The intertidal zone, known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide. This area can include different types of habitats, with many types of animals, such as starfish, sea urchins. The well-known area includes rocky cliffs, sandy beaches. The area can be a strip, as in Pacific islands that have only a narrow tidal range. Organisms in the zone are adapted to an environment of harsh extremes. The intertidal zone is home to many several species from different taxa including Porifera, Coelenterates, crustaceans, Arthropods. Water is available regularly with the tides but varies from fresh with rain to highly saline, wave splash can dislodge residents from the littoral zone. With the intertidal zones high exposure to the sun, the range can be anything from very hot with full sun to near freezing in colder climates. Some microclimates in the zone are ameliorated by local features. Adaptation in the littoral zone allows the use of nutrients supplied in high volume on a basis from the sea.
Edges of habitats, in this land and sea, are themselves often significant ecologies. Along most shores, the zone can be clearly separated into the following subzones, high tide zone, middle tide zone. The intertidal zone is one of a number of biomes or habitats, including estuaries, surface. Marine biologists divide the region into three zones, based on the overall average exposure of the zone. The low intertidal zone, which borders on the shallow subtidal zone, is exposed to air at the lowest of low tides and is primarily marine in character. The mid intertidal zone is exposed and submerged by average tides. The high intertidal zone is covered by the highest of the high tides. The high intertidal zone borders on the splash zone, on shores exposed to heavy wave action, the intertidal zone will be influenced by waves, as the spray from breaking waves will extend the intertidal zone
HMS Arethusa (1759)
Aréthuse was a French frigate, launched in 1757 during the Seven Years War. She was subsequently captured by the Royal Navy and became the fifth-rate HMS Arethusa, the ship was constructed at Le Havre for privateer warfare as Pélerine. Soon after her launch, she was purchased by the King, in June, under captain Vauquelin, she sailed through the British blockade of Louisbourg. She helped defend the site before departing, again forcing the blockade and she attempted to escape but after two hours, she lost her top-masts and was overtaken by her pursuers. Thames and Venus engaged her with fire, causing 60 casualties before she surrendered. She entered service with the Royal Navy, for the rest of the war, she was in service in British home waters and was responsible for the capture of several French, privateer cutters. The mast was struck from the ship and re-erected at the entrance so as many people as possible could watch the execution. On 17 June 1778, she fought a duel against the French, 26-gun frigate.
Admiral Keppel, commanding the British fleet ordered that the French ships be pursued, the captain of Belle Poule refused the order to sail back to the British fleet. The British fired a shot across his ships bow, to which he responded with a full broadside. This began a furious, two-hour battle between the two ships that resulted in the deaths of the French second captain and 30 of the crew, Arethusa was crippled by the loss of a mast and withdrew, allowing Belle Poule to escape. This battle was the first between British and French naval forces during the American Revolutionary War and took place three weeks before the formal declaration of war by France. The battle was celebrated in France as a victory, even inspiring a hair-style in court circles that included a model of Belle Poule. It was viewed as a victory in Britain and became the subject of a traditional Sea shanty, Arethusa is the subject of a song on the Decemberists album Her Majesty the Decemberists. On 18 March 1779, under captain Charles Holmes Everitt, Arethusa engaged the French Aigrette, Arethusa was wrecked the next day off Ushant, at a point 48°27′4″N 5°4′4″W.
List of ships captured in the 18th century Glossary of nautical terms Syrett, the Royal Navy in European Waters During the American Revolutionary War
John the Painter
John the Painter, known as Jack the Painter, James Aitken or John Aitkin, was a Scot who committed acts of sabotage in Royal Navy naval dockyards in 1776–77. Aitken was born in Edinburgh in 1752, the son of a whitesmith, the early death of his father assured him a good education at the charitable school of George Heriot’s Hospital, which was founded to care for the puir, faitherless bairns of Edinburgh. Upon leaving school, he tried his hand at a variety of low-paying trades before finding that the world of criminal activity offered him more immediate rewards. He admitted in his testament to being a highwayman, shoplifter, and a rapist, …I made the best of my way through Winchester to Basingstoke, intending to return to London. Going over a down near Basingstoke, I saw a girl watching some sheep, upon whom, with threats and imprecations, I committed a rape. Fearful that his crimes would soon be detected, Aitken negotiated an indenture in exchange for a voyage to Jamestown and he, of course, had no real intention of serving the terms of the indenture, and soon escaped to North Carolina.
