Galway is a city in County Galway in the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht. It lies on the River Corrib between Lough Corrib and Galway Bay, is the sixth most populous city in Ireland, with a population at the 2016 Census of 79,934. Galway is renowned for its vibrant lifestyle and for hosting numerous festivals and events such as The Galway Arts Festival; the city is the European Capital of Culture for 2020, alongside Rijeka, Croatia. The city's name comes from the Irish name Gaillimhe, which formed the western boundary of the earliest settlement, Dún Gaillimhe "Fort Gaillimh".. The name was Anglicised as Galliv or Gallive, closer to the Irish pronunciation; the city's name in Latin is Galvia. Residents of the city are referred to as Galwegians; the city bears the nickname "City of the Tribes" because of the fourteen merchant families called the "tribes of Galway" who led the city in its Hiberno-Norman period. Dún Gaillimhe was constructed by the King of Connacht, Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair.
A settlement grew around it. During the Norman invasion of Connacht in the 1230s, Dún Gaillimhe was captured by Richard Mor de Burgh, who had led the invasion; as the de Burghs became Gaelicised, the merchants of the town, the Tribes of Galway, pushed for greater control over the walled city. This led to their gaining complete control over the city and to the granting of mayoral status by the English crown in December 1484. Galway endured difficult relations with its Irish neighbours. A notice over the west gate of the city, completed in 1562 by Mayor Thomas Óge Martyn, stated "From the Ferocious O'Flahertys may God protect us". A by-law forbade the native Irish unrestricted access into Galway, saying "neither O’ nor Mac shall strutte nor swagger through the streets of Galway" without permission. During the Middle Ages, Galway was ruled by an oligarchy of fourteen merchant families; these were the "Tribes of Galway". The city thrived on international trade, in the Middle Ages, it was the principal Irish port for trade with Spain and France.
The most famous reminder of those days is ceann an bhalla, now known as the Spanish Arch, constructed during the mayoralty of Wylliam Martin. In 1477 Christopher Columbus visited Galway stopping off on a voyage to Iceland or the Faroe Islands. Seven or eight years he noted in the margin of his copy of Imago Mundi: Men of Cathay have come from the west. We have seen many signs, and in Galway in Ireland, a man and a woman, of extraordinary appearance, have come to land on two tree trunks The most explanation for these bodies is that they were Inuit swept eastward by the North Atlantic Current. During the 16th and 17th centuries Galway remained loyal to the English crown for the most part during the Gaelic resurgence for reasons of survival. However, by 1642 the city had allied itself with the Catholic Confederation of Kilkenny during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. During the resulting Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Cromwellian forces captured the city after a nine-month siege. At the end of the 17th century the city supported the Jacobites in the Williamite war in Ireland and was captured by the Williamites after a short siege not long after the Battle of Aughrim in 1691.
The great families of Galway were ruined. The city suffered further under the potato famines of 1845–1852, it did not recover until the period of strong economic growth of the late 20th century. Like most of Ireland, Galway has an oceanic climate according to the Köppen climate classification, being one of the world's mildest cities for latitude because it is on an island. Galway has a year-round mild, moist and changeable climate, due to the prevailing winds of the North Atlantic Current together with the Gulf Stream; the city does not experience temperature extremes, with temperatures below 0 °C and above 30 °C being rare. The city receives an average of 1,156 mm of precipitation annually, evenly distributed throughout the year; the average January temperature in the city is 5.9 °C and the average July temperature is 15.9 °C.system. The highest temperature recorded in Galway was 31.7 °C in July 1921, whilst the lowest temperature recorded was −11.7 °C in January 1945. While extreme weather is rare, the city and county can experience severe windstorms that are the result of vigorous Atlantic depressions that pass along the north west coast of Ireland.
