Kane & Lynch: Dead Men
Kane & Lynch: Dead Men is a 2007 third-person shooter video game developed by IO Interactive and published by Eidos Interactive in North America and PAL regions, Spike in Japan, for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. The mobile phone version was published by Eidos Mobile; the game was received with mixed to positive reviews, spawned a sequel, Kane & Lynch 2: Dog Days. As of January 11, 2008, the game has sold over 1 million copies. In campaign mode the player controls Kane; the player is accompanied by Lynch, sometimes other hired mercenaries. Co-op mode is available, in. Though identical to Kane's style of gameplay, Lynch has short bursts of aggression in which he hallucinates nearly all AI characters are police, some sporting an animal's head. Lynch carries a shotgun and a revolver as side arm, while Kane carries an assault rifle and standard pistol, though it is possible to swap weapons. Additional weapons such as grenades, sniper rifles and carbines can be picked up, which can be swapped between allies.
The player can take cover by standing next to a wall, can blindfire. While having hired mercenaries, the player can issue orders such as follow, move to a specific position, or attack. Fragile Alliance is the game's online multiplayer mode, which consists of four maps: Hot Coffee, Late Night Opening, Withdrawal and A Walk In The Park. A free-to-download map pack released on PlayStation Network and Xbox Live provides four additional maps; the goal is to finish a several round match with the most money. Each round begins with all of the players as balaclava-clad robbers. Money can be used to buy better firearms and armor. Resistance police officers. A player's money acts as a shield, but will be dropped on the ground as the player is injured. To escape the level, a player must survive to meet a getaway vehicle. All players who survive without turning on their allies will split stolen money evenly. On the Xbox 360 and PC versions, a player's appearance in the game is influenced by their TrueSkill rank.
Players who have reached TrueSkill rank # 1 and # 2 will play as Lynch, respectively. Unlike Kane and Lynch's campaign mode, players cannot sprint. If a player feels they have taken enough money to become a target for potential traitors, they can drop some of their money, becoming less of a scoring threat; the game opens with a voiceover of Adam'Kane' Marcus, reading a letter addressed to his daughter Jenny. Kane is traveling to death row after being convicted of manslaughter. Another death row inmate, James Seth Lynch, lets on, their truck is involved in a head-on collision by a group of mercenaries. The two are taken to a construction site, where they are confronted by four members of a gang of criminals called The 7, led by The Brothers and their henchmen Carlos and Mute, they accuse Kane of stealing money from them, reveal that they have taken his wife and daughter hostage. Kane is given three weeks to retrieve the money or his wife and daughter will be killed. After the meeting with The 7, police officers arrive and the two are forced to shoot their way out of the construction site.
Kane explains that he did not steal from The 7, but knows who did, where they hid it. Kane and Lynch rob a local bank. Only half of the money is inside the bank's safe, but Kane believes he knows where the other half is. Meanwhile, who suffers from periodic episodes of violent psychosis, blacks out and kills all of the hostages after his medication wears off, forcing Kane and Lynch to shoot their way out and flee in a van driven by their getaway driver. Losing the police in the subway after the van crashes, Kane informs Lynch that they need to go to Tokyo to retrieve the other half of the money. In Tokyo, the pair go after Retomoto, a Japanese crime lord, by kidnapping his daughter Yoko as ransom. While Kane is negotiating with Retomoto over the phone, Lynch accidentally shoots and kills Yoko while trying to stop her from escaping. Kane and The 7's hired guns proceed to escape from Retomoto's hitmen. Kane is furious with Lynch, but he soon realizes that they are out of time, must return to The 7 with only half of the stolen money.
Lynch reveals to Kane that he made a deal with The 7 to betray Kane in order to ensure his survival as well as a position within The 7, but he is betrayed and knocked unconscious at the construction site where Kane and his family are to be executed. The leaders of The 7 deny Kane's plea for additional time, after which The Brothers and Carlos depart for Havana, leaving Mute to carry out the executions. After being brought to the construction site along with her daughter, Kane's wife expresses her disgust with Kane but is executed by Mute before he has a chance to answer her though the 7 promised to let Kane speak with his wife. Regaining consciousness, Lynch attacks his kidnappers. Kane and Lynch protect Kane's daughter Jenny from The 7's reinforcements as she cries over her mother's body. Kane decides to finish off The 7 for the sake of his daughter's safety. Kane and Lynch free a group of "Dead Men" from prison: Rific and Shelly; these men had been wronged by The 7 and join the duo to get revenge, although Shelly expresses resentment at working with Lynch, who he recognizes.