His next two years in the colonies were spent in such locales as Philadelphia, New York City and it was during this period that he became exposed to revolutionary rhetoric, and Aitken claimed that he had been harassed by British troops for being a suspected Whig. At some point after a 1775 return trip to England he developed his scheme of political arson, despite being a wanted criminal for his other crimes, Aitken travelled freely to several dockyards to determine their vulnerability. Additionally, he travelled to Paris where he forced himself into a meeting with American diplomat Silas Deane. Although Deane was sceptical that Aitken would be successful, Aitken left the meetings believing to have the backing of Deane. What is clear is that Aitken never received remuneration beyond a few pounds that Deane lent him, Aitken returned to England with Deanes instruction to meet the American expatriate and double-agent Edward Bancroft, Aitken disclosed to him at least some of his intentions. Over the course of several months Aitken attacked facilities in Portsmouth and Bristol, aitkens exploits, though only marginally successful at causing actual damage, did succeed in generating a significant amount of panic among the British public and government.
Unsurprisingly, other fires detected during the time period were incorrectly attributed to Aitken. At the height of the crisis, King George III was receiving frequent briefings, through the help of Sir John Fielding, a description of Aitken and a reward for his capture were posted. Soon after, Aitken was arrested while travelling through the country, over the course of his imprisonment, British authorities were initially unsuccessful in gaining sufficient evidence. However, they soon co-opted a young man who visited Aitken frequently in prison, Aitken was soon providing a great deal of incriminating information to this agent, which was subsequently used in locating witnesses and strengthening the states case against him. British authorities hanged John the Painter on 10 March 1777 from the mizzenmast of HMS Arethusa, the mast was struck from the ship and re-erected at the dockyard entrance so as many people as possible could watch the execution. It was the highest gallows ever to be used in an execution in England, some 20,000 people reportedly witnessed the hanging
Brownsville is the county seat of Cameron County, Texas. It is the sixteenth most populous city in the state of Texas, with a population at the 2010 census of 175,023 and an estimated population in 2014 of 183,046. It is located at the southernmost tip of Texas, on the bank of the Rio Grande, directly north and across the border from Matamoros, Tamaulipas. The 2014 U. S. Census Bureau estimate placed the Brownsville-Harlingen metropolitan area population at 420,392, in addition, the international Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area was estimated to have a population of 1,136,995. Brownsville has one of the highest poverty rates in the nation, the Brownsville urban area is one of the fastest growing in the United States. The citys population increased after it experienced a boom in the steel industry during the first decade of the 1900s. In recent times, the Port of Brownsville has become an economic hub for South Texas, where shipments arrive from other parts of the United States, from Mexico.
In April 1846, construction of a fort on the Mexican border by was begun by American forces due to increased instability in the region on the eve of the Mexican–American War of 1846–1848. Before the completion of the construction, the Mexican Army began the Siege of Fort Texas, during the first active campaign in the Mexican–American War, the first battle of the war occurred on May 8, when General Zachary Taylor received word of the siege of the fort. Taylors forces rushed to help, but Mexican troops intercepted them, resulting in the Battle of Palo Alto, approximately 5 miles north of present-day Brownsville. The next morning the Mexican forces had retreated, and Taylors troops caught up with them, resulting in the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, which took place within the present city limits. When Taylor finally arrived at the besieged Fort Texas, it was found that two soldiers had died, one of them the commander, Major Jacob Brown. In his honor, General Taylor renamed the fort Fort Brown, an old cannon at the University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College marks the spot where Major Brown received his fatal wound.
