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Gambling

Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the primary intent of winning money or material goods. Gambling thus requires three elements to be present: consideration, a prize; the outcome of the wager is immediate, such as a single roll of dice, a spin of a roulette wheel, or a horse crossing the finish line, but longer time frames are common, allowing wagers on the outcome of a future sports contest or an entire sports season. The term "gaming" in this context refers to instances in which the activity has been permitted by law; the two words are not mutually exclusive. However, this distinction is not universally observed in the English-speaking world. For instance, in the United Kingdom, the regulator of gambling activities is called the Gambling Commission; the word gaming is used more since the rise of computer and video games to describe activities that do not involve wagering online gaming, with the new usage still not having displaced the old usage as the primary definition in common dictionaries.

"Gaming" has been used to circumvent laws against "gambling". The media and others have used one term or the other to frame conversations around the subjects, resulting in a shift of perceptions among their audiences. Gambling is a major international commercial activity, with the legal gambling market totaling an estimated $335 billion in 2009. In other forms, gambling can be conducted with materials which are not real money. For example, players of marbles games might wager marbles, games of Pogs or Magic: The Gathering can be played with the collectible game pieces as stakes, resulting in a meta-game regarding the value of a player's collection of pieces. Gambling dates back before written history. In Mesopotamia the earliest six-sided dice date to about 3000 BC. However, they were based on astragali dating back thousands of years earlier. In China, gambling houses were widespread in the first millennium BC, betting on fighting animals was common. Lotto games and dominoes appeared in China as early as the 10th century.

Playing cards appeared in the 9th century in China. Records trace gambling in Japan back at least as far as the 14th century. Poker, the most popular U. S. card game associated with gambling, derives from the Persian game As-Nas, dating back to the 17th century. The first known casino, the Ridotto, started operating in 1638 in Italy. Gambling has been a main recreational activity in Great Britain for centuries. Horseracing has been a favorite theme for over three centuries, it has been regulated. Much of the opposition comes from evangelical Protestants, from social reformers. Gambling has been a popular activity in the United States for centuries, it has been suppressed by law in many areas for as long. By the early 20th century, gambling was uniformly outlawed throughout the U. S. and thus became a illegal activity, helping to spur the growth of the mafia and other criminal organizations. The late 20th century saw a softening in attitudes towards gambling and a relaxation of laws against it. Many jurisdictions, local as well as national, either ban gambling or control it by licensing the vendors.

Such regulation leads to gambling tourism and illegal gambling in the areas where it is not allowed. The involvement of governments, through regulation and taxation, has led to a close connection between many governments and gaming organizations, where legal gambling provides significant government revenue, such as in Monaco and Macau, China. There is legislation requiring that gaming devices be statistically random, to prevent manufacturers from making some high-payoff results impossible. Since these high payoffs have low probability, a house bias can quite be missed unless the devices are checked carefully. Most jurisdictions that allow gambling require participants to be above a certain age. In some jurisdictions, the gambling age differs depending on the type of gambling. For example, in many American states one must be over 21 to enter a casino, but may buy a lottery ticket after turning 18; because contracts of insurance have many features in common with wagers, insurance contracts are distinguished in law as agreements in which either party has an interest in the "bet-upon" outcome beyond the specific financial terms.

E.g.: a "bet" with an insurer on whether one's house will burn down is not gambling, but rather insurance – as the homeowner has an obvious interest in the continued existence of his/her home independent of the purely financial aspects of the "bet". Nonetheless, both insurance and gambling contracts are considered aleatory contracts under most legal systems, though they are subject to different types of regulation. Under common law English Law, a gambling contract may not give a casino bona fide purchaser status, permitting the recovery of stolen funds in some situations. In Lipkin Gorman v Karpnale Ltd, where a solicitor used stolen funds to gamble at a casino, the House of Lords overruled the High Court's previous verdict, adjudicating that the casino return the stolen funds less those subject to any change of position defence. U. S. Law precedents are somewhat similar. For case law on recovery of gambling los

Fernwood Park Historic District

Fernwood Park Historic District is a national historic district located in the northeast quadrant of Rochester in Monroe County, New York. The district consists of one contributing site; the garden apartment complex was built in 1947 as part of the Rochester Plan to provide quality, low rent housing for veterans returning from World War II and their families. There are 38 two story garden style apartment buildings and one pair of garage units with 36 garages. There are a total of 152 apartments, or four per building, with the buildings grouped in three clusters; the buildings are in a vernacular Colonial Revival style. It is one of three complexes built as part of the Rochester Plan, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2010. Official website

Boone County, Indiana

Boone County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 56,640; the county seat is Lebanon. Indiana's center of population is located in eastern Boone County, just northwest of the town of Sheridan in neighboring Hamilton County. Boone County was formed April 1, 1830, named for frontiersman Daniel Boone; the county commissioners met near the center of the county on May 1, 1831 to identify a county seat, which by law had to be within 2 miles of the county's center. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 423.25 square miles, of which 422.91 square miles is land and 0.34 square miles is water. Clinton County Hamilton County Marion County Hendricks County Montgomery County Ratsburg Ward Interstate 65 Interstate 74 Interstate 465 Interstate 865 U. S. Route 52 U. S. Route 136 U. S. Route 421 Indiana State Road 32 Indiana State Road 38 Indiana State Road 39 Indiana State Road 47 Indiana State Road 75 Indiana State Road 234 Indiana State Road 267 KTYQ - Indianapolis Executive Airport CSX Transportation Public schools in Boone County are administered by the Lebanon Community School Corporation, the Western Boone County Community School District and Zionsville Community Schools.

In recent years, average temperatures in Lebanon have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −27 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 112 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.35 inches in February to 4.54 inches in July. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county's government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made up of a board of commissioners.

The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government. Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases; the judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk; each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare a party affiliation and to be residents of the county.

Boone County is part of Indiana's 4th and 5th congressional districts, Indiana Senate districts 21 and 23, Indiana House of Representatives districts 28, 38 and 87. Prior to 1940, Boone County was a Democratic-leaning swing county in presidential elections, backing the national winner in every election from 1912 to 1936. From 1940 on, it has become a Republican stronghold, with no Democratic presidential candidate since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964 managing to win forty percent of the county's votes; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 56,640 people, 21,149 households, 15,509 families residing in the county. The population density was 133.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 22,754 housing units at an average density of 53.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.3% white, 1.7% Asian, 0.9% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.7% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 28.9% were German, 19.3% were English, 14.1% were Irish, 9.0% were American.

Of the 21,149 households, 38.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.1% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.7% were non-families, 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.12. The median age was 38.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $81,401. Males had a median income of $57,251 versus $41,309 for females; the per capita income for the county was $38,696. About 6.1% of families and 7.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. List of public art in Boone County, Indiana National Register of Historic Places listings in Boone County, Indiana Harden, Samuel. Early Life and Times in Boone County, Indiana. Indianapolis: Carlon and Hollenbeck. Retrieved 2011-05-31. Leander Mead, Crist. History of Boone County, Indiana.

Indianapolis: A. W. Bowen and Company. Retrieved 2011-05-31. Boone County Community Network L