Game design is the art of applying design and aesthetics to create a game for entertainment or for educational, exercise, or experimental purposes. Elements and principles of game design are applied to other interactions, in the form of gamification. Game design creates goals and challenges to define a board game, card game, dice game, casino game, role-playing game, video game, war game or simulation that produces desirable interactions among its participants and spectators. Academically, game design is part of game studies, while game theory studies strategic decision making. Games have inspired seminal research in the fields of probability, artificial intelligence and optimization theory. Applying game design to itself is a current research topic in metadesign. Sports and board games are known to have existed for at least nine thousand, six thousand, four thousand years. Tabletop games played today whose descent can be traced from ancient times include chess, go, backgammon, mahjong and pick-up sticks.
The rules of these games were not codified until early modern times and their features evolved and changed over time, through the folk process. Given this, these games are not considered to have had a designer or been the result of a design process in the modern sense. After the rise of commercial game publishing in the late 19th century, many games that had evolved via folk processes became commercial properties with custom scoring pads or preprepared material. For example, the similar public domain games Generala and Yatzy led to the commercial game Yahtzee in the mid-1950s. Today, many commercial games, such as Taboo, Pictionary, or Time's Up!, are descended from traditional parlour games. Adapting traditional games to become commercial properties is an example of game design. Many sports, such as soccer and baseball, are the result of folk processes, while others were designed, such as basketball, invented in 1891 by James Naismith. Technological advances have provided new media for games throughout history.
The printing press allowed packs of playing cards, adapted from Mahjong tiles, to be mass-produced, leading to many new card games. Accurate topographic maps produced as lithographs and provided free to Prussian officers helped popularize wargaming. Cheap bookbinding led to mass-produced board games with custom boards. Inexpensive lead figurine casting contributed to the development of miniature wargaming. Cheap custom dice led to poker dice. Flying discs led to Ultimate. Personal computers contributed to the popularity of computer games, leading to the wide availability of video game consoles and video games. Smart phones have led to a proliferation of mobile games; the first games in a new medium are adaptations of older games. Pong, one of the first disseminated video games, adapted table tennis. Games will exploit distinctive properties of a new medium. Adapting older games and creating original games for new media are both examples of game design. Game studies or gaming theory is a discipline that deals with the critical study of games, game design and their role in society and culture.
Prior to the late-twentieth century, the academic study of games was rare and limited to fields such as history and anthropology. As the video game revolution took off in the early 1980s, so did academic interest in games, resulting in a field that draws on diverse methodologies and schools of thought; these influences may be characterized broadly in three ways: the social science approach, the humanities approach, the industry and engineering approach. Broadly speaking, the social scientific approach has concerned itself with the question of "What do games do to people?" Using tools and methods such as surveys, controlled laboratory experiments, ethnography researchers have investigated both the positive and negative impacts that playing games could have on people. More sociologically informed research has sought to move away from simplistic ideas of gaming as either'negative' or'positive', but rather seeking to understand its role and location in the complexities of everyday life. In general terms, the humanities approach has concerned itself with the question of "What meanings are made through games?"
Using tools and methods such as interviews and participant observation, researchers have investigated the various roles that videogames play in people's lives and activities together with the meaning they assign to their experiences. From an industry perspective, a lot of game studies research can be seen as the academic response to the videogame industry's questions regarding the products it creates and sells; the main question this approach deals with can be summarized as "How can we create better games?" with the accompanying "What makes a game good?" "Good" can be taken to mean many different things, including providing an entertaining and an engaging experience, being easy to learn and play, being innovative and having novel experiences. Different approaches to studying this problem have included looking at describing how to design games and extracting guidelines and rules of thumb for making better games Game theory is a study of strategic decision making, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
An alternative term suggested "as a more descriptive name for the discipline" is interactive decision theory. The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person's gains equal net losses of the other participant or participant
Ban Dan Lan Hoi is a district in the western part of Sukhothai Province, in the lower north of Thailand. In the Sukhothai era, the district area was the western camp of patrolling soldiers; the village near the camp was called Ban Lan Khoi. The pronunciation changed with time to the present-day Ban Lan Hoi. In the Rattanakosin era, the Interior Ministry created a new sub-district named Ban Dan, it was upgraded to a minor district under Mueang Sukhothai District in 1909. The district office was moved to Tambon Lan Hoi in 1916; when the Charot Withi Thong road, connecting Sukhothai with Tak was finished, they moved the office to Tambon Ban Dan again. In 1939 the district was renamed from Lan Hoi to Ban Dan Lan Hoi. In 1973 the government upgraded the minor district to a full district. Neighboring districts are Thung Saliam, Si Samrong, Mueang Sukhothai, Khiri Mat of Sukhothai Province, Phran Kratai of Kamphaeng Phet Province, Mueang Tak, Ban Tak, of Tak Province and Thoen of Lampang Province; the district is divided into seven sub-districts.