Before flying to Havana, they return to Tokyo and kill Retomoto, reclaiming the briefcase of money to finance their war with The 7. In Havana, Kane keeps everyone motivated with promises of payment as they track down The Brothers and Carlos. Kane informs Lynch that The 7 prof
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
IGN is an American video game and entertainment media website operated by IGN Entertainment Inc. a subsidiary of Ziff Davis, itself wholly owned by j2 Global. The company is located in San Francisco's SOMA district and is headed by its former editor-in-chief, Peer Schneider; the IGN website was the brainchild of media entrepreneur Chris Anderson and launched on September 29, 1996. It focuses on games, television, comics and other media. A network of desktop websites, IGN is now distributed on mobile platforms, console programs on the Xbox and PlayStation, FireTV, via YouTube, Twitch and Snapchat. IGN was the flagship website of IGN Entertainment, a website which owned and operated several other websites oriented towards players' interests and entertainment, such as Rotten Tomatoes, GameSpy, GameStats, VE3D, TeamXbox, Vault Network, FilePlanet, AskMen, among others. IGN was sold to publishing company Ziff Davis in February 2013 and now operates as a j2 Global subsidiary. Created in September 1996 as the Imagine Games Network, the IGN content network was founded by publishing executive Jonathan Simpson-Bint and began as five individual websites within Imagine Media: N64.com, PSXPower, Next-Generation.com and Ultra Game Players Online.
Imagine expanded on its owned-and-operated websites by creating an affiliate network that included a number of independent fansites such as PSX Nation.com, Sega-Saturn.com, Game Sages, GameFAQs. In 1998, the network launched a new homepage that consolidated the individual sites as system channels under the IGN brand; the homepage exposed content from more than 30 different channels. Next-Generation and Ultra Game Players Online were not part of this consolidation. G. P. O. Dissolved with the cancellation of the magazine, Next-Generation was put "on hold" when Imagine decided to concentrate on launching the short-lived Daily Radar brand. In February 1999, PC Magazine named IGN one of the hundred-best websites, alongside competitors GameSpot and CNET Gamecenter; that same month, Imagine Media incorporated a spin-off that included IGN and its affiliate channels as Affiliation Networks, while Simpson-Bint remained at the former company. In September, the newly spun-out standalone internet media company, changed its name to Snowball.com.
At the same time, small entertainment website The Den merged into IGN and added non-gaming content to the growing network. Snowball shed most of its other properties during the dot-com bubble. IGN prevailed with growing audience numbers and a newly established subscription service called IGN Insider, which led to the shedding of the name "Snowball" and adoption of IGN Entertainment on May 10, 2002. In June 2005, IGN reported having 24,000,000 unique visitors per month, with 4.8 million registered users through all departments of the site. IGN is ranked among the top 200 most-visited websites according to Alexa. In September 2005, IGN was acquired by Rupert Murdoch's multi-media business empire, News Corporation, for $650 million. IGN celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 12, 2008. IGN was headquartered in the Marina Point Parkway office park in Brisbane, until it relocated to a smaller office building near AT&T Park in San Francisco on March 29, 2010. On May 25, 2011, IGN sold its Direct2Drive division to Gamefly for an undisclosed amount.