Most of these storms occur between early spring. Due to the city's northerly location, Galway has long summer days. Sunrise on summer solstice occurs at 05:07 and sunset at 22:07. By contrast, on winter solstice, the sun rises at 08:49, sets at 16:19. Lynch's Castle on Shop Street is a medieval town house built by the prosperous Lynch family in the 16th century and is now a branch of Allied Irish Banks; the Church of Ireland St. Nicholas' Collegiate Church is the largest medieval church still in everyday use in Ireland, it was founded in enlarged in the following two centuries. The Cathedral of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven and St Nicholas was consecrated in 1965 and is a far larger building constructed from limestone, it has an eclectic style, with a Renais
Maki Kawai is a Japanese chemist who developed spatially selective single-molecule spectroscopy. In 2018 she became the first woman to become president of the Chemical Society of Japan. Kawai earned her bachelor's degree at the University of Tokyo in 1975, she completed her doctoral studies at the University of Tokyo in 1980. Her PhD was supervised by Kenji Tamaru. Kawai was a postdoctoral researcher at Riken between 1980 and 1982, she joined the University of Tokyo as a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science fellow in 1982. Her research considers the vibrational dynamics of single-molecules at surfaces, her group use STM to monitor atoms on top of surfaces. She uses this to understand the chemical and physical phenomena of nanowires and biomolecules, she was awarded fellowships from the Surface Science Society of Japan and American Physical Society to develop single molecule spectroscopy. Her group monitor the vibrational and relaxation energies of single molecules using scanning tunneling microscopy and inelastically tunnelled electrons.
She has contributed to several hundreds of peer-reviewed publications. Kawai continued to be supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, investigating nanoscale electron transport through molecular layers. By combining single molecule spectroscopy with inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to identify electron transfer channels, she discovered a new reaction pathway in titanium dioxide. Kawai became Chief Scientist and Director of Surface Chemistry Laboratory at Riken in 1991 and an executive director in 2010, she was made a professor at the University of Tokyo in 2004. Kawai joined the Institute of Molecular Science as Director General in 2016, she was appointed President of the Chemical Society of Japan in 2018. 2019 L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science Awards 2018 Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry 2018 Kiel University Diels-Planck Lecture 2017 Medal of Honour with Purple Ribbon from the Japanese government 2016 American Vacuum Society Medard W. Welch Award 2015 IUPAC Distinguished Women in Chemistry / Chemical Engineering 2015 Max Planck Society Gerhard Ertl Lecture Award 2012 Mukai Award, Japan 2008 Commendation for Science and Technology by the Minister of Education, Sports and Technology, Prize for Science and Technology 2009 Chemical Society of Japan Award
The Tidza Guisers are a group of mummers who perform in the Peak District village of Tideswell in Derbyshire. They were formed in the late 1980s to revive the ancient tradition of guising, in which people dressed up in elaborate costumes, blackened their faces, went round the village asking for food and money. During the Tideswell Wakes, a week-long local festivity held around St John's Day in midsummer, the Guizers perform a local mummers' play known as Tidza Saw Y'eds which tells of a farmer whose cow gets her head stuck in a gate; the farmer tries to solve the problem by sawing off the cow's head but a doctor comes along, sews the animal's head back on and she is miraculously restored to life. The Guizers recite the local ballad known as The Drunken Butcher of Tideswell; the Guisers sprang to national fame by being runners up on the CBBC programme The Wonderful World of Weird and were featured, with a photograph, in the May 2012 edition of Country Walking magazine. Derbyshire County Council: Tidza Guisers
The peso is the currency of Argentina, identified by the symbol $ preceding the amount in the same way as many countries using dollar currencies. It is subdivided into 100 centavos, its ISO 4217 code is ARS. Since the late 20th century, the Argentine peso has experienced a substantial rate of devaluation, reaching 25% year-on-year inflation rate in 2017; the official exchange rate for the United States dollar hovered around 3:1 from 2002 to 2008, climbing from 6:1 to 10:1 between 2009 and 2015. By August 2018, the rate had risen to 40:1. In 2019, the inflation rate experienced the steepest year-on-year increase since the Great Recession. By August 12, 2019, the rate had risen to 60:1 after the market's reaction to the 2019 Argentine primary elections. Amounts in earlier pesos were sometimes preceded by a "$" sign and sometimes in formal use, by symbols identifying that it was a specific currency, for example $m/n100 or m$n100 for pesos moneda nacional; the peso introduced in 1992 is just called peso, is written preceded by a "$" sign only.
