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Game Gear

The Game Gear is an 8-bit fourth generation handheld game console released by Sega on October 6, 1990 in Japan, in April 1991 throughout North America and Europe, during 1992 in Australia. The Game Gear competed with Nintendo's Game Boy, the Atari Lynx, NEC's TurboExpress, it shares much of its hardware with the Master System, can play Master System games by the use of an adapter. Sega positioned the Game Gear, which had a full-color backlit screen with a landscape format, as a technologically superior handheld to the Game Boy. Though the Game Gear was rushed to market, its unique game library and price point gave it an edge over the Atari Lynx and TurboExpress. However, due to its short battery life, lack of original games, weak support from Sega, the Game Gear was unable to surpass the Game Boy, selling 10.62 million units by March 1996. The Game Gear was discontinued in 1997, it was re-released as a budget system under license from Sega. Reception of the Game Gear was mixed, with praise for its full-color backlit screen and processing power for its time, criticisms over its large size and short battery life, questions over the quality of its game library.

Developed under the name "Project Mercury", the Game Gear was first released in Japan on October 6, 1990, in North America and Europe in 1991, in Australia in 1992. Retailing at JP¥19,800 in Japan, US$149.99 in North America, GB£99.99 in Europe, the Game Gear was developed to compete with the Game Boy, which Nintendo had released in 1989. The console had been designed as a portable version of the Master System, featured more powerful systems than the Game Boy, including a full-color screen, in contrast to the monochromatic screen of its rival. According to former Sega console hardware research and development head Hideki Sato, Sega saw the Game Boy's black and white screen as "a challenge to make our own color handheld system."In order to improve upon the design of their competition, Sega modeled the Game Gear with a similar shape to a Genesis controller, with the idea being that the curved surfaces and longer length would make the Game Gear more comfortable to hold than the Game Boy. The console's mass was considered from the beginning of the development, aiming for a total mass between that of the Game Boy and the Atari Lynx, another full-color screen competing product.

Despite the similarities the Game Gear shared with the Master System, the games of the latter were not directly playable on the Game Gear, were only able to be played on the handheld by the use of an accessory called the Master Gear Converter. The original Game Gear pack-in game was Columns, similar to the Tetris cartridge that Nintendo had included when it launched the Game Boy. With a late start into the handheld gaming market, Sega rushed to get the Game Gear into stores having lagged behind Nintendo in sales without a handheld on the market; as one method of doing so, Sega based the hardware of the Game Gear on the Master System, albeit with a much larger color palette than its predecessor: the Game Gear supported 4096 colors, compared to the 64 colors supported by the Master System. Part of the intention of this move was to make Master System games easy to port to the Game Gear. Though the Game Gear was designed to be technologically superior to the Game Boy, its design came at a cost of battery life: whereas the Game Boy could run for more than 30 hours on four AA batteries, the Game Gear required six AA batteries and could only run for three to five hours.

With its quick launch in Japan, the handheld sold 40,000 units in its first two days, 90,000 within a month, the number of back orders for the system was over 600,000. According to Sega of America marketing director Robert Botch, "there is a need for a quality portable system that provides features other systems have failed to deliver; this means easy-to-view, full-color graphics and exciting quality games that appeal to all ages." Before the Game Gear's launch in 1990, Sega had success marketing its 16-bit home console, the Sega Genesis, by advertising it as a "more mature" option for gamers. In keeping with this approach, Sega positioned the Game Gear as a "grown-up" option compared to the Game Boy. While Sega's marketing in Japan did not take this perspective, instead opting for advertisements with Japanese women featuring the handheld, Sega's worldwide advertising prominently positioned the Game Gear as the "cooler" console than the Game Boy. In North America, marketing for the Game Gear included side-by-side comparisons of Sega's new handheld with the Game Boy and likened Game Boy players to the obese and uneducated.