In 2011, IGN Entertainment acquired its rival UGO Entertainment from Hearst Corporation. News Corp. planned to spin off IGN Entertainment as a publicly traded company, continuing a string of divestitures for digital properties it had acquired. On February 4, 2013, after a failed attempt to spin off IGN as a separate company, News Corp. announced that it had sold IGN Entertainment to the publishing company Ziff Davis, acquired by J2 Global. Financial details regarding the purchase were not revealed. Prior to its acquisition by UGO, 1UP.com had been owned by Ziff Davis. Soon after the acquisition, IGN announced that it would be laying off staff and closing GameSpy, 1UP.com, UGO in order to focus on its flagship brands, IGN.com and AskMen. The role-playing video game interest website Vault Network was acquired by IGN in 1999. GameStats, a review aggregation website, was founded by IGN in 2004. GameStats includes a "GPM" rating system which incorporates an average press score and average gamer score, as well as the number of page hits for the game.
However, the site is no longer being updated. The Xbox interest site, TeamXbox, the PC game website VE3D were acquired in 2003. IGN Entertainment merged with GameSpy Industries in 2005; the merger brought the game download site FilePlanet into the IGN group. IGN Entertainment acquired the online male lifestyle magazine AskMen.com in 2005. In 2004, IGN acquired film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes and in 2010, sold the website to Flixster. In October 2017, Humble Bundle announced that it was being acquired by IGN. A member of the IGN staff writes a review for a game and gives it a score between 0.1 and 10.0, assigned by increments of 0.1 and determines how much the game is recommended. The score is given according to the "individual aspects of a game, like presentation, sound and lasting appeal." Each game is given a score in each of these categories, but the overall score for the game is an independent evaluation, not an average of the scores in each category. On August 3, 2010, IGN announced.
Instead of a 100-point s
Ratchet & Clank Future: Tools of Destruction
Ratchet & Clank Future: Tools of Destruction is a 2007 platformer video game developed by Insomniac Games and published by Sony Computer Entertainment for the PlayStation 3. The game was released on October 23, 2007 on November 9, 2007 in Europe, it is the first PlayStation 3 installment in the Ratchet & Clank franchise, as well as the first installment for the Future saga. It was one of the first PlayStation 3 games to support DualShock 3 rumble without any accessories. Ratchet & Clank Future: Tools of Destruction received critical acclaim upon release. Most positive comments concerned the engaging and fun gameplay, while most criticism was aimed at the game's technical issues; the game was nominated for several awards from gaming publications and was considered a commercial success. Tools of Destruction retains much of the basic gameplay found in previous Ratchet & Clank games, the game being a shooter-platformer; the player controls Ratchet most of the time, with some sections using Clank, as they explore various worlds to complete missions, using Ratchet's wrench and other exotic weapons gained during the course of the game.
At times, Ratchet may enter free-fall, or will be able to fly. The tilt-sensing abilities of the SIXAXIS are used to control some weapons and gadgets. On occasion and Zephyr accompany Ratchet and fight alongside him. While immune to damage, their weapons are far less potent than Ratchet's. Tools of Destruction is the first game where Ratchet and other characters converse with one another with lipsynced dialogue during gameplay, outside of cutscenes. In various stages of gameplay, Qwark, the Smuggler and Zephyr contact Ratchet by comlink; as with Going Commando, Up Your Arsenal and Size Matters, there is an arena gameplay area, called the Imperial Fight Festival in this installment. The player has the ability to pilot a ship against enemy forces in certain levels, similar to those in previous installments. At times, the player will control Clank in a mode similar to previous games, using beings of pure energy called Zoni to fight foes, remove debris or reconstruct bridges, to power devices in the level.
Clank possesses the ability to slow down time as well during these sections, allowing him, for example, to make his way under a closing door as well as levitate. Weapons gain experience as implemented in the series, but in addition, the player can collect Raritanium crystals and use them to upgrade the weapon in additional ways beyond the experience path; the recurring R. Y. N. O series of weapons make an appearance in Tools of Destruction with the R. Y. N. O IV, which can be obtained by collecting thirteen Holo-Plan fragments hidden throughout the game. In addition to weapons are items known as "devices". While they are selected and used similar to weapons, they may or may not directly damage foes but instead provide an effect beneficial to the player; the "Groovitron", for example, is a disco ball that causes all foes to dance for a brief time, allowing the player to deal with them while distracted. The carrying capacity of such devices are very low. Device vendors in addition to weapon vendors can be found in the game, device ammo can be found in Raritanium chests, although these are hard to find.
