The Sahrawi peseta is the currency of the recognized Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. It is divided in 100 céntimos, although coins with this denomination have never been minted, nor have banknotes been printed; the official international currency code is EHP. The first Sahrawi pesetas were minted in 1990, but they were not adopted as the national coin of Western Sahara until 1997; as this territory is controlled by Morocco, the circulating currency in that part of the country is the Moroccan dirham, with Algerian dinars and Mauritanian ouguiyas circulating alongside the Sahrawi peseta in the Sahrawi refugee camps and the SADR-controlled part of Western Sahara. As it is not an official currency and not circulating, the exchange rate is not realistic. Despite this, the Sahrawi peseta was pegged at par to the Spanish peseta and, when the latter was phased out for the euro, the rate became €1 for 166.386 Pts. Non-commemorative coins are designated for circulation, they are made from cupronickel.
The denominations are: 2, 5, 50, 100, 200 and 500 pesetas. There have been commemorative issues in copper and gold, as some of those shown here: Spanish peseta Moroccan dirham Algerian dinar Mauritanian ouguiya
The dirham is the currency of Morocco. It is issued by the central bank of Morocco, it is subdivided into 100 centimes. Before the introduction of a modern coinage in 1882, Morocco issued copper coins denominated in falus, silver coins denominated in dirham, gold coins denominated in benduqi. From 1882, the dirham became a subdivision of the Moroccan rial, with 500 Mazunas = 10 dirham = 1 rial; when most of Morocco became a French protectorate in 1912 it switched to the Moroccan franc. The dirham was reintroduced on 16 October 1960, it replaced the franc as the major unit of currency but, until 1974, the franc continued to circulate, with 1 dirham = 100 francs. In 1974, the santim replaced the franc. In 1960, silver 1 dirham coins were introduced; these were followed by nickel 1 dirham and silver 5 dirham coins in 1965. In 1974, with the introduction of the santim, a new coinage was introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 santimat and 1 dirham; the 1 santim coins were aluminium, the 5 up to 20 santimat were minted in brass, with the highest two denominations in cupro-nickel.
Cupro-nickel 5 dirham coins were added in 1980 and changed to a bi-metal coin in 1987. The bi-metal coins bear two year designations for the issue date—1987 in the Gregorian calendar and the 1407 in the Islamic calendar; the 1 santim was only minted until 1987 when new designs were introduced, with a ½ dirham replacing the 50 santimat without changing the size or composition. The new 5 dirham coin was bimetallic, as was the 10 dirham coin introduced in 1995. Cupro-nickel 2 dirham coins were introduced in 2002. In 2011, a new series of coins has been issued, with the 5 and 10 dirham coin utilizing a latent image as a security feature; the first notes denominated in dirham were overprints on earlier franc notes, in denominations of 50 dirhams and 100 dirhams. In 1965, new notes were issued for 10 and 50 dirhams. 100 dirham notes were introduced in 1970, followed by 200 dirham notes in 1991 and 20 dirham notes in 1996. 5 dirham notes were replaced by coins in 1980, with the same happening to 10 dirham notes in 1995.
In mid-October 2009, Bank Al-Maghrib issued four million 50-dirham banknotes to commemorate the bank's 50th anniversary. The commemorative note measures 147 x 70 mm and features the portraits of Kings Mohammed VI, Hassan II, Mohammed V; the back of the notes features the headquarters of Bank Al-Maghrib in Rabat. The speech delivered in 1959 by Mohammed V at the opening of Bank Al-Maghrib is microprinted on the back. In December 2012, Bank-Al Maghrib issued a 25-dirham banknote to commemorate the 25th anniversary of banknote production at the Moroccan State Printing Works, Dar As-Sikkah, it is the first banknote in the world to be printed on Durasafe, a paper-polymer-paper composite substrate produced by Fortress Paper. The front of the commemorative note features an intaglio vignette and a watermark of King Mohammed VI, a magenta-green color shift security thread; the thread, like the watermark, is embedded inside the banknote yet visible behind a one-sided Viewsafe polymer window. It has a transparent polymer window embossed with the King's royal crest.