The township Lan Hoi covers parts of the tambon Lan Hoi. There are a further seven tambon administrative organizations. Ban Dan Lan Hoi district history
Gilles Christ Sunu is a professional footballer who most played as a winger for Turkish club BB Erzurumspor. He has featured for clubs Arsenal, Derby County, Evian Thonon Gaillard F. C. and Angers. Born in France, Sunu represents the Togo national football team internationally. Sunu was born in Indre, he began his career at the LB Châteauroux academy, but moved to Arsenal in July 2007 on a four-year contract for a fee between £700,000 and £1 million. At Arsenal whilst playing for the club's academy, Sunu won the FA Youth Cup of 2009 beating Liverpool by 6–2 on aggregate in both legs of the final, he was victorious in winning the Premier Academy League of 2009 thus helping the club towards an historic youth double. Gilles had an impressive first half of the season with Arsenal Reserves, making nine appearances and scoring four goals, he made his first team debut for the club when he started a League Cup match against West Bromwich Albion on 22 September 2009, playing 58 minutes before being substituted for Carlos Vela.
On 9 December 2009, Sunu made his UEFA Champions League debut in Arsenal's 1–0 away defeat to Olympiacos, coming on for Jack Wilshere on 76 minutes. On 18 February 2010, Sunu signed for Derby County on loan until the end of the 2009–10 season, he made his debut for the Rams as a first-half substitute in a 1–0 defeat to Swansea City, coming on for the injured Kris Commons before being substituted on the 85-minute. Sunu scored his first goal in a 4–1 defeat away to Reading on 10 March 2010. After Stephen Pearson and Rob Hulse worked a smart one-two on the left side of the area and when Pearson was halted by a challenge, Sunu poked the loose ball past goalkeeper Adam Federici from the edge of the area. In total, Sunu made nine appearances for Derby before returning to Arsenal earlier than intended after picking up an injury in Derby's penultimate game of the season away to Bristol City. After scoring in the final of the 2010 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship in July, Gilles suffered a cartilage injury in his right knee that would keep him out of action for two months.
Sunu made his comeback for the Arsenal Reserves against Blackpool at the end of September and went on to make eight appearances, scoring twice. On 31 January 2011, Sunu opted to join Lorient on loan for the remainder of the 2010–11 campaign, he made his debut for Les Merlus as a second-half substitute in the 2–0 victory over Caen. Gilles created his first assist in the 3–2 away victory to Lens. After rounding Lens goalkeeper Vedran Runje, Sunu flicked the ball back from the byline for Kevin Gameiro to head in from five yards to make the score 2–2. Gilles completed his loan at Lorient making all from the substitutes' bench. Sky Sports reported that Lorient manager Christian Gourcuff was keen to re-sign Sunu as well as his Arsenal teammate Francis Coquelin on an additional year's loan, with Sunu hinting that he would welcome a return to the seaport town. Gilles Sunu signed a four-year contract with Lorient on 31 August 2011, just three days after being an unused substitute in Arsenal's heavy 8–2 defeat to Manchester United.
Sunu made his full debut for Lorient in the 1–1 away draw against Sochaux, coming on as a 62nd-minute substitute for Arnold Mvuemba. On 6 November 2011, Sunu scored his first goal for Lorient and made an assist in the 2–0 home win against Ajaccio. Sunu cut the ball back for Yann Jouffre to score from outside the box. Before Jouffre played Sunu in on goal with only the keeper to beat. Sunu scored his second goal of the season in the quarter-finals of the Coupe de la Ligue of 2012 in the 1–0 away victory to Le Mans. Gilles beat Le Mans goalkeeper Giorgi Makaridze at the near post on the 70th minute after coming on as a 62nd-minute substitute for Innocent Emeghara. Sunu moved in January 2015 to the Parc des Sports so as to join up with that of Evian in a one and a half year deal, he in all played 10 matches for Les Roses. Sunu went on to leave Evian in the summer of that year so as to link up with fellow Ligue 1 team Angers SCO. Sunu is a French youth international having earned caps for the under-17s, under-18s, under-19s, under-20s and under-21s.
