlantic Ocean. Atlantic Highlands was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 28, 1887, from portions of Middletown Township, based on the results of a referendum held that day; the borough was reincorporated on September 1, 1891. Atlantic Highlands is part of the Bayshore Regional Strategic Plan, an effort by nine municipalities in northern Monmouth County to reinvigorate the area's economy by emphasizing the traditional downtowns, dense residential neighborhoods, maritime history, the natural beauty of the Raritan Bayshore coastline.
The town overlooks where the Atlantic Ocean and Raritan Bay meet at Sandy Hook, its hills mark the highest point on the eastern seaboard of the U. S. south of Maine. For hundreds of years, the original inhabitants were the Lenape, who lived in and along the cliffs and creeks of Atlantic Highlands; the Lenape traded with the Europeans and sold a group of English settlers an area that covered the entire peninsula, named Portland Poynt. The area was laid out with 10 lots in 1667, making them the first European residents of present-day Atlantic Highlands. Colonists convened the first Assembly of New Jersey in 1667 in. During Revolutionary War years, loyalists to the British crown and patriots of the new America clashed in repeated raids and counterattacks across these lands. Retreating English troops passed through after their defeat in 1778 by George Washington at the Battle of Monmouth. During the late 1800s, the many farms were subdivided by resort developers, church groups and builders who created the Victorian core of the borough, attracting thousands of visitors and year-round residents.
In 1879, a surveyor was engaged to lay lots for a permanent community. The Atlantic Highlands Association was formed by prominent members of the Methodist Church; this organization developed the community of Atlantic Highlands. Individuals and groups came from New York City and the surrounding vicinity to camp along the water in tent colonies. An outdoor amphitheater was created with outstanding acoustics. An indoor auditorium was built, utilized for entertaining visitors at the camp meetings. In 1887, Atlantic Highlands was incorporated as a borough, containing 1.2 square miles of land bordering on the Raritan Bay. Major construction occurred from the 1880s through 1900, it included hotels, rooming houses, private homes. A pier was built extending well into the bay to accommodate steamboats from New York City; the next twenty years saw rapid development within the community. A water and sewer system was constructed, cottages were erected, the road system was completed. During this period of development a fire department was organized.
A number of churches saw their beginning in the 1880s: the Central Baptist, First Presbyterian, Saint Agnes Roman Catholic, First Methodist, Saint Paul Baptist Church. Atlantic Highlands became a haven for bootleggers during Prohibition. Steamer service was the most important transport during the formation of the borough, continued through the 1940s. In the 1890s, rail service came to Atlantic Highlands; this opened up points south to vacationers. The 1920s saw 26 passenger trains daily passing through the Borough; the Central Railroad of New Jersey built a major pier at the end of First Avenue. Several trains at a time could continue to the end of the pier to offload steamboat passengers. From the 1910s through the 1940s, the steamers Sandy Hook and the Monmouth navigated the waters bringing businessmen and vacationers to Atlantic Highlands; the Manhattan skyline can be seen from its shoreline. Pleasure and commuter boats sail from its harbor; the municipal harbor was built from 1938 through 1940 with municipal and federal funds.
It is the largest on the East Coast, home to 715 craft, including high-speed ferry service to New York City, introduced in 1986. In 1966, the Central Railroad of New Jersey pier was destroyed by fire, its rail route is now used by the Henry Hudson Trail. The bungalows on the East Side of the borough, which in the 1920s were summer bungalows, are now occupied year-round. Portland Pointe, a five-story senior citizens building, provides housing for the elderly. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 4.562 square miles, including 1.289 square miles of land and 3.273 square miles of water. The township borders the Monmouth County communities of Middletown Township. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the borough include Brevent Park, Hilton, Hilton Park and Stone Church; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,385 people, 1,870 households, 1,185.580 families residing in the borough. The population density was 3,401.2 per square mile.
