A gambeson is a padded defensive jacket, worn as armor separately, or combined with mail or plate armor. It doubled as a winter coat for wearers. Gambesons were produced with a sewing technique called quilting. Constructed of linen or wool, the stuffing varied, could be for example scrap cloth or horse hair. During the 14th century, illustrations show buttons or laces up the front. An arming doublet worn under armor plate armor of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Europe, contains arming points for attaching plates. Fifteenth century examples may include goussets sewn into the elbows and armpits to protect the wearer in locations not covered by plate. German gothic armor arming doublets were shorter than Italian white armor doublets, which could extend to the upper thigh. In late fifteenth century Italy this became a civilian fashion. Men who were not knights wore arming doublets because the garment suggested status and chivalry; the term gambeson is a loan from Old French gambeson, gambaison wambais, formed after the Middle High German term wambeis "doublet", in turn from Old High German wamba "stomach".
The term aketon medieval French alcottonem, might be a loan from Arabic al-qutn "cotton." In medieval Norse, the garment was known as vápntreyja "weapon shirt," or panzari/panzer. Treyja is a loan from Low German. Panzari/panzer is also a loan from Low German, though the word has its origin in Italian, is related to Latin pantex'abdomen.' Quilted leather open jackets and trousers were worn by Scythian horsemen before the 4th century BC, as can be seen on Scythian gold ornaments crafted by Greek goldsmiths. The European gambeson can be traced at least to the late 10th century, but it is to have been in use in various forms for longer than that. In Europe, its use became widespread in the 13th century, peaked in the 14th and 15th centuries; the gambeson was used both as a complete armor unto itself and underneath mail and plate in order to cushion the body and prevent chafing. It was insulating and thus uncomfortable, but its protection was vital for the soldier. Although they are thought to have been used in Europe much earlier, gambesons underwent a revolution from their first proven use in the late 11th and early 12th centuries as an item of armor that facilitated the wearing of mail to an item of independent armor popular amongst infantry.
Although quilted armor survived into the English Civil War in England as a poor man's cuirass, as an item to be worn beneath the few remaining suits of full plate, it was replaced by the'buff coat' – a leather jacket of rough suede. There are two distinctive designs of gambeson; the latter tend to be thicker and higher in the collar, faced with other materials, such as leather, or heavy canvas. This variant is referred to as padded jack and made of several layers of cotton, linen or wool; these jacks were known to stop heavy arrows and their design of multiple layers bears a striking resemblance to modern day body armor, which substituted at first silk, ballistic nylon and Kevlar as fabric. For common soldiers who could not afford mail or plate armor, the gambeson, combined with a helmet as the only additional protection, remained a common sight on European battlefields during the entire Middle Ages, its decline – paralleling that of plate armor – came only with the Renaissance, as the use of firearms became more widespread, until by the 18th century it was no longer in military use.
While the use of linen has been shown in archaeological evidence, the use of cotton – and cotton-based canvas – is disputed since large amounts of cotton cloth were not available in northern Europe at this time. It is quite probable that Egypt still produced cotton well after the 7th and 8th centuries and knowledge of this cloth was brought to Europe by the returning Crusaders. Linothorax was a type of armor similar to gambeson used by ancient Greeks. Meanwhile, the Mesoamericans were known to make use of quilted cotton armor called Ichcahuipilli before the arrival of the Spaniards. Another example is the bullet resistant Myeonje baegab, created in the Joseon Dynasty in an attempt to confront the effects of Western rifles. Doublet Buff coat Jack of plate "The Function of Armor in Medieval and Renaissance Europe"; the Metropolitan Museum of Art. How a man shall be armed for his ease when he shall fight on foot a translation of the mid-fifteenth century treatise on armor, translated into modern English and accompanied by pictorial references
DAR Constitution Hall is a concert hall located at 1776 D Street NW, near the White House in Washington, D. C, it was built in 1929 by the Daughters of the American Revolution to house its annual convention when membership delegations outgrew Memorial Continental Hall. The two buildings were connected by a third structure housing the DAR Museum, administrative offices, genealogical library. DAR Constitution Hall is still owned and operated by the National Society of Daughters of the American Revolution, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985. It has been a major cultural center of the city since its construction, houses its largest auditorium; the hall was designed by architect John Russell Pope and is located at 1776 D Street NW, just east of the Department of the Interior, between the American Red Cross and the Organization of American States, across from the Ellipse in front of the White House. The hall seats 3,702, with 1,234 on the orchestra level. Additionally, 52 boxes separate the orchestra including one Presidential box.
The Hall is a Neoclassical style structure, faced with Alabama limestone and houses the largest auditorium in Washington. This auditorium is unusual with its U-shaped balcony, necessary to provide the enormous amount of seating required by the program while retaining practical sight distances; the auditorium holds a three-manual, 40 rank Skinner pipe organ, Opus number 757. The Hall is used for concerts, school commencements, corporate meetings, televised events and other performances; the Hall hosted the 1939 premiere of Mr. Smith Goes to Washington and was the recording site for Eddie Murphy Delirious in 1983, it has hosted tapings of TV game shows Jeopardy! in 1997, 2004, 2012 and 2016, Wheel of Fortune in 2000 and 2001, the 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. From 1930 until the opening of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in 1971, Constitution Hall was home to the National Symphony Orchestra and the city's principal venue for touring classical music soloists and orchestras.
Some of the earliest mainstream country music concerts were held there, organized by Connie B. Gay; the National Geographic Society presented sold-out film lectures, filling the hall for many decades, three evenings a week until about 1990 when they moved to the National Geographic theater near 16th and M Streets, NW. The free Air Force Band Sunday concerts, featuring famous guest artists, are popular, as is the band's special Christmas gala show. In 1939, the DAR denied African-American singer Marian Anderson the opportunity to sing at the Hall, causing First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt to resign her membership in protest. Instead, Anderson performed a critically acclaimed open-air concert on Easter Sunday, April 9, 1939, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C, she sang before a radio audience in the millions. The organization would reverse its racial exclusion policy and Anderson performed at Constitution Hall for an American Red Cross war relief benefit in 1943; every U. S. president since Calvin Coolidge has attended at least one event at the theater.
List of concert halls List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D. C. DAR Constitution Hall DAR Constitution Hall on Google Street View
Swami Dada is a 1982 Hindi-language Indian feature film directed by Dev Anand, starring Mithun Chakraborty, Naseeruddin Shah, newcomer Christine O'Neil, Padmini Kohlapure and Dev Anand. The film was the first credited screen appearance of Jackie Shroff. Music was provided by R. D. Burman for this film. A couple of songs became popular. Swami Dada is the story of Hari Mohan, a saintly person who organizes Hindu prayers and discourses in a warm and welcoming atmosphere, he is called "Swami Dada" by everyone. He has many devotees who throng in large numbers to hear his sermons. What they do not know that Hari Mohan is a professional thief, is now conspiring with a young woman, a group of orphaned children to steal the temple's jewellery. Dev Anand as Hari Mohan / Swami Dada Mithun Chakraborty as Suresh Rati Agnihotri as Seema Naseeruddin Shah as Aslam the butcher Padmini Kohlapure as Chamkili Jackie Shroff as uncredited Kulbhushan Kharbanda as Ramu Dada / Bhagwan Seth Shakti Kapoor as Jaggu Mohan Sherry The music composed by R. D. Burman and lyrics were written by Anjaan.
Swami Dada on IMDb