One Sega advertisement featured the quote, "If you were color blind and had an IQ of less than 12 you wouldn't mind which portable you had." Such advertising drew fire from Nintendo, who sought to have protests organized against Sega for insulting disabled persons. Sega responded with a statement from Sega of America president Tom Kalinske saying that Nintendo "should spend more time improving their products and marketing rather than working on behind-the-scenes coercive activities"; this debate would have little impact on sales for the Game Gear. Europe and Australia were the last regions to receive the Game Gear. Due to the delays in receiving the new handheld, some importers paid as much as £200 in order to have the new system. Upon the Game Gear's release in Europe, video game distributor Virgin Mastertronic unveiled the price of the Game Gear as £99.99, positioning it as being more expensive than the Game Boy, but less expensive than the Atari Lynx, a full-color system. Marketing in the United Kingdom included the use of the slogan, "To be this good takes Sega", included advertisements with a biker with a Game Gea

Yakup Kılıç

Yakup Kılıç is a Turkish boxer in the featherweight discipline. He is member of Istanbul Fenerbahçe Boxing Club. Kılıç won bronze medal, he boxed another bronze medal at the 2009 Mediterranean Games in Italy. At the European Championships 2006 he lost his first bout against Irish Eric Donovan 29:33. At the 2007 World Amateur Boxing Championships held in Chicago, USA, he won a bronze medal and qualified for the 2008 Olympics, he did so by beating Arash Usmanee of Canada by a slim one point margin 20-19. At the Olympics 2008 he won Bronze. 2008 1st round bye Defeated Satoshi Shimizu 12-9 Defeated Abdelkader Chadi 13-6 Lost to Vasyl Lomachenko 1-10 2005 Defeated Aboubakr Seddik Lbida 29-20 Lost to Berik Serikbayev 25-292007 Defeated Pablo Figuls RSCO 3 Defeated Arash Usmanee 20-19 Defeated Sailom Ardee 22-13 Lost to Albert Selimov walk-over sports-reference

Hamid Dalwai

Hamid Umar Dalwai was a social reformer, thinker and Marathi language writer in Maharashtra, India. He was born in a Marathi-speaking Muslim family in the Ratnagiri district of Konkan, his Village is Mirjoli near Chiplun. Dalwai joined the Indian Socialist Party of Jai Prakash Narayan in his early adulthood, but left it to devote himself to social reforms in the Muslim community regarding women's rights. Despite living in a period when most people were staunchly religious and orthodox, Hamid Dalwai was one among the few religiously secular people, he strove towards a uniform civil code rather than religion specific laws, fought to abolish Triple talaq in India. To create a platform for his views and work, he established the Muslim Satyashodhak Mandal in Pune on 22 March 1970. Through the medium of this Society, Hamid worked towards reforming bad practices in the Muslim community towards women, he helped many Muslim women. He campaigned for encouraging Muslims in acquiring education in the State language rather than Urdu, their mother tongue.

He tried to make adoption an acceptable practice in the Indian Muslim community. He established the Muslim Secular Society, he organised many public meetings, gatherings and conferences to campaign for better social practices. He was a great Marathi litterateur, he wrote Indhan - a novel, Laat - a collection of short stories and Muslim Politics in Secular India - a thought provoking book. He used the medium of his writing for social reform. An unprecedented event in his social work was the Muslim women’s march that he organised on the Mantralaya to fight for their rights. Hamid Dalwai dealt with opposition with tremendous equanimity and worked towards social reform without getting discouraged at the slow rate of success, it is because of these traits that the great Marathi genius P. L. Aka PuLa Deshpande described him as a great social reformer and put him in the same bracket as the great Indian leaders Mahatma Jyotiba Phule and Ambedkar, he died of progressive kidney failure on 3 May 1977, at the age of 44.

Dalwai worked as a journalist. His works include Lat and Indhan in Marathi, Muslim Politics In Secular India in English, Islam che Bhartiya Chitr in Marathi, Rashtriya Ekatmata aani Bhartiya Musalman in Marathi, he has written a short story namely "10 rupayachi goshta", published in "Dhanurdhara" magazine. Dalwai's brother Husain Dalwai is a Congress leader in Maharashtra, he is a member of Parliament upper house - Rajya Sabha. He served as a Congress spokesperson in Maharashtra. Muslim politics in India. Nachiketa Publications, 1969 In 2017 a documentary about Hamid Dalwai was made by actress Jyoti Subhash

Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand

The Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand governed New Zealand from 26 July 1984 to 2 November 1990. It was the first Labour government to win a second consecutive term since the First Labour Government of 1935 to 1949; the policy agenda of the Fourth Labour Government differed from that of previous Labour governments: it enacted major social reforms and economic reforms. The economic reforms became known after Finance Minister Roger Douglas. According to one political scientist: The Labour government enacted nuclear-free legislation, which led to the United States suspending its treaty obligations to New Zealand under the ANZUS alliance. David Lange led the government for most of its two three-year terms in office. Lange and Douglas had a falling out; the government suffered a defeat at the 1990 general election, but the incoming National government retained most of the reforms. A range of economic reforms collectively known as Rogernomics; these included: Floating the New Zealand dollar. Removing all agricultural subsidies.

