A gamemaster is a person who acts as an organizer, officiant for regarding rules and moderator for a multiplayer role-playing game. They are more common in co-operative games in which players work together than in competitive games in which players oppose each other; the act performed by a gamemaster is sometimes referred to as "Gamemastering" or "GM-ing". The role of a gamemaster in a traditional table-top role-playing game is to weave the other participants' player-character stories together, control the non-player aspects of the game, create environments in which the players can interact, solve any player disputes; the basic role of the gamemaster is the same in all traditional role-playing games, although differing rule sets make the specific duties of the gamemaster unique to that system. The role of a gamemaster in an online game is to enforce the game's rules and provide general customer service. Unlike gamemasters in traditional role-playing games, gamemasters for online games in some cases are paid employees.
The term gamemaster and the role associated with it could be found in the postal gaming hobby. In typical play-by-mail games, players control armies or civilizations and mail their chosen actions to the GM; the GM mails the updated game state to all players on a regular basis. Usage in a wargaming context includes Guidon Games 1973 ruleset, Ironclad. In a role-playing game context, it was first used by Dave Arneson while developing his game Blackmoor in 1971, although the first usage in print may have been Chivalry & Sorcery; each gaming system has its own name for the role of the gamemaster, such as "judge", "narrator", "referee", "director", or "storyteller", these terms not only describe the role of the gamemaster in general but help define how the game is intended to be run. For example, the Storyteller System used in White Wolf Game Studio's storytelling games calls its GM the "storyteller", while the rules- and setting-focused Marvel Super Heroes role-playing game calls its GM the "judge".
The cartoon inspired role-playing game Toon calls its GM the "animator". A few games apply system- or setting-specific flavorful names to the GM, such as the Keeper of Arcane Lore; the gamemaster prepares the game session for the players and the characters they play, describes the events taking place and decides on the outcomes of players' decisions. The gamemaster keeps track of non-player characters and random encounters, as well as of the general state of the game world; the game session can be metaphorically described as a play, in which the players are the lead actors, the GM provides the stage, the scenery, the basic plot on which the improvisational script is built, as well as all the bit parts and supporting characters. Gamemasters can be in charge of RPG board games making the events and setting challenges. GMs may choose to run a game based on a published game world, with the maps and history in place. Alternatively, the GM may build their own script their own adventures. A good gamemaster draws the players into the adventure.
Good gamemasters have quick minds, sharp wits, rich imaginations. Gamemasters must maintain game balance: hideously overpowered monsters or players are no fun, it was noted, in 1997, that those who favor their left-brain such as skilled code writers do not make it in the ethereal gamemaster world of storytelling and verse. Author: The GM plans out the plot of the story of which the player characters will become heroes. Director: During the game, while each of the other players controls the actions of one of the player characters, the GM decides the actions of all the NPCs as they are needed; the GM may direct a particular "NPC" that travels with the party, but this may be open to abuse since the Game Master having a "pet" NPC may compromise their neutrality. Referee: In most tabletop RPGs, the rules are supplied to resolve conflicting situations; the GM is expected to provide any necessary interpretation of those rules in fuzzier situations. The GM may approve or provide House Rules in order to cover these corner cases or provide a different gaming experience.