There were 2,002 housing units at an average density of 1,552.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 93.18% White, 1.44% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 2.17% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 1.25% from other races, 1.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.13% (2
God Save the Queen
"God Save the Queen" is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, the British Crown dependencies. The author of the tune is unknown, it may originate in plainchant. "God Save the Queen" is the national anthem of the United Kingdom and one of two national anthems used by New Zealand since 1977, as well as for several of the UK's territories that have their own additional local anthem. It is the royal anthem – played in the presence of the monarch – of all the aforementioned countries, as well as Australia, Canada and Tuvalu. In countries not part of the British Empire, the tune of "God Save the Queen" has provided the basis for various patriotic songs, though still connected with royal ceremony; the melody continues to be used for the national anthem of Liechtenstein, "Oben am jungen Rhein", the royal anthem of Norway, "Kongesangen". In the United States, the melody is used for the patriotic song "My Country,'Tis of Thee". Beyond its first verse, consistent, "God Save the Queen/King" has many historic and extant versions.
Since its first publication, different verses have been added and taken away and today, different publications include various selections of verses in various orders. In general, only one verse is sung. Sometimes two verses are sung, on rare occasions, three; the sovereign and her or his spouse are saluted with the entire composition, while other members of the Royal Family who are entitled to royal salute receive just the first six bars. The first six bars form all or part of the Vice Regal Salute in some Commonwealth realms outside the UK, as well as the salute given to governors of British overseas territories. In The Oxford Companion to Music, Percy Scholes points out the similarities to an early plainsong melody, although the rhythm is distinctly that of a galliard, he gives examples of several such dance tunes that bear a striking resemblance to "God Save the King/Queen". Scholes quotes a keyboard piece by John Bull which has some similarities to the modern tune, depending on the placing of accidentals which at that time were unwritten in certain cases and left to the discretion of the player.
He points to several pieces by Henry Purcell, one of which includes the opening notes of the modern tune, setting the words "God Save the King". Nineteenth-century scholars and commentators mention the widespread belief that an old Scots carol, "Remember O Thou Man" was the source of the tune; the first published version of what is the present tune appeared in 1744 in Thesaurus Musicus. The 1744 version of the song was popularised in Scotland and England the following year, with the landing of Charles Edward Stuart and was published in The Gentleman's Magazine; this manuscript has the tune depart from that, used today at several points, one as early as the first bar, but is otherwise a strong relative of the contemporary anthem. It was recorded as being sung in London theatres in 1745, for example, Thomas Arne writing a setting of the tune for the Drury Lane Theatre. Scholes' analysis includes mention of "untenable" and "doubtful" claims, as well as "an American misattribution"; some of these are: The French Marquise de Créquy wrote in her Souvenirs that a song named "Grand Dieu, sauvez le Roi!", with words by Marie de Brinon and music by Jean-Baptiste Lully, was performed in gratitude for the survival by Louis XIV of an anal fistula operation.
Créquy claimed that the tune was plagiarised by Handel, so adopted by the British as "un de leurs air nationaux". After the Battle of Culloden, the Hanover dynasty adopted this melody as the British anthem. A different song, "Domine, Salvum Fac Regem", was the unofficial French anthem until 1792. James Oswald was a possible author of the Thesaurus Musicus, so may have played a part in the history of the song, but is not a strong enough candidate to be cited as the composer of the tune. Henry Carey: Scholes refutes this attribution: first on the grounds that Carey himself never made such a claim, it has been claimed that the work was first publicly performed by Carey during a dinner in 1740 in honour of Admiral Edward "Grog" Vernon, who had captured the Spanish harbour of Porto Bello during the War of Jenkins' Ear. Scholes recommends the attribution "traditional" or "traditional; the English Hymnal gives no attribution, stating "17th or 18th cent." Like many aspects of British constitutional life, "God Save the Queen" derives its official status from custom and use, not from Royal Proclamation or Act of Parliament.
The variation in the UK of the lyrics to "God Save the Queen" is the oldest amongst those used, forms