Introducing GST. New banks were allowed. Reducing income and company tax. Removing controls on foreign exchange. Abolishing or reducing import tariffs. Corporatising many State owned enterprises such as the Post Office and Air New Zealand to be more like private businesses; some of these were privatised. Disestablishing the NZ Forest Service and sold the forests. Abolishing price controls and interest rate control. Privatised state assets, such as New Zealand Steel. Enabling the Reserve Bank to autonomously pursue an inflation target. Improving the reporting and accountability for government expenditure; the government's most notable foreign policy initiative concerned nuclear weapons and the ANZUS alliance. Many New Zealanders wanted to make New Zealand a nuclear-free zone. An opinion poll conducted by the Defence Committee showed that 92% of the population opposed the presence of nuclear weapons entering New Zealand; however this would require the banning of all American warships from entering New Zealand waters as it was US policy to'neither confirm nor deny' whether individual ships were nuclear armed.

The warships had been visiting New Zealand as part of the ANZUS alliance, most people hoped that the alliance could be preserved if the nuclear ban took effect. The issue came to a head shortly after the 1984 election, as a proposed visit by the USS Buchanan was on the cards. Lange announced that the Buchanan would not be welcome, the US suspended its treaty obligations to New Zealand under the ANZUS alliance; the issue became a cause célèbre in New Zealand primarily because small countries stand up to larger and more powerful countries in such a way. In America, those on the right called for trade sanctions against New Zealand while those on the left idealised the country. New Zealand's diplomatic relations with America have never returned to their pre-1984 status, although the nuclear issue is becoming less important; the government reinstated a diplomatic representative resident in India and appointed Edmund Hillary to the post. In 1989, New Zealand withdrawals all forces of the 1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment from Dieppe Barracks, Singapore.

Created the Royal Commission on the Electoral System. Constitution Act 1986 – codified important constitutional conventions in one enactment. New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 -- enumerated political rights; the government's constitutional reforms were the work of Geoffrey Palmer, a constitutional lawyer who for many years had been concerned about New Zealand's lack of a written constitution and the'unbridled power' of the executive. These concerns came to the fore when the Government was elected to office, led to the Official Committee on Constitutional Reform, which reported back to Parliament in February 1986 and led to the 1986 Constitution Act. Palmer's government would provide a key example of the executive abusing its power, as one faction in cabinet exerted power disproportionate to its numbers. Palmer's plan for a written constitution and entrenched Bill of Rights was derailed by public indifference but by opposition from Māori who believed that the Treaty of Waitangi would be sidelined in the process.

Legalised sex between males over the age of 16. Passed the Children, Young Persons, Their Families Act 1989, introducing Family Group Conferences; the death penalty was abolished. Rape within marriage was criminalised. Road safety standards were improved through tighter law enforcement of substance-affected drivers. Spending on education and health was increased from 1985/86 to 1988/89, by 24% and 9.6% respectively. Disability benefits were increased, with the 1985 budget raising the Handicapped Child's Allowance by 31% and the disability allowance by 80%. A special earnings exemption of $20 per week was introduced for disabled beneficiaries as an incentive to personal effort. A new family support benefit raised the incomes of some poor families; the Social Assistance programme was reformed with the introduction of a guaranteed minimum family benefit. This fixed an income floor above the statutory minimum wage for persons with dependant children in full-time employment. Known as the Guaranteed Minimum Family Income, it guaranteed working families 80% of the average post-tax wage, although its impact on participa


