A game is a structured form of play undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, carried out for remuneration, from art, more an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, many games are considered to be work or art. Games are sometimes played purely sometimes for achievement or reward as well, they can be played alone, in online. The players may have an audience of non-players, such as when people are entertained by watching a chess championship. On the other hand, players in a game may constitute their own audience as they take their turn to play. Part of the entertainment for children playing a game is deciding, part of their audience and, a player. Key components of games are goals, rules and interaction. Games involve mental or physical stimulation, both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational, or psychological role.
Attested as early as 2600 BC, games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal Game of Ur, Mancala are some of the oldest known games. Ludwig Wittgenstein was the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein argued that the elements of games, such as play and competition, all fail to adequately define what games are. From this, Wittgenstein concluded that people apply the term game to a range of disparate human activities that bear to one another only what one might call family resemblances; as the following game definitions show, this conclusion was not a final one and today many philosophers, like Thomas Hurka, think that Wittgenstein was wrong and that Bernard Suits' definition is a good answer to the problem. French sociologist Roger Caillois, in his book Les jeux et les hommes, defined a game as an activity that must have the following characteristics: fun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted character separate: it is circumscribed in time and place uncertain: the outcome of the activity is unforeseeable non-productive: participation does not accomplish anything useful governed by rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality Computer game designer Chris Crawford, founder of The Journal of Computer Game Design, has attempted to define the term game using a series of dichotomies: Creative expression is art if made for its own beauty, entertainment if made for money.
A piece of entertainment is a plaything. Movies and books are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment. If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy. If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge. If a challenge has no "active agent against whom you compete", it is a puzzle. If the player can only outperform the opponent, but not attack them to interfere with their performance, the conflict is a competition. However, if attacks are allowed the conflict qualifies as a game. Crawford's definition may thus be rendered as: an interactive, goal-oriented activity made for money, with active agents to play against, in which players can interfere with each other. "A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome." "A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal." According to this definition, some "games" that do not involve choices, such as Chutes and Ladders, Candy Land, War are not technically games any more than a slot machine is.
"A game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context." "At its most elementary level we can define game as an exercise of voluntary control systems in which there is an opposition between forces, confined by a procedure and rules in order to produce a disequilibrial outcome." "A game is a form of play with goals and structure." "to play a game is to engage in activity directed toward bringing about a specific state of affairs, using only means permitted by specific rules, where the means permitted by the rules are more limited in scope than they would be in the absence of the rules, where the sole reason for accepting such limitation is to make possible such activity." "When you strip away the genre differences and the technological complexities, all games share four defining traits: a goal, rules, a feedback system, voluntary participation." Games can be characterized by "what the player does". This is referred to as gameplay.
Major key elements identified in this context are tools and rules that define the overall context of game. Games are classified by the com
A street game is a sport or game, played on city streets rather than a prepared field. Street games are simply play time activities for children in the most convenient venue; however some street games have risen to the level such as stickball. When street games are based on organized sports the rules are highly modified to fit the situation, i.e. manhole covers for bases with cars or buildings for foul lines in stickball. When balls are used in street games, spaldeens are used; this is a list of games that are traditionally played by urban children in playgrounds, parking lots, back streets. They are all games that may be played like asphalt, they are part of children's street culture, are notoriously hard to classify rigorously. A 2010 PBS documentary, New York Street Games, shows the best-known street games played in New York City in the twentieth century, as well as discussing the decline of those games in recent decades. Children's game List of traditional children's games Kid's Games: All About Kid's Games StreetPlay.com
A racino is a combined race track and casino. In some cases, the gambling is limited to slot machines, but many locations are beginning to include table games such as blackjack and roulette. In 2003, Joe Bob Briggs described the economic motivation of race track owners to convert into racinos: Horse racing and dog racing have been in a slow decline for 20 years now....the only tracks that have thrived are the ones that have slot machines. In many cases their live handle has continued to decline, but their revenues have shot up so fast that they're able to offer the biggest purses and thereby attract the best horses. Tracks like Delaware Park and West Virginia's Mountaineer Park, once considered places where local degenerates bet on broken-down nags in claiming races, are now among the wealthiest tracks around, with the best races. Fabled tracks like Pimlico, on the other hand, sometimes have trouble making ends meet. USA Today noted in a June 2003 article that receipts from slot machines are divided about evenly in four ways: Payment of the operating costs and payouts to lucky gamblers, State taxes, Prize money offered to jockeys and horse owners, Profit for the racino operator.