Earlier pesos replaced currencies called peso, sometimes two varieties of peso coexisted, making it necessary to have a distinguishing term to use, at least in the transitional period. The peso was a name used for the silver Spanish eight-real coin. Following independence, Argentina began issuing its own coins, denominated in reales and escudos, including silver eight-real coins still known as pesos; these coins, together with those from neighbouring countries, circulated until 1881. In 1826, two paper money issues began. One, the peso fuerte was a convertible currency, with 17 pesos fuertes equal to one Spanish ounce of 0.916 fine gold. It was replaced by the peso moneda nacional at par in 1881; the non-convertible peso moneda corriente was introduced in 1826. It depreciated with time. Although the Argentine Confederation issued 1-, 2- and 4-centavo coins in 1854, with 100 centavos equal to 1 peso = 8 reales, Argentina did not decimalize until 1881; the peso moneda nacional replaced the earlier currencies at the rate of 1 peso moneda nacional = 8 reales = 1 peso fuerte = 25 peso moneda corriente.
One peso moneda nacional coin was made of silver and known as patacón. However, the 1890 economic crisis ensured; the Argentine gold coin from 1875 was the gold peso fuerte and two-thirds of a gram of gold of fineness 900, equivalent to one and a half grams of fine gold, defined by law 733 of 1875. This unit was based on that recommended by the European Congress of Economists in Paris in 1867 and adopted by Japan in 1873; the monetary system before 1881 has been described as "anarchistic". Law 1130 of 1881 put an end to this. Gold coins of 5 and 2.5 pesos were to be used, silver coins of one peso and 50, 20, 10 and 5 centavos, copper coins of 2 and 1 centavos. The depreciated peso moneda corriente was replaced in 1881 by the paper peso moneda nacional at a rate of 25 to 1; this currency was used from 1881 until January 1, 1970 The design was changed in 1899 and again in 1942. The peso m$n was convertible, with a value of one peso oro sellado. Convertibility was maintained off and on, with decreasing value in gold, until it was abandoned in 1929, when m$n 2.2727 was equivalent to one peso oro.
The peso ley 18.188 replaced the previous currency at a rate of 1 peso ley to 100 pesos moneda nacional. The peso argentino replaced the previous currency at a rate of 1 peso argentino to 10,000 pesos ley; the currency was born just before the return of democracy, on June 1, 1983. However, it lost its purchasing power and was devalued several times, was replaced by a new currency called the austral in June 1985; the austral replaced the peso argentino at a rate of 1 austral to 1000 pesos. During the period of circulation of the austral, Argentina suffered from hyperinflation; the last months of President Raul Alfonsín's period in office in 1989 saw prices move up with a consequent fall in the value of the currency. Emergency notes of 10,000, 50,000 and 500,000 australes were issued, provincial administrations issued their own currency for the first time in decades; the value of the currency stabilized. The current peso replaced the austral at a rate of 1 peso = 10,000 australes, it was referred to as peso convertible since the international exchange rate was fixed by the Central Bank at 1 peso to 1 U.