Armor can be bought from an armor vendor on certain planets. Each upgrade to the armor decreases the amount of damage; each armor upgrade costs a large amount of bolts. On planet Kerwan and Clank are working on a hovercraft. Clank receives a distress call from Captain Qwark. After fighting through an army of armed commandos, they are confronted by Emperor Percival Tachyon, self-proclaimed "crown prince of the Cragmites”, who demands Ratchet offer his life to save the city. At the last second, the duo escape on his private cruiser. After experiencing a deep hyper sleep, they wake up to find themselves on planet Cobalia in the Polaris galaxy. Learning that Tachyon has conquered many neighboring planets, they decide to learn more about him. In the course of their investigation, Clank is visited by small creatures called the Zoni that only he can see; the Zoni explain that Clank was built for a special purpose, provide him with new abilities to aid Ratchet. The duo discover a remote space station in an asteroid field, where they meet Talwyn Apogee and her allies Cronk and Zephyr.
Talwyn explains that her father, explorer Max Apogee, was the galaxy’s leading expert on Lombax technology and thus may hold the secret to their disappearance. With their help, Ratchet learns of the Great War, a conflict between the Lombaxes and the Cragmite Empire that ended with the complete eradication of the latter. Years a single Cragmite egg was recovered on the Lombax home world, Fastoon. Rather than destroy it, they decided to raise it as one of their own. However, when the young Tachyon learned of his true
GameStop Corp. is an American video game, consumer electronics, wireless services retailer. The company is headquartered in Grapevine, United States, a suburb of Dallas, operates 7,267 retail stores throughout the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Europe; the company's retail stores operate under the GameStop, EB Games, ThinkGeek and Micromania brands. In addition to retail stores, GameStop owns Game Informer, a video game magazine. GameStop traces its roots to Babbage's, a Tucson, Arizona-based software retailer founded in 1984 by former Harvard Business School classmates James McCurry and Gary M. Kusin; the company was named after Charles Babbage and opened its first store in Dallas's North Park Center with the help of Ross Perot, an early investor in the company. The company began to focus on video game sales for the then-dominant Atari 2600. Babbage's began selling Nintendo games in 1987; the company went public in 1988. By 1991, video games accounted for two-thirds of Babbage's sales.
Babbage's merged with Software Etc. an Edina, Minnesota-based retailer that specialized in personal computing software, to create NeoStar Retail Group in 1994. The merger was structured as a stock swap, where shareholders of Babbage's and Software Etc. received shares of NeoStar, a newly formed holding company. Babbage's and Software Etc. continued to operate as independent subsidiaries of NeoStar and retained their respective senior management teams. Babbage's founder and chairman James McCurry became chairman of NeoStar, while Babbage's president Gary Kusin and Software Etc. president Daniel DeMatteo retained their respective titles. Software Etc. chairman Leonard Riggio became chairman of NeoStar's executive committee. Gary Kusin resigned as president of Babbage's in February 1995 to start a cosmetics company. Daniel DeMatteo president of Software Etc. assumed Kusin's duties and was promoted to president and chief operating officer of NeoStar. NeoStar chairman James McCurry was appointed to the newly created position of NeoStar CEO.
The company relocated from its headquarters in Dallas to Grapevine that year. NeoStar merged its Babbage's and Software Etc. units into a single organization in May 1996 amid declining sales. Company president Daniel DeMatteo resigned, NeoStar chairman and CEO James McCurry assumed the title of president. In September of that year, after NeoStar was unable to secure the credit necessary to purchase inventory necessary for the holiday season, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. With the filing, NeoStar board member Thomas G. Plaskett became chairman and James McCurry remained company chief executive and president; the leadership changes were not enough and in November 1996 the assets of NeoStar were purchased for $58.5 million by Leonard Riggio, a founder of Software Etc. and chairman and principal stockholder of Barnes & Noble. Electronics Boutique had bid to purchase NeoStar, but the judge presiding over NeoStar's bankruptcy accepted Riggio's bid because it kept open 108 stores more than Electronics Boutique's bid would have.