The city of Brownsville was originally established late in 1848 by Charles Stillman, the state originally incorporated the city on January 24,1850. This was repealed on April 1,1852, due to a dispute between Stillman and the former owners. The state reincorporated the city on February 7,1853, which remains in effect, the issue of ownership was not decided until 1879, when the U. S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Stillman. On July 13,1859, the First Cortina War started, juan Nepomuceno Cortina became one of the most important historical figures of the area, and continued to exert a decisive influence in the local events until his arrest in 1875. The First Cortina War ended on December 27,1859, in May 1861, the brief Second Cortina War took place
He developed the Gothic alphabet in order to translate the Bible sans Kings due to the war narratives he feared would entice the Goths, into the Gothic language. Ulfilas parents were of non-Gothic Cappadocian Greek origin but had been enslaved by Goths, philostorgius, to whom we are indebted for much important information about Ulfilas, was a Cappadocian. He knew that the ancestors of Ulfilas had come from Cappadocia, Ulfilass parents were captured by plundering Goths in the village of Sadagolthina in the city district of Parnassus and were carried off to Transdanubia. This supposedly took place in 264, raised as a Goth, he became proficient in both Greek and Latin. Ulfilas converted many among the Goths and preached an Arian Christianity, Ulfilas was ordained a bishop by Eusebius of Nicomedia and returned to his people to work as a missionary. There, Ulfilas translated the Bible from Greek into the Gothic language, fragments of his translation have survived, notably the Codex Argenteus held since 1648 in the University Library of Uppsala in Sweden.
A parchment page of this Bible was found in 1971 in the Speyer Cathedral, according to 17th century scholar Carolus Lundius, Ulfilas created the Gothic alphabet based on the Getaes alphabet, with minor alterations. There are five primary sources for the study of Ulfilass life, two are by Arian authors, three by Imperial Roman Church authors. The Arian sources depict Ulfilas as an Arian from childhood and he was consecrated as a bishop around 340 and evangelized among the Goths for seven years during the 340s. He moved to Moesia under the protection of the Arian Emperor Constantius II. He attended several councils and engaged in continuing religious debate and his death is dated from 383. The accounts by the Imperial Church historians differ in several details, the sources differ in how much they credit Ulfilas with the conversion of the Goths. Sozomen attributes the mass conversion primarily to Ullingswick but acknowledges the role of Fritigern, for several reasons, modern scholars depend more heavily on the Arian accounts than the Imperial Church accounts.
Auxentius was clearly the closest to Ulfilas and so presumably had access to reliable information. The Nicene accounts differ too widely among themselves to present a unified case, debate continues as to the best reconstruction of Ulfilass life. The Creed of Ulfilas concludes a letter praising him written by his son and pupil Auxentius of Durostorum on the Danube. Subject and obedient in all things to the Son, and the Son, subject and he ordained in the Holy Spirit through his Christ. Maximinus, a 5th-century Arian theologian, copied Auxentiuss letter, among other works, into the margins of one copy of Ambroses De Fide, wulfila Glacier on Greenwich Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Bishop Ulfilas. Carla Falluomini, The Gothic Version of the Gospels and Pauline Epistles, cultural Background and Character, Walter de Gruyter,2015 Peter J. Heather, John Matthews, The Goths in the Fourth Century, Liverpool University Press,1991
A map from Benedictine Abbey of St. George in the Black Forest indicates that, on the present site of the Blood Court, a gallows was erected in the late 16th century. A historical map known as the Pürschgerichtskarte, which charts the area around the imperial town of Rottweil. The present stone gallows replaced its predecessors in 1721. As a symbol of justice of the Anterior Austrian Obervogtei of Triberg, by 1779,15 executions are recorded, twelve of them for witchcraft. The gallows consist of two pillars, reinforced with iron bands, and linked by a wooden crossbeam that was added later. The southeastern pillar bears the date 1721, the one two initials, probably a masons mark. The Middle Way from Pforzheim to Waldshut runs by the gallows, michaela Hohkamp, Herrschaft in der Herrschaft. Die vorderösterreichische Obervogtei Triberg von 1737 bis 1780, Göttingen,1998, homepage of the town of Triberg Schauriges Geschehen am Triberger Galgen, SÜDKURIER Online,20 August 2011
Hangman is a paper and pencil guessing game for two or more players. One player thinks of a word, phrase or sentence and the other tries to guess it by suggesting letters or numbers, the word to guess is represented by a row of dashes, representing each letter of the word. In most variants, proper nouns, such as names, places, if the guessing player suggests a letter which occurs in the word, the other player writes it in all its correct positions. If the suggested letter or number does not occur in the word, the player guessing the word may, at any time, attempt to guess the whole word. If the word is correct, the game is over and the guesser wins, the other player may choose to penalize the guesser by adding an element to the diagram. On the other hand, if the player makes enough incorrect guesses to allow his opponent to complete the diagram, the game is over. However, the guesser can win by guessing all the letters or numbers that appears in the word, thereby completing the word, as the name of the game suggests, the diagram is designed to look like a hanging man.