The back of the note carries a print vignette commemorating 25 years of banknote printing at the Moroccan State Printing Works, Dar As-Sikkah. The windows in Durasafe are formed by die cutting each side of the three layer composite substrate separately. One-sided Viewsafe windows give a clear view inside the substrate where the thread and the watermark of King Mohammed VI are protected, but visible behind the polymer core; the transparent Thrusafe window is created by die-cutting both the outer paperlayers to reveal only the transparent polymer core. On August 15, 2013, Bank Al-Maghrib has announced a new series of banknotes; the notes feature a portrait of the royal crown. Each of the notes show a Moroccan door to the left of the portrait, demonstrating the richness of the country's architectural heritage, symbolizing the openness of the country. Popular denominations are words used in Morocco to refer to different values of the currency; those include the rial, equivalent to 5 santimat, the franc, equivalent to 1 santim.
When dealing with goods with a value lower than a dirham, it is common to use the rial or santim. For high priced goods, such as cars, it is normative to refer to the price in santimat. However, rial is used when centime when speaking in French. Though not used by the young generation, the denomination 1000, 2000... to 100,000 francs will be used by people who lived during the French colonial period when referring to 10, 20 and 1000 dirham. Rial is used for higher value than portions of the dirham, reaching 5000 dhs; this denomination is used in Moroccan Arabic speaking context in popular milieu such as old medina souks or vegetable markets. Moroccan dirham is accepted in trade markets in Ceuta, despite the prices being displayed in Euro. Economy of Morocco Heiko Otto. "Historical banknotes of Morocco". Retrieved 2017-01-03
The Sudanese pound (Arabic: جنيه سوداني is the basic unit of the Sudanese currency. The pound consists of 100 piasters; the pound is issued by the Central Bank of Sudan. Its value is linked to gold and convertible into foreign currencies. There are no restrictions on money transfers to and from Sudan; the Sudanese pound is equivalent to $0.021. It has been pegged to the United States dollar since around 1984; the pound fell for the first time since 1997 after the United States imposed economic sanctions on Sudan. The Sudanese pound continued its decline to an unprecedented number, falling to 53 pounds against the dollar; this situation, which drained all economic measures, led to heavy losses in the external repercussions of the Sudan as a whole, in the light of the government cut, interrupted by some of the failed actions announced by the Central Bank of Sudan, a severe shortage of liquidity. The Sudanese pound fell against the US dollar after the Central Bank of Sudan announced the lifting of the cash reserve to counter inflation.
Since the Secession of South Sudan in 2011, Sudan has suffered from a scarcity of foreign exchange for the loss of three quarters of its oil resources and 80% of foreign exchange resources. The Sudanese government quoted the official price of the dollar from 6.09 pounds to 18.07 pounds in the budget of 2018. The first pound to circulate in Sudan was the Egyptian pound; the late 19th century rebels Muhammad ibn Abdalla and Abdallahi ibn Muhammad both issued coins which circulated alongside the Egyptian currency. When Anglo-Egyptian rule in Sudan ceased on January 1, 1956 and Sudan became an independent country, a distinct Sudanese currency was created, replacing the Egyptian pound at par; the Egyptian pound was subdivided into 100 qirush. The qirsh used to be subdivided into 40 para, but decimalisation following the 1886 Egyptian currency reform established a 1/10 qirsh, which came to be known as a millim. Due to this legacy, the post 1956 Sudanese pound was divided into 100 qirush, subdivided into 10 millims.
During 1958-1978 the pound was pegged to the U. S. dollar at a rate of $2.87156 per Sudanese pound. Thereafter, the pound underwent successive devaluations; the pound was replaced in 1992 by the dinar at a rate of 1 dinar. While the dinar circulated in northern Sudan, in Southern Sudan, prices were still negotiated in pounds, whilst in Rumbek and Yei, the Kenyan shilling was used and accepted more within the transport sectors as well as for hotels/accommodation. According to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of the Republic of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement, the Central Bank of Sudan shall adopt a program to issue a new currency as soon as is practical during the Interim Period; the design of the new currency shall reflect the cultural diversity of Sudan. Until a new currency has been issued with the approval of the Parties on the recommendations of the CBOS, the circulating currencies in Southern Sudan shall be recognised; the second pound began introduction on 9 or 10 January 2007, became the only legal tender as of July 1, 2007.