Xate are the leaves from three Chamaedorea species of palm tree. The fronds are popular in floristry for flower arrangements, Palm Sunday services and funeral decoration, as they can last up to 40 days after being cut. Estimates calculated an amount of 400 million stems exported from Guatemala and Belize to North America and Europe every year; as there are no xate-plantations to this day, all xate on the international market is harvested by xateros from palms in the forests of Mexico and Belize. Xateros rely on the harvest of palm leaves; this has affected the population of palms in the wild. Xate, Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti, has been overcollected in the forests of Guatemala and Mexico. Now, xateros from Guatemala cross the Belizean border to cut the leaf. In 2004, Axel Köhler and Tim Trench produced a documentary film called Xateros about these commercial palm leaf collectors in Chiapas' Lacandon Jungle for the Proyecto Videoastas Indigenas de la Frontera Sur. 0 Chamaedorea Prodesis Film on a Prodesis project on Xate Website on how to grow Xate yourself

Foundation for Biomedical Research

The Foundation for Biomedical Research is an American non profit organization, 501, located in Washington, DC. Established in 1981, the organization is dedicated to informing the news media and other groups about the need for lab animals in medical and scientific research; the organization, together with its partner, the National Association for Biomedical Research, argues that promoting animal research leads to improved health for both humans and animals. Its founding president is Frankie Trull. According to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, the total number of animals used in that country in 2005 was 1.2 million, excluding rats and mice. Some animal rights supporters believe. In fact, recent research shows that 98% of the current drug pipeline relies on either dogs or non-human primates. According to the Foundation for Biomedical Research, animal research has been responsible for every medical breakthrough over the past century, although this position has been disputed by some animal rights activists and organizations.

It cites animal research as leading to advances in antibiotics, blood transfusions, organ transplantation, chemotherapy, bypass surgery, joint replacement, methods for prevention, treatment and control of disease and suffering. Nonhuman primates have been at the forefront of animal research controversy over the last several years though they represent less than one percent of all animals models used. In August 2016, to counter criticism from animal rights' groups, a white paper coauthored by nine of the most premier scientific groups and titled The Critical Role of Nonhuman Primates in Medical Research was released; because of their incredible similarity to humans, primates such as rhesus macaques and chimpanzees, up until the National Institutes of Health ended public funding for chimpanzee research, have contributed to many areas of medicine. Some specific advances, according to the white paper, are: the development of the MMR vaccine, the treatment of leprosy, HIV medication, a vaccine for hepatitis B, improvements in cancer treatment.

One of the most recent advancements has been the development of a effective vaccine against the Zika virus, which should soon be protecting both the people and primates that are most at risk of infection. Dogs have been used in research for decades and have been invaluable for treating many human and canine illnesses. Dogs contract many of the diseases humans do, from heart disease to cancer and they are exposed to the same environment as humans. Canine research has led to many significant breakthroughs such as hip replacements, development of cancer treatments, research in stem cells and Alzheimer's disease. Treatments for heartworms and vaccinations against parvovirus and canine distemper have come from canine models. Cats, like dogs, have proven to be helpful for developing treatments for both human and feline diseases. Cats have been a mainstay in research studies of neurological and respiratory diseases and the immune system. In particular, they have been valuable models for understanding the function of the neuron, the chemical transmission of nerve impulses, the functional organization of the brain.

Neuroscientists studying cats have provided a map of the circuitry of the vertebral cortex revealing the major pathways that send signals from the eye to the brain. Cats have been invaluable for the treatment of leukemia and both feline and human breast cancer. Feline leukemia used to be one of the most common killers of cats and about 85% died within three years of their diagnosis. However, with their help, scientists have developed a vaccine for feline leukemia and now more beloved pets get to spend more time with their families. In the U. S. the numbers of rats and mice used in animal research is estimated at 20 million a year, or 95% of the total number of lab animals. Other rodents used are guinea pigs and gerbils. Mice are the most used vertebrate species because of their size, low cost, ease of handling, fast reproduction rate. Mice have genomes that are similar to the human genome; this similarity allows researchers to recreate human diseases, such as breast cancer, in mice in order to understand how genes affect the development of disease.

The Foundation advocates the highest quality of animal care and treatment, stating that the use of animals in research is a privilege, that animals deserve our respect and the best possible care. The Foundation for Biomedical Research conducts educational programs for the news media, teachers and parents, pet owners and other groups. FBR publishes a subscriber-based daily news service called Total E-clips featuring biomedical research news, medical breakthroughs and legislative and activism news. Since 1981, the FBR has monitored and analyzed the activities of animal rights organizations relating to researchers and institutions. Animal testing History of animal testing FBR website NABR website The Lifesaving Benefits of Primate Research NHP White Paper