S. dollar and for every peso convertible circulating, there was a US dollar in the Central Bank's foreign currency reserves. After the various changes of currency and dropping of zeroes, one peso convertible was equivalent to 10,000,000,000,000 pesos moneda nacional. However, after the financial crisis of 2001, the fixed exchange rate system was abandoned. Since January 2002, the exchange rate has fluctuated, up to a peak of four pesos to one dollar; the resulting export boom produced a massive inflow of dollars into the Argentine economy, which helped lower their price. For a
Bachana Arabuli is a Georgian professional footballer who plays as a striker for Greek club Panionios. Arabuli made his professional debut for Dila Gori on 30 March 2013 in a match against FC Zugdidi, he has spent six months in Spain. He played for Georgian clubs Tskhinvali, Dinamo Tbilisi and Samtredia and for Hungarian clubs Balmazújváros and Puskás Akadémia. On 18 July 2019, Arabuli signed a three-year contract with Greek Super League club Panionios, who began the season on −6 points because of financial irregularities. Arabuli scored his first goal for the club in added time in an opening-day defeat at home to newly promoted Volos, he scored a stoppage-time equaliser on 22 September away to Lamia, on 10 November, he scored both Panionios goals in the team's second win of the campaign, 2–1 away to Xanthi. On 30 November 2019, he scored again in an emphatic 3-0 win against Panetolikos. Arabuli made his debut for the national team in a friendly game against Uzbekistan on 23 January 2017. Dila Gori Erovnuli Liga runner up: 2012–13 Georgian Super Cup runner up: 2012–13Dinamo Tbilisi Erovnuli Liga winner: 2015–16 David Kipiani Cup winner: 2015–16 Georgian Super Cup winner: 2015–16Samtredia Erovnuli Liga winner: 2016 Updated to games played as of 30 November 2019.
Bachana Arabuli at Soccerway Bachana Arabuli – UEFA competition record Bachana Arabuli at National-Football-Teams.com
Gilad Hesseg is an Israeli folk rock singer-songwriter and composer. He has been active in the field of Israeli music for the best part of his life and has composed and recorded numerous songs, using his own and others’ lyrics, he has written and recorded the music for several musicals, produced and directed a variety of music projects of Israeli song and music. An evening of song to the words of 15 poems by the famous Israeli poet Rachel which Gilad composed and directed together with his brother, Tommer Hesseg, was successful resulting in some 60 theatre performances, as well as being broadcast on Israel Radio and T. V. One of his most recent compositions set to the words of Annabel Lee by Edgar Allan Poe has been performed by the Concora Choir - Connecticut's Premier Professional Choir, Conducted by Maestro Richard Coffey and by the Jerusalem Academy of Music Chamber Choir Conducted by Maestro Stanley Sperber; the song was broadcast on Israel National Radio. Gilad studied with Prof. Shadai of the Tel-Aviv Academy of Music within the framework of a course for gifted student musicians given by Shadai at the Haifa Rubin Conservatorium of Music, studied piano and music arrangement in Haifa with Ms Ruth Appel.
Gilad was born on September 1971 in the small town of Nesher near Haifa. He is the second of three sons, his elder brother - Doron Hesseg - is an IT professional. His younger brother - Tommer Hesseg – himself a well established musician, holds a master's degree from the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance and is a 3-year graduate of the Beit Zvi College for the Performing Arts. Tommer is Manager and Deputy Conductor of the Jerusalem Academy Chamber Music Choir and teaches music in various academies and colleges. Gilad's parents were his initial introduction to the world of art, his Irish-born mother graduated from the Leinster School of Music in Dublin. His Polish-born father – as well as being a teacher - was an artist of Metal and Wood. Gilad's flair for music became evident at a early age; as a young child he played various musical instruments and at 16 began writing lyrics and composing songs. Gilad was educated at the Nesher Comprehensive High-School where he was given his first opportunity to demonstrate his musical capabilities, performing for his school at most of the major functions.
His military service in the Israeli Navy provided opportunities to sing and perform music for navy personnel leading to his first cover band with performances in major nightclubs throughout the country. As well as his passion for music, Gilad displayed an avid interest in Sports and holds a Bachelor's Degree in Physical Education from the Wingate Institute. Prior to his present position at the Nesher Municipality he held a full-time position as Physical Education teacher and music instructor at the Nesher Comprehensive High-School where he himself was educated as a teenager. In his private life, Gilad holds a Master's degree in Public Auditing from the Faculty of Political Science, University of Haifa and holds the position of Internal Auditor for the Municipality of the town of Nesher, while continuing to pursue his career in music. Gilad is married to Rinatia Maaravi, they have two sons, they live on Mount Carmel in Haifa. Studio albums Hidden Flame Gilad's Myspace Musician Page Annabel Lee - Rock Version on YouTube Annabel Lee - Choir Version on YouTube