He served as captain throughout the 2008–09 season for the under-19s. During the final of the 2010 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship, Sunu equalised against Spain to put France on course for a 2–1 victory. Sunu was named in France under-20's final 21-man squad that competed at the 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup, he started all seven of France's world cup games, scoring two goals in total as France finished fourth in Colombia. In September 2018 he switched his international allegiance to the country of his father Manu, he made his debut for the Togo national football team in a 1–1 2019 Africa Cup of Nations qualification tie with The Gambia on 12 October 2018. Sunu is the son of former Togolese international Manu Sunu; as of 4 July 2018 Scores and results list Togo's goal tally first. Arsenal FA Youth Cup: 2008–09 Premier Academy League: 2008–09France U19 UEFA European Under-19 Championship: 2010 Gilles Sunu at the French Football Federation Gilles Sunu at Soccerbase Gilles Sunu at ESPN FC
Aerolíneas Argentinas Flight 322 was a scheduled Buenos Aires–São Paulo–Port of Spain–New York City international passenger service, operated with a Comet 4, registration LV-AHR, that crashed during climbout on the early stages of its second leg, when it collided with tree tops shortly after takeoff from Viracopos-Campinas International Airport on 23 November 1961. There were 40 of them passengers; the jetliner arrived from Buenos Aires and landed at Viracopos-Campinas International Airport, 62 miles north of São Paulo, as an intermediate stop. It took off at 05:38, bound for Piarco International Airport, with New York City as its final destination. After reaching an altitude of about 100 metres, the aircraft lost altitude, collided with eucalyptus trees and crashed into the ground. All 52 people on board were killed in the disaster; the accident was investigated by the Brazilian government with participation from the government of Argentina, the state of registry of the accident aircraft. The weather conditions at the time of the accident were "dark night due to 7/8 stratocumulus at 400 metres and to 8/8 coverage by altostratus at 2,100 metres."
According to the Brazilian Air Ministry, the weather conditions did not contribute to the accident. The investigation revealed that the first officer was seated in the left seat of the flight deck, which the investigators saw as an indication that he was receiving flight instruction from the captain during the accident flight; the Brazilian Air Ministry determined the following Probable Cause: It was presumed that the co-pilot was under flight instruction. If such was the case, the instructor, pilot-in-command, may have failed to brief or supervise the co-pilot properly; the Argentinian government issued the following statement: Argentina has determined, in the light of information it has gathered, that the cause of the accident was: "Failure to operate under IFR during a takeoff by night in weather conditions requiring IFR operation and failure to follow the climb procedure for this type of aircraft. Aerolíneas Argentinas accidents and incidents List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft Brazilian Air Ministry accident report on prevac.com.ar
My Son Shall Be Armenian is a 2004 Canadian documentary by Hagop Goudsouzian, who travels to Armenia and Syria with five other members of Montreal's Armenian community who lost relatives in the Armenian Genocide, to speak with survivors. In Syria, Goudsouzian films in Deir ez-Zor, where thousands of Armenians were marched to death. In one scene, he scrapes the soil around a church and discovers the remains of what appears to be a mass grave, scooping up bones, a wedding ring and a bullet. In Armenia, Goudsouzian visits villages, renamed for former settlements, finding elders who recount what had occurred to their parents and siblings. My Son Shall Be Armenian incorporates archival photographs and footage from a Hollywood silent movie based on the accounts of one survivor who escaped to the United States during the genocide. Participants in the film include Canadian artist TV host Patrick Masbourian. My Son Shall Be Armenian was produced in French by the National Film Board of Canada. Watch My Son Shall Be Armenian at NFB.ca
The Hokusei Line known as the Sangi Hokusei Line, is a 762 mm narrow gauge railway line owned and operated by the Sangi Railway, a Japanese private railway company. The line connects Nishi-Kuwana Station in Mie with Ageki Station in Inabe, Mie, in Japan. For many years the line was owned by major railway operator Kintetsu but control was transferred to Sangi in April 2003; the name Hokusei means "northern Mie". It is a kanji abbreviation of "north" and "Ise". Ise is used in the name because the northern and central parts of present-day Mie Prefecture were called Ise Province during the Edo era before the modern prefecture system was established. All services are classified "Local", stopping at every station, are wanman driver-only operation. Two services per hour operate during the day, increased to three per hour in the morning and evening peaks. At Kuwana Station, a short walk from Nishi-Kuwana Station, passengers can transfer to the Kansai Main Line, the Nagoya Line, the Yōrō Line; the section of the line between Ōyamada Station and Sohara was opened on 5 April 1914 by the Hokusei Railway, with services operated using steam haulage.
The line was extended to Ageki on 8 July 1931 and electrified at 600 V DC. On 11 February 1944, the line became part of Mie Kotsu, in 1954, the line voltage was increased to 750 V DC. Kintetsu acquired the line on 1 April 1965, from 1 April 2003, it was operated by the Sangi Railway; the track gauge is narrow. In the early 20th century many of Japan's local railway lines were built using this gauge, however the vast majority of them were widened in the mid 20th century. Today, there are only four 762 mm gauge train lines in operation in Japan, of which the Hokusei Line is the longest; this rarity makes the Hokusei Line popular with other railway enthusiasts. Sangi Railway: Hokusei Line Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway: Utsube Line Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway: Hachiōji Line Kurobe Gorge Railway This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia