Game Boy

The Game Boy is an 8-bit handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The first handheld in the Game Boy family, it was first released in Japan on April 21, 1989 North America, three months and lastly in Europe, over a year later, it was designed by the same team that developed the Game & Watch and several Nintendo Entertainment System games: Satoru Okada, Gunpei Yokoi, Nintendo Research & Development 1. Nintendo's second handheld game console, the Game Boy combines features from both the NES home system and Game & Watch hardware; the console features a dull green dot-matrix screen with adjustable contrast dial, five control buttons, a single speaker with adjustable volume dial, like its rivals, uses cartridges as physical media for games. The color scheme is made from two tones of grey with accents of black and dark magenta. All the corners of the portrait-oriented rectangular unit are rounded, save for the bottom right, curved. At launch, it was sold either as a standalone unit, or bundled with one of several games, namely Super Mario Land or Tetris.

Several accessories were developed, including a carrying pouch and printer. Despite being technologically inferior to its fourth-generation competitors, the Game Boy received praise for its battery life and durability in its construction, it outsold the competition, selling one million units in the United States within a few weeks. The Game Boy and its successor, the Game Boy Color, have sold an estimated 118 million units worldwide, it is one of the most recognizable devices from the 1990s, becoming a cultural icon in the years following its release. Several redesigns were released during the console's lifetime, including the Game Boy Pocket in 1996 and the Game Boy Light in 1998. Production of the Game Boy continued into the early 2000s after the release of its successor, the Game Boy Advance, in 2001. Production ceased in 2003; the original internal code name for the Game Boy was "Dot Matrix Game", the initials DMG came to be featured on the final product's model number: "DMG-01". Internal reception of the console at Nintendo was very poor.

The Game Boy has four operation buttons labeled "A", "B", "SELECT", "START", as well as a directional pad. There is a volume control dial on the right side of the device and a similar dial on the left side to adjust the contrast. At the top of the Game Boy, a sliding on-off switch and the slot for the Game Boy cartridges are located; the on-off switch includes a physical lockout to prevent users from either inserting or removing a cartridge while the unit is switched on. Nintendo recommends users leave a cartridge in the slot to prevent dust and dirt from entering the system; the Game Boy contains optional input and/or output connectors. On the left side of the system is an external 3.5 mm × 1.35 mm DC power supply jack that allows users to use an external rechargeable battery pack or AC adapter instead of four AA batteries. The Game Boy requires 6 V DC of at least 150 mA. A 3.5 mm stereo headphone jack is located on the bottom side of the unit which allows users to listen to the audio with the bundled headphones or external speakers.

The right-side of the device offers a port which allows a user to connect to another Game Boy system via a link cable, provided both users are playing the same game. The port can be used to connect a Game Boy Printer; the link cable was designed for players to play head-to-head two-player games such as in Tetris. However, game developer Satoshi Tajiri used the link cable technology as a method of communication and networking in the popular Pokémon video game series. CPU: Custom 8-bit Sharp LR35902 at 4.19 MHz. This processor is similar to an Intel 8080 in that none of the registers introduced in the Z80 are present. However, some of the Z80's instruction set enhancements over the 8080 bit manipulation, are present. Features removed from the Intel 8080 instruction set include the parity flag, half of the conditional jumps, I/O instructions. I/O is instead performed through memory load/store instructions. Still, several features are added relative to both the 8080 and the Z80, most notably new load/store instructions to optimize access to memory-mapped registers.

The IC contains integrated sound generation. RAM: 8 KiB internal S-RAM Video RAM: 8 KiB internal ROM: On-CPU-Die 256-byte bootstrap; the unit only has one speaker. Display: Reflective STN LCD 160 × 144 pixels Frame rate: 59.727500569606 Hz Vertical blank duration: Approximately 1.1 ms Screen size: 4.7 x 4.3 cm/1.9 x 1.7 inch Color palette: 2-bit Communication: 2 Game Boys can be linked together via built-in serial ports, up to 4 with a DMG-07 4-player adapter. And 16 in maximum. Power: 6 V, 0.7 W Dimensions: 90 mm × 148 mm × 32 mm / 3.5″ × 5.8″ × 1.3″ Weight: 220 g On March 20, 1995, Nintendo released several Game Boy models with colored cases, advertising them in the "Play It Loud!" Campaign

WTC Wharf

WTC Wharf is a twelve-storey office complex on the north bank of the Yarra River in Melbourne, Australia. On 19 December 1978, the Government of Victoria passed the Port of Melbourne Act 1978, vesting the Port of Melbourne Authority with authority to construct and operate a World Trade Centre in the Port of Melbourne; the centre, an example of Brutalist architecture, was built in the early 1980s and opened in 1983. On 30 June 1994, Melbourne's first casino, Crown Casino opened in the World Trade Centre; the location was a temporary measure while Crown's permanent home, the Crown Casino and Entertainment Complex was constructed across the Yarra river at Southbank In 1997, the centre hosted a temporary exhibition of waxworks from the Madame Tussauds wax museum in London. The building houses some offices of the headquarters of Victoria Police, the Victoria Police Museum, a collection of exhibits and memorabilia from over 150 years of policing in Victoria, it houses offices for companies, including Thales Australia.