Although debates have arisen about the taste of this picture. A common alternative for teachers is to draw a tree with ten apples. The exact nature of the diagram differs, some players draw the gallows before play, some players begin with no diagram at all, and drawing the individual elements of the gallows as part of the game, effectively giving the guessing players more chances. The amount of detail on the man can vary, affecting the number of chances, some players include a face on the head, either all at once or one feature at a time. Some modifications to play to increase the difficulty level are sometimes implemented, such as limiting guesses on high-frequency consonants. Another alternative is to give the definition of the word, this can be used to facilitate the learning of a foreign language. The origins of Hangman are obscure meaning not discovered, but it seems to have arisen in Victorian times, says Tony Augarde, the game is mentioned in Alice Bertha Gommes Traditional Games in 1894 under the name Birds and Fishes.
The rules are simple, a player writes down the first and last letters of a word, in other sources, the game is called Gallows, The Game of Hangin, or Hanger. On the other hand, the same lists can be used by the setter to stump their opponent by choosing a word which deliberately avoids common letters or one that contains rare letters. Another common strategy is to guess vowels first, as English only has five vowels, according to a 2010 study conducted by Jon McLoone for Wolfram Research, the most difficult words to guess include jazz, hajj, fizz and variations of these. The game show Wheel of Fortune is based on Hangman, but with the addition of a roulette-styled wheel, brazil had a show in the 1960s and again from 2012–2013, entitled Lets Play Hangman, hosted by the legendary Silvio Santos
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso or trunk. It contains blood vessels and nerves that supply structures in the head to the body. These in humans include part of the esophagus, the larynx and thyroid gland, major blood vessels including the arteries and jugular veins. In anatomy, the neck is called by its Latin names, cervix or collum, although when used alone, in context, the word cervix more often refers to the uterine cervix. Thus the adjective cervical may refer either to the neck or to the uterine cervix, the neck contains vessels that links structures in the head to the body. In humans these structures include part of the esophagus, trachea and parathyroid glands, lymph nodes, major blood vessels present include the carotid arteries and the jugular veins. Cervical lymph nodes surround the blood vessels, the thyroid gland and parathyroid gland are endocrine glands involved in the regulation of cellular metabolism and growth, and blood calcium levels.
The shape of the neck in humans is formed from the part of the vertebral column at the back. Around these sit soft tissues, including muscles, and between and around these sit the other structures mentioned above, muscles of the neck attach to the base of the skull, the hyoid bone, the clavicles and the sternum. The large platysma, sternocleidomastoid muscles contribute to the shape at the front, a number of other muscles attach to and stem from the hyoid bone, facilitating speech and playing a role in swallowing. Sensation to the front areas of the neck comes from the roots of nerves C2-4, the cervical region of the human spine is made up of seven cervical vertebrae referred to as C-1 to C-7, with cartilaginous discs between each vertebral body. The spinal cord sits within the part of the vertebral column. The spinal column carries nerves that carry sensory and motor information from the brain down to the rest of the body, from top to bottom the cervical spine is gently curved in convex-forward fashion.
In addition to coming from and within the human spine. In the middle line below the chin can be felt the body of the bone, just below which is the prominence of the thyroid cartilage called Adams apple. Still lower the cricoid cartilage is easily felt, while between this and the notch the trachea and isthmus of the thyroid gland may be made out. At the side the outline of the muscle is the most striking mark. The upper part of the former contains the submaxillary gland known as the submandibular glands, the line of the common and the external carotid arteries may be marked by joining the sterno-clavicular articulation to the angle of the jaw
Until his death in 2013, Mullah Mohammed Omar was the supreme commander and spiritual leader of the Taliban. Mullah Akhtar Mansour was elected as his replacement in 2015, and following Mansours killing in a May 2016 U. S. drone strike, Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada became the groups leader. The Taliban emerged in 1994 as one of the prominent factions in the Afghan Civil War, under the leadership of Mohammed Omar, the movement spread throughout most of Afghanistan, sequestering power from the Mujahideen warlords, whose corruption and despotism Afghans had tired of. The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was established in 1996 and the Afghan capital transferred to Kandahar and it held control of most of the country until being overthrown by the American-led invasion of Afghanistan in December 2001 following the September 11 attacks. At its peak, formal recognition of the Talibans government was acknowledged by only three nations, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The group regrouped as a movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration.