As of 2013, racinos are legal in ten U. S. states: Delaware, Maine, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, West Virginia. The first racino in Pennsylvania opened in November 2006. West Virginia pioneered the concept when MTR Gaming Group was allowed to introduce video lottery terminals to the venue now known as Mountaineer Casino and Resort in Chester. Delaware, Rhode Island, West Virginia, three of the members of the Multi-State Lottery Association, jointly ran a progressive VLT game, Ca$hola, from 2006 to July 2011. While VLTs were somewhat successful, a November 2003 article from the Global Gaming Insider noted the real financial success story was the introduction of reel spinning slot machines in Iowa: In 1994, Iowa voters authorized reel spinning slot machines at Iowa racetracks. Polk County, the owner of a brand new, bankrupt horse track, Prairie Meadows, spent $26 million to convert the clubhouse into a casino and install 1,100 slot machines; the racino opened for business on April 1, 1995.
Reel-spinning slots proved to be much more popular than video poker. In the twelve months ended March 31, 1996 machine revenues totaled $119.3 million, enabling Polk County to pay off the $27 million bond issue that paid for the clubhouse casino conversion and retire the track's initial $38.8 million bond issue 17 years early. As the racino had increased revenues, horse racing purses increased six-fold, which attracted better horses to the racetrack and helped to develop horse breeding in Iowa; the Global Gaming Insider article noted that the creation of the racino has led to consolidation in the ownership of racetracks, with Magna Entertainment Corporation and Churchill Downs Incorporated the largest. In November 2004, Florida voters amended their state constitution to allow slot machines at parimutuel facilities. In Bangor, Maine, a $131 million complex is under construction that will house, among other things, a gaming floor featuring up to 1,500 slot machines, a seven-story hotel, a four-level parking garage.
The new racino is slated to open in the summer of 2008. In Biddeford, Maine on November 2, 2010 by a vote of 59%-41% approved a referendum to relocate Scarborough Downs to Biddeford with a new Harness Racing Track/Racino Complex with Slot Machines, an Entertainment Complex and a 200 room Hotel; the plan is to have most if not all of the complex open sometime in 2012. Maine voters approved the Oxford County Maine casino on Nov 2, 2010 the indications are that the Bangor Maine Racino and the relocated Scarborough Downs Racino facility could have table games as well. There are two racino-like facilities in Arkansas; the Oaklawn Jockey Club Racing Track, a horse track, is in Hot Springs. Southland Park, a greyhound track, is in West Memphis. Dictionary entry tracing the term back to 1995 Gambling drives passion for ponies, A June 2003 article from USA Today Argument Over VLTs at Tracks Heats Up, a December 2003 article from the Detroit News
A spinning top is a toy designed to spin on the ground, the motion of which causes it to remain balanced on its tip due to its rotational inertia. Such toys have existed since antiquity. Traditionally tops were constructed of wood, sometimes with an iron tip, would be set in motion by aid of a string or rope coiled around its axis which, when pulled caused a rapid unwinding that would set the top in motion. Today they are built of plastic, modern materials and manufacturing processes allow tops to be constructed with such precise balance that they can be set in motion by a simple twist of the fingers and twirl of the wrist without need for string or rope; the motion of a top is produced in the most simple forms by twirling the stem using the fingers. More sophisticated tops are spun by holding the axis while pulling a string or twisting a stick or pushing an auger. In the kinds with an auger, an internal weight rotates; some tops can be thrown, while grasping a string, wound around the stem, the centrifugal force generated by the unwinding motion of the string will set them spinning upon touching ground.