The WTC shopping centre is undergoing redevelopment, including the proposed installation of an environmentally friendly air-conditioning system using water from the Yarra River. Further redevelopment plans include construction of restaurants, cafes, a hotel, a wine store, a function centre, a health and beauty centre. WTC Wharf website

Hastings line

The Hastings line is a secondary railway line in Kent and East Sussex, linking Hastings with the main town of Tunbridge Wells, London via Tonbridge and Sevenoaks. Although carrying passengers, the railway serves a gypsum mine, a source of freight traffic. Southeastern is one of their busiest lines; the railway was constructed by the South Eastern Railway in the early 1850s across the difficult terrain of the High Weald. Supervision of the building of the line was lax, enabling contractors to skimp on the lining of the tunnels; these deficiencies showed up. Rectifications led to a restricted loading gauge along the line, requiring the use of dedicated rolling stock. Served by steam locomotives from opening until the late 1950s, passenger services were taken over by a fleet of diesel-electric multiple units built to the line's loading gauge. Diesel locomotives handled freight built to fit the loading gauge; the diesel-electric multiple units served on the line until 1986, when the line was electrified and the most affected tunnels were reduced from double track to single.

The South Eastern Railway completed its main line from London to Dover, Kent in 1844, branching off the rival London and South Coast Railway's line at Redhill. Construction of a single line branch from Tunbridge to Tunbridge Wells, a fashionable town where a chalybeate spring had been discovered in 1606, began in July 1844. At the time, Parliament had not given assent for the railway; the Act of Parliament enabling the construction of the line had its first reading in the House of Commons on 28 April 1845. The bill completed its passage through the House of Commons and the House of Lords on 28 July, following which Royal Assent was granted on 31 July by Queen Victoria; the engineer in charge of the construction was Peter W. Barlow and the contractors were Messrs. Hoof & Son. In April 1845 the SER decided that the branch would be double track. A 410-yard-long tunnel was required 44 chains after leaving Tunbridge; this was named "Somerhill Tunnel" after the nearby mansion. A mile and 54 chains after leaving Somerhill Tunnel, a 270-yard-long viaduct was required.

Southborough Viaduct has 26 arches. A temporary station was built at Tunbridge Wells as the 823 yd Wells Tunnel was still under construction, it was 4 miles 7 chains from Tunbridge. The temporary station subsequently became a goods station; the first train, comprising four locomotives and 26 carriages, arrived at Tunbridge Wells on 19 September. Trains from Tunbridge had to reverse before starting the climb to Somerhill Tunnel, as there was no facing junction at Tunbridge; this situation was to remain until 1857, when a direct link was built at a cost of £5,700. The old link remained in use until c. 1913. The SER was granted permission to build a line from Ashford in Kent to St Leonards, East Sussex in 1845; the LBSC reached St Leonards from Lewes the following year. This gave the LBSC a shorter route to Hastings than the SERs route still under construction; the SER sought permission to extend their branch from Tunbridge Wells across the High Weald to reach Hastings. Authorisation for the construction of a 25-mile-60-chain line to Hastings was obtained on 18 June 1846, Parliament deemed the line between Ashford and St Leonards to be of military strategic importance.

Therefore, they stipulated that this line was to be completed before any extension was built from Tunbridge Wells. The extension into Tunbridge Wells opened on 25 November 1846 without any public ceremony. In 1847, the SER unsuccessfully challenged the condition that the line between Ashford and St Leonards be completed first; that line was opened in 1851, passing through Hastings and making an end-on junction with the LBSC line from Lewes. The Hastings line is built over the difficult and hilly terrain across the High Weald and sandstone Hastings Beds, necessitating the construction of eight tunnels between Tonbridge and the south coast seaside resort of Hastings; the SER was anxious to construct the line as economically as possible, since it was in competition with the LBSC to obtain entry into Hastings and was not in a strong financial position in the mid 1840s. The construction of the line between Tunbridge Wells and Robertsbridge was contracted to Messrs. Hoof & Wyths, subcontracted to Messrs. H. Warden.

By March 1851, the trackbed had been constructed as far as Whatlington, East Sussex, a distance of 19 miles. All tunnels had been completed and a single line of railway had been laid for a distance of 10 miles 40 chains from Tunbridge Wells; when the 15-mile-40-chain section from Tunbridge Wells to Robertsbridge opened on 1 September, a single line of track extended a further 4 miles to Whatlington. On the 6-mile section between Whatlington and St Leonards, 750,000 cubic yards out of 827,000 cubic yards had been excavated. Construction of the line between Tunbridge Wells and Bopeep Junction cost in excess of £500,000. Supervision of the construction was lax, which enabled the contractors to skimp on the lining of the tunnels; this manifested itself in March 1855. An inspection of Grove Hill, Strawberry Hill and Wells tunnels revealed that they too had been constructed with too few layers of bricks. Grove Hill Tunnel had been built with just a single ring of bricks and no filling above the crown of the brickwork.

The SER were awarded £ 3,500 in damages. However, rectifying the situation cost the company £4,7