Manager: The least prescribed portion of GMing, thus the part that takes people the most by surprise. The GM is the one to organize the game in the first place, find players, schedule sessions, figure out a place to play, as well as acting as a mediator and having to balance the needs and desires of all participants—sometimes having to divine the real desires of indecisive or inexperienced players. In early virtual worlds gamemasters served as a administrator. Gamemastering in the form found in traditional role-playing games has been used in a semi-automatic virtual worlds. However, human moderation was sometimes considered unfair or out of context in an otherwise automated world; as online games expanded, gamemaster duties expanded to include being a customer service representative for an online community. A gamemaster in such a g
Bulbinella rossii known as the Ross lily, is a species of flowering plant in genus Bulbinella. It is one of the subantarctic megaherbs; the specific epithet honours British Antarctic explorer James Clark Ross, who visited Campbell Island in December 1840. Bulbinella rossii is a large, perennial lily, growing up to 1 m in height and with a basal diameter of 40 mm; the dark green, strap-like leaves are 0.6–1 m long and 15–60 mm wide. The inflorescence is a cylindrical raceme up to 600 mm long; the golden yellow flowers are densely crowded, 10–14 mm in diameter, are flushed with orange. The ovoid seed capsule is 10 mm long, containing narrowly dark brown seeds; the plant flowers from fruits from December to March. The lily is endemic to New Zealand's subantarctic Campbell Islands. There it is widespread from sea level to the tops of the island mountains; because it thrives where the ground has been disturbed, because it is not palatable to browsing animals, it is common near old human habitation sites and may form dense colonies in open herbfield and tussock grassland.
The species is listed as "At Risk - Naturally Uncommon" in the most recent assessment using New Zealand Threatened Classification for plants, because of its restricted range. "Bulbinella rossii". Line. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. 2010-04-06. Retrieved 2011-01-25
Wild Blood is an Italian film directed in 2008 by Marco Tullio Giordana. This film tells the story of two renowned actors of the Fascist cinema, Luisa Ferida and Osvaldo Valenti, who were supporters of the Italian Social Republic. Accused of collaboration and torture, they were shot by the Partisans on 30 April 1945, after the country was liberated; the movie was included in the "uncategorized" group at Cannes Film Festival in 2008. Luca Zingaretti as Osvaldo Valenti Monica Bellucci as Luisa Ferida Alessio Boni as Golfiero/Taylor Maurizio Donadoni as Vero Marozin Alessandro Di Natale as Dalmazio Luigi Diberti as Cardi Tresy Taddei as Irene Mattia Sbragia as the film director Luigi Lo Cascio as the partisan Sonia Bergamasco as the prisoner Official website Wild Blood on IMDb Wild Blood at AllMovie
Mihal Zallari was an Albanian historian, politician and poet. He served as Chairman of the National Parliament of Albania in 1943–44. Born in Frashër on 25 September 1894 he hailed from the Zallari family, a branch of the Frashëri family. Zallari studied at the German school of Istanbul and political science at the University of Vienna, his brother Leonidha Frashëri-Zallari, a collaborator of Mit'hat Frashëri, was a deputy of the Albanian parliament as a representative of Gjirokastër in 1921–23 and 1943–44 and had served as prefect of Delvinë. In 1943 as a deputy of Gjirokastër he became a member of the executive committee of the assembly of the State of Albania and a chairman of the assembly on November 9, four days after the previous chairman Idhomene Kosturi was assassinated in Durrës. In 1944 Zallari intervened in the case of the employees of the state radio of Tiranë, who were to be arrested and executed by the German military authorities, which suspected them as Communists, prevented their arrest.
During that period along with other members of the government he was granting Jewish refugees in Albania identification and citizenship as ethnic Albanians in order to prevent their arrest and deportation. These activities had a significant effect in his trial after the war, in which Zallari was sentenced to thirty years in prison, he was released in 1962 and died on 17 March 1976, aged 81. Throughout his life Zallari was a Germanophile. Zallari viewed imperialism and internationalism as two synonymous views, which represented the extreme opposite of nationalism, he further divided internationalism/imperialism into two forms: religious. Drowned by Banality, Mihal Zallari, 1936 Selected poems
The structure–activity relationship is the relationship between the chemical structure of a molecule and its biological activity. This idea was first presented by Crum-Brown and Fraser in 1865; the analysis of SAR enables the determination of the chemical group responsible for evoking a target biological effect in the organism. This allows modification of the effect or the potency of a bioactive compound by changing its chemical structure. Medicinal chemists use the techniques of chemical synthesis to insert new chemical groups into the biomedical compound and test the modifications for their biological effects; this method was refined to build mathematical relationships between the chemical structure and the biological activity, known as quantitative structure–activity relationships. A related term is structure affinity relationship; the large number of synthetic organic chemicals in production presents a huge challenge for timely collection of detailed environmental data on each compound. The concept of structure biodegradability relationships has been applied to explain variability in persistence among organic chemicals in the environment.
Early attempts consisted of examining the degradation of a homologous series of structurally related compounds under identical conditions with a complex "universal" inoculum derived from numerous sources. This approach revealed that the nature and positions of substituents affected the apparent biodegradability of several chemical classes, with resulting general themes, such as halogens conferring persistence under aerobic conditions. Subsequently, more quantitative approaches have been developed using principles of QSAR and accounting for the role of sorption in chemical fate. Combinatorial chemistry Congener Conformation activity relationship Quantitative structure–activity relationship Molecular Property Explorer QSAR World
Philip J. "P. J." Crowley is the former United States Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, having been sworn into office on May 26, 2009. He resigned on March 2011, following comments he made about the treatment of Chelsea Manning. Crowley was named the 2011-2012 recipient of the General Omar N. Bradley Chair in Strategic Leadership, a joint initiative among the United States Army War College, Dickinson College and the Pennsylvania State University – Dickinson School of Law. While in residence, Crowley conducted classes at the three institutions, he is teaching at George Washington University and is affiliated with the university's Institute for Public Diplomacy and Global Communication. Crowley was born in Massachusetts, his mother, Mary Crowley, was a homemaker. His father, William C. Crowley, was a vice president for public relations with the Boston Red Sox, a former U. S. Army Air Forces B-17 pilot. Crowley was educated at the College of the Holy Cross, graduating with a B. A. in English in 1973.
He joined the United States Air Force in June 1973. He spent 26 years in the Air Force, was stationed in New Hampshire, New York, Colorado, Washington and Germany. During the Gulf War, he was stationed at Incirlik Air Base for four months. In 1997, he was named senior director of public affairs for the United States National Security Council and Special Assistant to the President for national security affairs. During the Kosovo War, he worked with Javier Solana, Secretary General of NATO from April to June 1999, he retired from the Air Force in September 1999 at the rank of Colonel. In 2001, Crowley became a vice president of the Insurance Information Institute, specializing in the impact of terrorism on insurance in the wake of the September 11 attacks, he joined the Center for American Progress as a senior fellow in 2003 becoming the Center's director of national defense and homeland security. In 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Crowley to be Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs.
Crowley was sworn into office on May 26, 2009. He was noted for his dry wit: when reminding Americans on the ban on visiting North Korea, he pointed out on Twitter that "we only have a handful of former presidents" to visit North Korea and retrieve captured Americans, he was forced to apologize to Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi after telling an interviewer that Gaddafi's speech to the United Nations did not make "a lot of sense". On March 10, 2011, Crowley publicly criticized the Pentagon for the alleged mistreatment of military prisoner Chelsea Manning, the U. S. soldier suspected of providing whistle-blower website WikiLeaks with classified diplomatic cables. Crowley told an audience of about twenty people at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Center for Future Civic Media that while Manning was "in the right place," she was being mistreated by the United States Department of Defense. Crowley called the Defense Department's treatment of Manning "ridiculous and counterproductive and stupid."
When asked "Are you on the record?" by British journalist Philippa Thomas, Crowley replied "Sure."His remarks, revealed in Thomas's blog, caused anger in the White House. On March 13, 2011, Crowley resigned from office. In his resignation letter, Crowley stood by his remarks, writing that while the "unauthorized disclosure of classified information is a serious crime under U. S. law", the "exercise of power in today's challenging times and relentless media environment must be prudent and consistent with our laws and values". Archived Profile from www.whorunsgov.com Philip J. Crowley on Twitter Appearances on C-SPAN