The top is one of the oldest recognizable toys found on archaeological sites. Spinning tops originated independently in cultures all over the world. Besides toys, tops have historically been used for gambling and prophecy; some role-playing games use tops to augment dice in generating randomized results. A thumbtack may be made to spin on the same principles. Gould mentions maple seeds, the fire-drill, the spindle whorl, the potter's wheel as possible predecessors to the top, which he assumes was invented or discovered multiple times in multiple places; the action of a top is described by equations of rigid body dynamics. The top will at first wobble until the shape of the tip and its interaction with the surface force it upright. After spinning upright for an extended period, the angular momentum will lessen, leading to increasing precession causing the top to topple in a violent last thrash. In the "sleep" period, only in it, provided it is reached, less friction means longer "sleep" time There have been many developments within the technology of the top.
Bearing tops, with a tip made of a small hard ceramic, tungsten carbide or ruby ball, have been one of the biggest changes. In addition and metal have supplanted the use of wood in tops. Fixed tip tops are featured in National Championships in Chico, California and in the World Championships in Orlando, Florida; the following two well-known characteristics of a top that increase its global spinning time are exploited in various ways in such championships and by the main top makers: - low center of gravity. - high moment of inertia. A top may be used to demonstrate visual properties, such as by James David Forbes and James Clerk Maxwell in Maxwell's disc. By spinning the top, Forbes created the illusion of a single color, a mixture of the primaries: experiments of Professor J. D. Forbes, which I witnessed in 1849… that blue and yellow do not make green, but a pinkish tint, when neither prevails in the combination… result of mixing yellow and blue was, I believe, not known. Maxwell took this a step further by using a circular scale around the rim with which to measure the ratios of the primaries, choosing vermilion and ultramarine.
Asymmetric tops of any shape can be created and designed to balance. Gould lists the six main types of tops as the twirler, supported top, peg-top, whip-top, yo-yo. Competing tops Battling Tops. Beigoma. Beyblade. Gasing pangkah. Spin Fighters. Gaming and other tops Dreidel. Bambaram. Gyroscope Levitating top, based on the interaction between gravitational and gyroscopic forces. Bhawra, a gaming top used in Maharashtra in India. Perinola, a six-sided top similar to the dreidel, used for a similar game in Latin America. Rattleback, or celt, a top that reverses its spin direction. Teetotum. Tippe top. Trompo, or "Whipping top". Wizzzer; the Jean Shepherd story "Scut Farkas and the Murderous Mariah" revolves around top-spinning in the fictional Depression-era American city of Hohman, Indiana. The bully and the named top in the title are challenged by Shepherd's ongoing protagonist Ralph and a so-called "gypsy top" of similar design to Mariah named Wolf; the Top is a short story by Czech writer Franz Kafka. Bauernroulette Diabolo Fidget spinner Gee-haw whammy diddle ForeverSpin Lagrange and Kovalevskaya tops Crabtree, H.
"An Elementary Treatment of the Theory of Spinning Tops and Gyroscopic Motion". Longman, Green and C), 1909. Reprinted by Michigan Historical Reprint Series. Perry J. "Spinning Tops". London Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1870. Reprinted by Project Gutemberg ebook, 2010. Provatid
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
A role-playing game is a game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting. Players take responsibility for acting out these roles within a narrative, either through literal acting, or through a process of structured decision-making regarding character development. Actions taken within many games succeed or fail according to a formal system of rules and guidelines. There are several forms of role-playing games; the original form, sometimes called the tabletop role-playing game, is conducted through discussion, whereas in live action role-playing, players physically perform their characters' actions. In both of these forms, an arranger called a game master decides on the rules and setting to be used, while acting as the referee. Several varieties of RPG exist in electronic media, such as multiplayer text-based Multi-User Dungeons and their graphics-based successors, massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Role-playing games include single-player role-playing video games in which players control a character, or team of characters, who undertake quests, may include player capabilities that advance using statistical mechanics.