200 retail stores were not included in the transaction and were subsequently closed. Following his purchase of NeoStar's assets, Leonard Riggio dissolved the holding company and created a new holding company named Babbage's Etc, he appointed Richard "Dick" Fontaine Software Etc.'s chief executive during its expansion in the late 1980s and early 1990s, as Babbage Etc.'s chief executive. Daniel DeMatteo the president of both Software Etc. and NeoStar, became company president and COO. Three years in 1999, Babbage's Etc. launched its GameStop brand with 30 stores located in strip malls. The company launched gamestop.com, a website that allowed consumers to purchase video games online. GameStop.com was promoted in Software Etc. stores. Barnes & Noble Booksellers purchased Babbage's Etc. in October 1999 for $215 million. Because Babbage's Etc. was principally owned by Leonard Riggio, Barnes & Noble's chairman and principal shareholder, a special committee of independent directors of Barnes & Noble Booksellers evaluated and signed-off on the deal.
A few months in May 2000, Barnes & Noble acquired Funco, an Eden Prairie, Minnesota-based video game retailer, for $160 million. Babbage's Etc., operating as a direct subsidiary of Barnes & Noble, became a wholly owned subsidiary of Funco. With its acquisition of Funco, Barnes & Noble acquired Game Informer, a video game magazine, first published in 1991. Funco was renamed GameStop, Inc. in December 2000 in anticipation of holding an initial public offering for the company. Barnes & Noble Booksellers took GameStop public with a February 2002 initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. GameStop was listed under the ticker symbol GME. Barnes & Noble retained control over the newly public company with 67% of outstanding shares and 95% of voting shares. Barnes & Noble retained control over GameStop until October 2004, when it distributed its 59% stake in GameStop to stakeholders of Barnes & Noble, making it an independent company. GameStop acquired EB Games in 2005 for $1.44 billion. The acquisition expanded GameStop's operations into Europe, Canada and New Zealand.
Two years in 2007, GameStop acquired Rhino Video Games from Blockbuster for an undisclosed amount. Rhino Video Games operated 70 video game stores throughout the Southeastern United States. GameStop purchased Free Record Shop's Norwegian stores in April 2008; the company converted them into video game shops. Daniel DeMatteo replaced Richard Fontaine as GameStop CEO in August 2008
A console game is a form of interactive multimedia entertainment, consisting of manipulable images generated by a video game console and displayed on a television or similar audio-video system. The game itself is controlled and manipulated using a handheld device connected to the console, called a controller; the controller contains a number of buttons and directional controls such as analogue joysticks, each of, assigned a purpose for interacting with and controlling the images on the screen. The display, speakers and controls of a console can be incorporated into one small object known as a handheld game. Console games come in the form of an optical disc, ROM cartridge, digital download or in the case of dedicated consoles, stored on internal memory; the differences between consoles create additional challenges and opportunities for game developers, as the console manufacturers may provide extra incentives and marketing for console exclusive games. To aid development of games for consoles, manufacturers create game development kits that developers can use for their work.
The first console games were for the Magnavox Odyssey, released in 1972, consisted of simple games made of three white dots and a vertical line. These hardware limitations, such as the lack of any audio capability, meant that developers didn't have a lot of freedom in the type of games they could create; some games came packaged with accessories such as cards and dice to enhance the experience to make up for the shortcomings of the hardware. The second generation of consoles introduced more powerful capabilities, less hardware limitations than the first generation and coincided with the golden age of arcade video games. Developers had access to basic graphical capabilities of the console allowing them to create sprites of their own choosing and more advanced sound capabilities. Controllers were beginning to include more buttons giving developers more freedom in the type of interactions they could provide to the player. Due to the success of arcades, a number of games were adapted for and released for consoles but in many cases the quality had to be reduced because of the hardware limitations of consoles compared to arcade cabinets.