It replaced the dinar at a rate of 1 pound = 1000 pounds. The third edition of the Sudanese pound was established on 24 July 2011 following the secession of South Sudan from the Republic of Sudan. For a wider history surrounding currency in the region, see The History of British Currency in the Middle East. In 1885, the Mahdi issued 20 qirush and gold 100 qirush; these were followed by issues of the Khalifa in denominations of 10 para, 1, 2, 2½, 4, 5, 10 and 20 qirush. These coins were minted in silver in 1885. Over the following eleven years, severe debasement occurred, leading to billon silver-washed copper and copper coins being issued; the coinage ceased in 1897. During 1908-1914, a local coinage was issued in Darfur in western Sudan; these were issued under the authority of resembled contemporary Egyptian coins. In 1956, coins were introduced in denominations of 2, 5 and 10 millim, 2, 5 and 10 qirush; the millim denominations were struck in bronze, whilst the qirush denominations were in cupro-nickel.
The 2, 5 and 10 millim were scallop shaped, although a round 5 millim was introduced in 1971. The 1 and 2 millim were last struck in 1969, the last 5 millim in 1978. In 1983, brass 1, 2 and 5 qirush, a reduced size 10 qirush and a cupro-nickel 20 qirush were introduced. In 1987, aluminium-bronze 1, 5, 10, 20, 25 and 50 qirush and 1 pound were introduced, with the 25 and 50 qirush square and octagonal in shape, respectively. In 1989, stainless-steel 25 and 50 qirush and 1 pound were issued; this is the general pattern, in addition to these coins there are collector-oriented issues and various oddities. See popular coin catalogues for details. See Sudanese dinar. Coins in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 qirush were introduced alongside the circulating dinar coins; the Central Bank of Sudan states that the 5 qirush coins are yellow coloured and the 10 qirush is silver coloured. The 20 and 50 qirush coins are bi-metallic, with the 20 qirush yellow ringed with a silver coloured centre and the 50 qirush the opposite.
This is thought to be in development. In April 1957, the Sudan Currency Board introduced notes for 1, 5 and 10 pounds. Note production was taken over by the Bank of Sudan in 1961. 20-pound notes were introduced in 1981, followed by 50 pounds in 1984 and 100 pounds in 1988.. When introduced on 8 June 1992, the Sudanese dinar replaced the first Sudanese pound at a rate of 1:10. In 2005, the National Public Rad
The Gambia the Republic of The Gambia, is a country in West Africa, entirely surrounded by Senegal with the exception of its western coastline along the Atlantic Ocean. It is the smallest country within mainland Africa; the Gambia is situated on both sides of the lower reaches of the Gambia River, the nation's namesake, which flows through the centre of The Gambia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. It has an area of 10,689 square kilometres with a population of 1,857,181 as of the April 2013 census. Banjul is the Gambian capital and the largest cities are Serekunda and Brikama; the Gambia shares historical roots with many other West African nations in the slave trade, the key factor in the placing and keeping of a colony on the Gambia River, first by the Portuguese, during which era it was known as A Gâmbia. On 25 May 1765, The Gambia was made a part of the British Empire when the government formally assumed control, establishing the Province of Senegambia. In 1965, The Gambia gained independence under the leadership of Dawda Jawara, who ruled until Yahya Jammeh seized power in a bloodless 1994 coup.
Adama Barrow became The Gambia's third president in January 2017, after defeating Jammeh in December 2016 elections. Jammeh accepted the results refused to accept them, which triggered a constitutional crisis and military intervention by the Economic Community of West African States, resulting in his exile; the Gambia's economy is dominated by farming and tourism. In 2015, 48.6% of the population lived in poverty. In rural areas, poverty is more widespread, at 70%; the name "Gambia" is derived from the Mandinka term Kambra/Kambaa. According to the CIA World Factbook, the US Department of State, the Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use, The Gambia is one of few countries whose self-standing short name for official use should begin with the word "The". Upon independence in 1965, the country used the name The Gambia. Following the proclamation of a republic in 1970, the long-form name of the country became Republic of The Gambia.
The administration of Yahya Jammeh changed the long-form name to Islamic Republic of The Gambia in December 2015. On 29 January 2017 President Adama Barrow changed the name back to Republic of The Gambia. Arab traders provided the first written accounts of the Gambia area in the ninth and tenth centuries. During the tenth century, Muslim merchants and scholars established communities in several West African commercial centres. Both groups established trans-Saharan trade routes, leading to a large export trade of local people as slaves gold and ivory, as well as imports of manufactured goods. By the 11th or 12th century, the rulers of kingdoms such as Takrur, a monarchy centred on the Senegal River just to the north, ancient Ghana and Gao had converted to Islam and had appointed to their courts Muslims who were literate in the Arabic language. At the beginning of the 14th century, most of what is today called The Gambia was part of the Mali Empire; the Portuguese reached this area by sea in the mid-15th century, began to dominate overseas trade.
In 1588, the claimant to the Portuguese throne, António, Prior of Crato, sold exclusive trade rights on the Gambia River to English merchants. Letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I confirmed the grant. In 1618, King James I of England granted a charter to an English company for trade with the Gambia and the Gold Coast. Between 1651 and 1661, some parts of the Gambia were under the rule of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia belonging to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth—modern-day Latvia—and were bought by Prince Jacob Kettler. During the late 17th century and throughout the 18th century, the British Empire and the French Empire struggled continually for political and commercial supremacy in the regions of the Senegal River and the Gambia River; the British Empire occupied the Gambia when an expedition led by Augustus Keppel landed there following the Capture of Senegal in 1758. The 1783 First Treaty of Versailles gave Great Britain possession of the Gambia River, but the French retained a tiny enclave at Albreda on the river's north bank.
This was ceded to the United Kingdom in 1856. As many as three million people may have been taken as slaves from this general region during the three centuries that the transatlantic slave trade operated, it is not known how many people were taken as slaves by intertribal wars or Muslim traders before the transatlantic slave trade began. Most of those taken were sold by other Africans to Europeans: some were prisoners of intertribal wars. Traders sent people to Europe to work as servants until the market for labour expanded in the West Indies and North America in the 18th century. In 1807, the United Kingdom abolished the slave trade throughout its empire, it tried, unsuccessfully, to end the slave trade in the Gambia. Slave ships intercepted by the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron in the Atlantic were returned to the Gambia, with people, slaves released on MacCarthy Island far up the Gambia River where they were expected to establish new lives; the British established the military post of Bathurst in 1816.
In the ensuing years, Banjul was at times under the jurisdiction of the British Governor-General in Sierra Leone. In 1888, The Gambia became a separate colony. An agreement with the French Republic in 1889 established the present boundaries; the Gambia became a British Crown colony called Briti
The franc is the currency of Burundi. It is nominally subdivided into 100 centimes, although coins have never been issued in centimes since Burundi began issuing its own currency. Only during the period when Burundi used the Belgian Congo franc were centime coins issued; the franc became the currency of Burundi in 1916, when Belgium occupied the former German colony and replaced the German East African rupie with the Belgian Congo franc. Burundi used the currency of Belgian Congo until 1960, when the Rwanda and Burundi franc was introduced. Burundi began issuing its own francs in 1964. There were plans to introduce a common currency, a new East African shilling, for the five member states of the East African Community by the end of 2015; as of November 2017, these plans have not yet materialized. In 1965, the Bank of the Kingdom of Burundi issued brass 1 franc coins. In 1968, Bank of the Republic of Burundi took over the issuance of coins and introduced aluminum 1 and 5 francs and cupro-nickel 10 francs.
The 5 and 10 francs have continuous milled edges. Second types of the 1 and 5 franc coins were introduced in 1976, featuring the coat of arms. In 2011 new 10 and 50 franc coins were introduced. In 2015 a 100 franc coin was introduced to replace the 100 franc banknote. From February 1964 until 31 December 1965, notes of the Banque d’Emission du Rwanda et du Burundi, in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 francs, were overprinted with a diagonal hollow "BURUNDI" for use in the country; these were followed in 1964 and 1965 by regular issues in the same denominations by the Banque du Royaume du Burundi. In 1966, notes for 20 francs and above were overprinted by the Bank of the Republic of Burundi, replacing the word "Kingdom" with "Republic". Regular issues of this bank began in denominations of 20, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 and 5,000 francs. 10 francs were replaced by coins in 1968. 2,000 franc notes were introduced in 2001, followed by 10,000 francs in 2004. Photographer Kelly Fajack's image of school kids in Burundi was used on the back of the Burundian 10,000 franc note.
In 2015 Burundi launched a new series of banknotes. The 10, 20, 50 franc banknotes have lost their legal tender status and the 100 franc banknote has been replaced by a coin during the launch of the new series. On 3 January 2006, the franc was valued at 925 per $1. On January 1, 2008, the franc was valued at 1,129.40 per US dollar. On January 1, 2009, the franc was valued at 1,234.33 per U. S. dollar. On 10 July, the franc was valued at 1,587.60 per US dollar Economy of Burundi
Yahya Abdul-Aziz Jemus Junkung Jammeh is a Gambian politician and former military officer, the leader of The Gambia from 1994 to 2017, firstly as chairman of the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council from 1994 to 1996 and as President of the Gambia from 1996 to 2017. Jammeh was born in a Muslim of the Jola ethnic group, he attended Gambia High School in Banjul from 1978 to 1983 and served in the Gambia National Gendarmerie from 1984 to 1989. He was commissioned as an officer of the Gambia National Army, commanding the Military Police from 1992 to 1994. In July 1994, he led a bloodless coup d'etat that overthrew the government of Dawda Jawara and installed himself as chairman of AFPRC, a military junta, ruled by decree until his election as president in 1996. Jammeh was re-elected as president in 2001, 2006 and 2011, but lost to Adama Barrow in 2016, his time in office saw the oppression of anti-government journalists, LGBT people and opposition parties. His foreign policy led to a strained relationship with the sole neighbouring country of Senegal.
In 2013, Jammeh withdrew the Gambia from the Commonwealth of Nations, in 2016 he began the process of withdrawing it from the International Criminal Court. Jammeh was born on 25 May 1965 in Kanilai, a village in the Foni Kansala district of the Western Division of The Gambia, he is the son of Aja Fatou Ashombi Bojang, a housewife and trader, Abdul Aziz James Junkung Jammeh, a career wrestler. Jammeh's grandparents migrated to the Gambia from the Casamance region of Senegal, he had a rural upbringing as part of a Muslim Jola family focused in Kanilai. One of his closest childhood friends was Mustapha James Kujabi, he attended Kanilai primary school, Saint Edwards primary school in Bwiam, from 1972 to 1978. Due to his result in the common entrance exam, he was awarded a government scholarship to Gambia High School in Banjul, in 1978, his formal education ended after he received his O Levels in 1983. In April 1984, Jammeh joined what was the Gambian National Gendarmerie as a private, he was part of the Special Intervention Unit from 1984 to 1986 and was an escort training instructor at the Gendarmerie Training School from 1986 to 1989.
He was promoted to sergeant in April 1986, to cadet officer in December 1987. A former Gendarmerie officer, Binneh S. Minteh claimed that Jammeh "had always singled out Mandinka’s as bad people" during his time as a Gendarme. In particular, Minteh recalled Jammeh's "ruthless and disrespectful encounter" with sergeant major Kebba Dibba, when he "brandished a pistol and threatened to shoot" Captain Ebrima Camara on the basis of their ethnicity, he joined the Gambia National Army and was commissioned as a second lieutenant on 29 September 1989, serving as the officer in charge of the Presidential Escort, part of the Presidential Guards, from 1989 to 1990. In 1991, he served as the officer commanding the Mobile Gendarmerie, from 1992 to 1994 was the OC of the Gambia National Army Military Police. On 1 February 1992, he had been promoted to lieutenant. Jammeh was the head of security detail attached to Pope John Paul II during his visit to the Gambia in February 1992, he attended the Military Police Officers Basic Course at Fort McClellan in the United States from September 1993 to January 1994.
Jammeh was one of the four junior Army officers who organised the 1994 coup d'etat against Dawda Jawara's government. The other three were Sadibou Hydara and Edward Singhateh; the coup, which took place on 22 July, was successful and bloodless, leading to Jawara fleeing into exile. Four days on 26 July, the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council was formed with Jammeh as its chairman. Jammeh promised that it would be a "coup with a difference", that the country would be returned to civilian rule "as soon as we have set things right". One result of the coup was that the European Union and the United States, the major donors of foreign aid to the Gambia, suspended their aid programmes until the country was returned to civil rule. Jammeh claimed the suspension of aid programmes amounted to "neocolonialism". A Western diplomat who spoke to The New York Times said, "This is the same phenomenon we have seen elsewhere, with the only difference being that so far there has been no violence." In particular, the coup was compared with Samuel Doe's in the Liberia, which led to the First Liberian Civil War.
The 1994 coup d'etat in the Gambia, overthrowing the government of Dawda Jawara, represented a buck in the post-1989 sub-Saharan Africa trend away from authoritarianism and towards multiparty politics. The Gambia had represented an anomaly in Africa as one of the few countries that had a functioning democracy prior to 1989. In the aftermath of the coup, Jammeh governed by decree alongside four other junior officers and several civilians, he banned all political activity, arrested two socialist journalists, detained several of his Army superiors. He confined ministers of Jawara's government to house arrest. On 17 October, Jammeh announced. In November 1994, the same month when Jammeh was formally promoted to the rank of captain, there was an unsuccessful coup attempt by several disaffected young officers leading in numerous deaths, but Jammeh remained in power; the National Consultative Committee was appointed on 7 December to review the transition process, when they reported on 27 January 1995, they recommended a two-year transition period.
The same day as the NCC's report, two of the original coup leaders and Hydara, launched an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow Jammeh as chairman. Subsequently, Singhateh was ap
The Congolese franc is the currency of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is subdivided into 100 centimes. Currency denominated in centimes and francs was first introduced in 1887 for use in the Congo Free State. After the Free State's annexation by Belgium, the currency continued in the Belgian Congo; the francs were equal in value to the Belgian franc. From 1916, the Congolese franc circulated in Ruanda-Urundi and, from 1952, the currency was issued jointly in the names of the Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi. After the independence of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1960, Ruanda-Urundi adopted its own franc, between 1960 and 1963, Katanga issued a franc of its own; the franc remained Congo's currency after independence until 1967, when the zaïre was introduced, at a rate of 1 zaïre = 1,000 francs. In 1887, copper coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5 and 10 centimes, together with silver coins worth 50 centimes, 1, 2, 5 francs. Coins ceased to be minted of silver in 1896.
Holed, cupro-nickel 5-, 10- and 20-centime coins were introduced in 1906, with the remaining copper coins minted until 1919. Cupro-nickel 50-centime and 1-franc coins were introduced in 1920, respectively; the coinage of Belgian Congo ceased in 1929, only to be resumed in 1936 and 1937 for the issue of nickel-bronze 5-franc coins. In 1943, brass 2-franc coins were introduced, followed by round, brass coins worth 1, 2 and 5 francs, silver 50-franc coins, between 1944 and 1947. In 1952, brass 5-franc coins were issued carrying the name "Ruanda-Urundi" for the first time. Aluminum coins worth 50 centimes, 1 and 5 francs followed between 1954 and 1957. In 1965, the only franc-denominated coins of the first Democratic Republic of Congo were issued, aluminum coins worth 10 francs; as with Belgium's own coins, some types were issued in two distinct versions, one with French legends, the other with Dutch legends. In 1896 the Independent State of Congo issued 100 franc notes. In 1912, the Bank of Belgian Congo introduced 20 and 1000 francs, followed by notes of 1, 5 and 100 franc notes in 1914.
The 1-franc notes were only printed until 1920, whilst 10 franc notes were introduced in 1937. 500 francs were introduced in the 1940s, with 10,000 francs introduced in 1942. In 1952, the Central Bank of Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi introduced notes for 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 francs, with 500 and 1000 francs added in 1953. In 1961, the National Bank of Congo introduced notes for 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 francs, some of which were issued until 1964. In 1962, the Monetary Council of the Republic of Congo introduced 1000 franc notes, which were notes of the Central Bank of Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi overprinted with the Monetary Council's name. In 1963, the Monetary Council issued regular type 100 and 5000 franc notes; the franc was re-established in 1997, replacing the new zaïre at a rate of 1 franc = 100,000 new zaïres. This was equivalent to 300,000,000,000,000 old francs. Coins were never issued as fractional units of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 centimes were issued in banknote form only. In July 1998, banknotes were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 centimes, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 francs, though all are dated 01.11.1997.
200-franc notes were introduced in 2000, followed by 500-franc notes in 2002. As of July 2018, the only negotiable instrument in circulation in the Democratic Republic of Congo are banknotes of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 francs. Meanwhile, merchants in Kinshasa remain skeptical about the 5,000-franc note due to what has been described as a spate of counterfeiting of this denomination, but, suspected to be an irregular or unauthorised issue of the genuine note, bearing the serial number suffix C. In 2010, Banque Centrale du Congo issued 20 million 500 franc banknotes to commemorate the country's 50th anniversary of independence from Belgium. On July 2, 2012, the Banque Centrale du Congo issued new banknotes in denominations of 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 francs.. As of July 2018, the smallest note in regular use is 50 francs. Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Zaire currency from country data.com Histoire de la monnaie au Congo. Banque Centrale du Congo