These electronic games sometimes share settings and rules with tabletop RPGs, but emphasize character advancement more than collaborative storytelling. This type of game is well-established, so some RPG-related game forms, such as trading/collectible card games and wargames, may not be included under the definition; some amount of role-playing activity may be present in such games. The term role-playing game is sometimes used to describe games involving roleplay simulation and exercises used in teaching and academic research. Both authors and major publishers of tabletop role-playing games consider them to be a form of interactive and collaborative storytelling. Events and narrative structure give a sense of a narrative experience, the game need not have a strongly-defined storyline. Interactivity is the crucial difference between traditional fiction. Whereas a viewer of a television show is a passive observer, a player in a role-playing game makes choices that affect the story; such role-playing games extend an older tradition of storytelling games where a small party of friends collaborate to create a story.
While simple forms of role-playing exist in traditional children's games of make believe, role-playing games add a level of sophistication and persistence to this basic idea with additions such as game facilitators and rules of interaction. Participants in a role-playing game will generate an ongoing plot. A consistent system of rules and a more or less realistic campaign setting in games aids suspension of disbelief; the level of realism in games ranges from just enough internal consistency to set up a believable story or credible challenge up to full-blown simulations of real-world processes. Role-playing games are played in a wide variety of formats ranging from discussing character interaction in tabletop form to physically acting out characters in LARP to playing characters in digital media. There is a great variety of systems of rules and game settings. Games that emphasize plot and character interaction over game mechanics and combat sometimes prefer the name storytelling game; these types of games tend to minimize or altogether eliminate the use of dice or other randomizing elements.
Some games are played with characters created before the game by the GM, rather than those created by the players. This type of game is played at gaming conventions, or in standalone games that do not form part of a campaign. Tabletop and pen-and-paper RPGs are conducted through discussion in a small social gathering; the GM describes its inhabitants. The other players describe the intended actions of their characters, the GM describes the outcomes; some outcomes are determined by the game system, some are chosen by the GM. This is the format; the first commercially available RPG, Dungeons & Dragons, was inspired by fantasy literature and the wargaming hobby and was published in 1974. The popularity of D&D led to the birth of the tabletop role-playing game industry, which publishes games with many different themes and styles of play; the popularity of tabletop games has decreased since the modern releases of online MMO RPGs. This format is referred to as a role-playing game. To distinguish this form of RPG from other formats, the retronyms tabletop role-playing game or pen and paper role-playing game are sometimes used, though neither a table nor pen and paper are necessary.
A LARP is played more like improvisational theatre. Participants act out their characters' actions instead of describing them, the real environment is used to represent the imaginary setting of the game world. Players are costumed as their characters and use appropriate props, the venue may be decorated to resemble the fictional setting; some live action role-playing games use rock-paper-scissors or comparison of attributes to resolve conflicts symbolically, while other LARPs use physical combat with simulated arms such as airsoft guns or foam weapons. LARPs vary in size from a handful of players to several thousand, in duration from a couple of hours to several days; because the number of players in a LARP is larger than in a tabletop role-playing game, the players may be interacting in separate physical spaces, there is less of an emphasis on maintaining a narrative or directly entertai
Russian roulette is a lethal game of chance in which a player places a single round in a revolver, spins the cylinder, places the muzzle against their head, pulls the trigger. Russian refers to the supposed country of origin, roulette to the element of risk-taking and the spinning of the revolver's cylinder, reminiscent of a spinning roulette wheel; the number of pulls of the trigger before a round is expected to discharge is 3.5 or 6. The term Russian roulette was first used in a 1937 short story of the same name by Georges Surdez. However, the story describes using a gun with one empty chamber out of six, instead of five empty chambers out of six:'Did you hear of Russian Roulette?'... with the Russian army in Romania, around 1917... some officer would pull out his revolver, anywhere, at the table, remove a cartridge from the cylinder, spin the cylinder, snap it back in place, put it to his head and pull the trigger. There were five chances to one that the hammer would set off a live cartridge and blow his brains all over the place.
In a 1946 U. S. legal case, Commonwealth v. Malone, 47 A.2d 445, a Pennsylvania teenager's conviction for murder in the second degree as a result of shooting a friend, was upheld by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. In this case, the teenagers involved played a modified version of Russian roulette, called Russian poker, in which they took turns aiming and pulling the trigger of the revolver at each other, rather than at their own heads; the court ruled that "When an individual commits an act of gross recklessness without regard to the probability that death to another is to result, that individual exhibits the state of mind required to uphold a conviction of manslaughter if the individual did not intend for death to ensue." The Autobiography of Malcolm X, Malcolm X recalls an incident during his burglary career when he once played Russian roulette, pulling the trigger three times in a row to convince his partners in crime that he was not afraid to die. In the epilogue to the book, Alex Haley states that Malcolm X revealed to him that he palmed the round.
The incident is portrayed in the 1992 film adaptation of the autobiography. On December 25, 1954, the American blues musician Johnny Ace killed himself in Texas, after a gun he pointed at his own head discharged. A report in The Washington Post attributed this to Russian roulette. Graham Greene relates in his first autobiography, A Sort of Life, that he played Russian roulette, alone, a few times as a teenager. On September 10, 1976, Finnish magician Aimo Leikas killed himself in front of a crowd while performing his Russian roulette act, he had been performing the act for about a year, selecting six bullets from a box of assorted live and dummy ammunition. John Hinckley, Jr. who attempted to assassinate President Ronald Reagan in 1981, was known to have played Russian roulette, alone, on two occasions. Hinckley took a picture of himself in 1980, pointing a gun at his head. On October 12, 1984, while waiting for filming to resume on Cover Up, actor Jon-Erik Hexum played Russian roulette with a.44 Magnum revolver loaded with a blank.
The blast fractured his skull and caused massive cerebral hemorrhaging when bone fragments were forced through his brain. He was rushed to Beverly Hills Medical Center. PBS claims that William Shockley, co-inventor of the transistor and winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, had attempted suicide by playing a solo game of Russian roulette. On October 5, 2003, psychological illusionist Derren Brown appeared to take part in a game of Russian roulette live on UK television. Two days a statement by the police said they had been informed of the arrangements in advance, were satisfied that "There was no live ammunition involved and at no time was anyone at risk." The BBC program Who Do You Think You Are?, on 13 September 2010, featured the actor Alan Cumming investigating his grandfather Tommy Darling, whom he discovered had died playing Russian roulette while serving as a police officer in British Malaya. The family had believed he had died accidentally while cleaning his gun. On June 11, 2016, MMA fighter Ivan "JP" Cole killed himself by playing Russian roulette.
On January 24, 2019, an on-duty St. Louis police officer shot and killed an off-duty police officer while the two were engaged in a game of Russian roulette. On January 25, 2019 Officer Nathaniel Hendren was charged with involuntary manslaughter and armed criminal action in the death of Officer Katlyn Alix. If convicted, Hendren faces up to 10 years in prison. There is a drinking game based on Russian roulette; the game involves six shot glasses filled by a non-player. Five are filled with the sixth with vodka. Among some groups, low quality vodka is preferred as it makes the glass representing the filled chamber less desirable; the glasses are arranged in a circle, players take turns choosing a glass to take a shot from at random. There is a game called "Beer Hunter". In this game, six cans of beer are placed between the participants. One can is vigorously shaken, the cans are scrambled; the participants take. Russian roulette has been portrayed in many different works of modern culture. In the 1951 Friz Freleng-directed Bugs Bunny cartoon Ballot Box Bunny, in the censored ending, after both Bugs and Yosemite Sam lose a mayoral election to a literal "dark horse can