The second generation of games introduced a number of notable gaming concepts for the first time. Adventure for the Atari 2600 introduced the concept of a "virtual space bigger than the screen" for the first time with the game consisting of multiple rooms to player could visit as opposed to a single static screen. Video Olympics was one of the first console games to have a computer controlled opponent in its "Robot Pong" game mode and genres such as platforming and graphical adventure games began. By the end of 1983, consoles had become cheaper to develop and produce causing a saturation of consoles which in turn led to their libraries becoming saturated too. Due to the levels of games on the market prices were low and despite good sales figures, developers weren't making enough money from sales to justify staying in the market. Many companies went out of business and despite heavy marketing, the quality of the games couldn't back up the marketing claims of heir quality. Pac-Man for the Atari 2600, a port of the original arcade game of the same name, was the best selling game for the console The effects of the crash were felt in the North American market but it still had an impact, albeit smaller, in the Asian and European markets.
In the years following the crash, console development was reduced in the North American and European markets. Personal computers rose in popularity and began to fill the gap in the market that consoles had left, they were technologically superior and were multi-function. The third console generation started with the release of new consoles from Nintendo and Atari; these two generations saw the introduction of notable franchises such as The Legend of Zelda, Star Fox, Sonic the Hedgehog, Final Fantasy, Metal Gear and Metroid. The console manufacturers took back control of third party development and regulated the market, ensuring the levels of saturation didn't happen again. Measures introduced to achieve this included limiting the number of games a developer could release a year, controlling the manufacture of game cartridges, demanding payment for cartridges up front and ensuring the game adheres to a set of rules; this added a risk to development. It meant developers were forced to concentrate on the quality of their games more so than the quantity and speed at which they could be made.
Atari and Sega incorporated backward compatibility in the Atari 7800 and Master System elongating the lifespan of their early console games. Both companies never released another backward compatible console, with the partial exception that the Sega Genesis can play Master System games using a separately sold peripheral. Metroid includes an open world where the player can traverse the world in all directions, where most games similar to it are side-scrolling in a single direction, it has a strong female protagonist, credited for her role in improving the image of women in gaming. Star Fox was Nintendo's first use of polygonal graphics and Sonic the Hedgehog introduced a rival to Nintendo's mascot, who became a long-standing character for Sega in a number of different types of media; the fifth generation of consoles saw the move from games using 2D graphics to 3D graphics and the change in storage media from cartridges to optical discs. Analogue controllers became popular allowing for a finer and smoother movement control scheme compared to the directional pad.
The use of full motion video became popular for cutscenes as optical di
A blog is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete informal diary-style text entries. Posts are displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page; until 2009, blogs were the work of a single individual of a small group, covered a single subject or topic. In the 2010s, "multi-author blogs" emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, think tanks, advocacy groups, similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic; the rise of Twitter and other "microblogging" systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog; the emergence and growth of blogs in the late 1990s coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or computer programming.
A knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the Web, early Web users therefore tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. In that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, but often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers. However, there are high-readership blogs. Many blogs provide commentary on topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, others function more as online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, links to other blogs, web pages, other media related to its topic; the ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs.
However, blog owners or authors moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are textual, although some focus on art, videos and audio. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources; these blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring short posts. On 16 February 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On 20 February 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics. Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22, 2014. The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997; the short form, "blog", was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used "blog" as both a noun and verb and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product, leading to the popularization of the terms.
Before blogging became popular, digital communities took many forms including Usenet, commercial online services such as GEnie, Byte Information Exchange and the early CompuServe, e-mail lists, Bulletin Board Systems. In the 1990s, Internet forum software created running conversations with "threads". Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual "corkboard". From 14 June 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their "What’s New" list of new websites, updated daily and archived monthly; the page was accessible by a special ``. The earliest instance of a commercial blog was on the first business to consumer Web site created in 1995 by Ty, Inc. which featured a blog in a section called "Online Diary". The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by Web site visitors; the modern blog evolved from the online diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives. Most such writers journalers. Justin Hall, who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College, is recognized as one of the earlier bloggers, as is Jerry Pournelle.
Dave Winer's Scripting News is credited with being one of the older and longer running weblogs. The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News on their web site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994; this practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance, such journals were used as evidence in legal matters. Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in 1997 referred to their online presence as a zine, before the term blog entered common usage. Early blogs were manually updated components of common Websites. In 1995, the "Online Diary" on