The Taliban have been condemned internationally for the enforcement of their interpretation of Islamic Sharia law. In its post-9/11 insurgency, the group has accused of using terrorism as a specific tactic to further their ideological and political goals. According to the United Nations, the Taliban and their allies were responsible for 76% of Afghan civilian casualties in 2010, 80% in 2011, Pakistan states that it dropped all support for the group after the September 11 attacks. Al-Qaeda supported the Taliban with fighters from Arab countries and Central Asia, hundreds of thousands of people were forced to flee to United Front-controlled territory and Iran. The word Taliban is Pashto, طالبان ṭālibān, meaning students and this is a loanword from Arabic طالب ṭālib, using the Persian plural ending -ān ان. In Arabic طالبان ṭālibān means not students but two students, as it is a form, the Arabic plural being طلاب ṭullāb—occasionally causing some confusion to Arabic speakers. Since becoming a loanword in English, besides a plural noun referring to the group, has used as a singular noun referring to an individual.
For example, John Walker Lindh has been referred to as an American Taliban, in the English language newspapers of Pakistan, the word Talibans is often used when referring to more than one Taliban. The spelling Taliban has come to be predominant over Taleban in English, in the meantime, the United States and Saudi Arabia joined the struggle against the Soviet Union by providing all the funds. Zia-ul-Haq aligned himself with Pakistans Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam and picked General Akhtar Abdur Rahman to lead the insurgency against the Soviet Union inside Afghanistan, about 90,000 Afghans, including Mohammed Omar, were trained by Pakistans ISI during the 1980s. After the fall of the Soviet-backed regime of Mohammad Najibullah in 1992, several Afghan political parties agreed on a peace and power-sharing agreement, the accord created the Islamic State of Afghanistan and appointed an interim government for a transitional period. With the exception of Gulbuddin Hekmatyars Hezb-e Islami, all of the parties, were ostensibly unified under this government in April 1992
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Strangling is compression of the neck that may lead to unconsciousness or death by causing an increasingly hypoxic state in the brain. Fatal strangling typically occurs in cases of violence, and is one of two ways that hanging may cause death. Compression of the laryngopharynx, larynx, or trachea—causing asphyxia, stimulation of the carotid sinus reflex—causing bradycardia, hypotension, or both. Depending on the method of strangulation, one or several of these typically occur in combination. Complete obstruction of blood flow to the brain is associated with neurological damage and death. As in all cases of strangulation, the rapidity of death can be affected by the susceptibility to carotid sinus stimulation, carotid sinus reflex death is sometimes considered a mechanism of death in cases of strangulation, but it remains highly disputed. The reported time from application to unconsciousness varies from 7–14 seconds if effectively applied to one minute in other cases, manual strangulation is strangling with the hands, fingers, or other extremities and sometimes with blunt objects, such as batons.
Depending on how the strangling is performed, it may compress the airway, interfere with the flow of blood in the neck, manual strangulation may damage the larynx, and fracture the hyoid or other bones in the neck. In cases of airway compression, manual strangling leads to the sensation of air hunger. During the 18th century, a sentence of Death by Throttling would be passed upon the verdict of a Court Martial for the crime of desertion from the British Army. Ligature strangulation is strangling with some form of such as rope, wire, or shoe laces. Even though the mechanism of strangulation is similar, it is distinguished from hanging by the strangling force being something other than the persons own bodyweight. Incomplete occlusion of the arteries is expected and, in cases of homicide. Cases of ligature strangulation generally involve homicides of women and the elderly, compared to hanging, the ligature mark will most likely be located lower on the neck of the victim. During the Spanish Inquisition, victims who admitted their alleged sins, throughout much of the 20th and 21st centuries, the American Mafia used ligature strangulation as a means of murdering their victims.
Confessed American serial killer Altemio Sanchez used ligature strangulation in the rapes and/or murders of his victims, as did Gary Ridgway, anti-ligature is the prevention of tying or binding. Anti-ligature devices are used to prevent vulnerable people from accidentally or intentionally self harming, anti-ligature devices and equipment are primarily used where people are considered to be at risk such as hospitals and nursing homes, but can be found in some offices and schools. They are designed to high levels of abuse and as a result are constructed from solid stainless steel and have minimal moving parts