Syracuse University is a private research university in Syracuse, New York, United States. The institution's roots can be traced to the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, founded in 1831 by the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York. After several years of debate over relocating the college to Syracuse, the university was established in 1870, independent of the college. Since 1920, the university has identified itself as nonsectarian, although it maintains a relationship with The United Methodist Church; the campus is in the University Hill neighborhood of Syracuse and southeast of downtown, on one of the larger hills. Its large campus features an eclectic mix of buildings, ranging from nineteenth-century Romanesque Revival structures to contemporary buildings. SU is organized into 13 schools and colleges, with nationally recognized programs in information studies and library science, communications, business administration, inclusive education and wellness, sport management, public administration and the College of Arts and Sciences.
Syracuse University athletic teams, known as the Orange, participate in 20 intercollegiate sports. SU is a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference, or ACC for all NCAA Division I athletics, except for the men's rowing and women's ice hockey teams. SU is a member of the Eastern College Athletic Conference; the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary was founded in 1831 by the Genesee Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York, south of Rochester. In 1850, it was resolved to enlarge the institution from a seminary into a college, or to connect a college with the seminary, becoming Genesee College. However, the location was soon thought by many to be insufficiently central, its difficulties were compounded by the next set of technological changes: the railroad that displaced the Erie Canal as the region's economic engine bypassed Lima completely. The trustees of the struggling college decided to seek a locale whose economic and transportation advantages could provide a better base of support.
The college began looking for a new home at the same time Syracuse, ninety miles to the east, was engaged in a search to bring a university to the city, having failed to convince Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White to locate Cornell University there rather than in Ithaca. Syracuse resident White pressed that the new university should locate on the hill in Syracuse due to the city's attractive transportation hub, which would ease the recruitment of faculty and other persons of note. However, as a young carpenter working in Syracuse, Cornell had been twice robbed of his wages, thereafter considered Syracuse a Sodom and Gomorrah insisting the university be in Ithaca on his large farm on East Hill, overlooking the town and Cayuga Lake. Meanwhile, there were several years of dispute between the Methodist ministers and contending cities across the state, over proposals to move Genesee College to Syracuse. At the time, the ministers wanted a share of the funds from the Morrill Land Grant Act for Genesee College.
They agreed to a quid pro quo donation of $25,000 from Senator Cornell in exchange for their support for his bill. Cornell insisted the bargain be written into the bill and Cornell became New York State's Land Grant University in 1865. In 1869, Genesee College obtained New York State approval to move to Syracuse, but Lima got a court injunction to block the move, Genesee stayed in Lima until it was dissolved in 1875. By that time, the court injunction had been made moot by the founding of a new university on March 24, 1870. On that date the State of New York granted the new Syracuse University its own charter, independent of Genesee College; the City of Syracuse had offered $100,000 to establish the school. Bishop Jesse Truesdell Peck had donated $25,000 to the proposed school and was elected the first president of the Board of Trustees. Rev. Daniel Steele, a former Genesee College president, served as the first administrative leader of Syracuse until its chancellor was appointed; the university opened in September 1871 in rented space downtown.
George F. Comstock, a member of the new university's board of trustees, had offered the school 50 acres of farmland on a hillside to the southeast of the city center. Comstock intended the hill to develop as an integrated whole; the university was founded as coeducational. President Peck stated at the opening ceremonies, "The conditions of admission shall be equal to all persons... There shall be no invidious discrimination here against woman.... Brains and heart shall have a fair chance... " Syracuse implemented this policy with a high proportion of women students. In the College of Liberal Arts, the ratio between male and female students during the 19th century was even; the College of Fine Arts was predominantly female, a low ratio of women enrolled in the College of Medicine and the College of Law. Men and women were taught together in the same courses, many extra-curricular activities were coeducational as well. Syracuse developed "women-only" organizations and clubs. Coeducation at Syracuse traced its roots to the early days of Genesee College where educators and students like Frances Willard and Belva Lockwood were influenced by the Women's movement in nearby Seneca Falls, NY.
However, the progressive "co-ed" policies practiced at Genesee would soon find controversy at the new university in Syracuse. C
Cloris Leachman is an American actress and comedian. In a career spanning over seven decades she has won eight Primetime Emmy Awards, a Daytime Emmy Award, an Academy Award for her role in The Last Picture Show; as Miss Chicago, Leachman competed in the 20th Miss America pageant and placed in the Top 16 in 1946. Leachman's longest-running role was the nosy and cunning landlady Phyllis Lindstrom on the CBS sitcom The Mary Tyler Moore Show and its spin-off, Phyllis, in the 1970s, she appeared in three Mel Brooks films, including Young Frankenstein, starred as Beverly Ann Stickle on the NBC sitcom The Facts of Life from 1986–88, appeared as Granny in The Beverly Hillbillies. In the 2000s, Leachman had a recurring role as Grandma Ida on the Fox sitcom Malcolm in the Middle, appeared as a roaster in the Comedy Central Roast of Bob Saget in 2008, she was a contestant on the seventh season of the ABC reality competition series Dancing with the Stars in 2008, paired with Corky Ballas. She is the oldest contestant to have danced on the series.
From 2010–14, she starred as Maw Maw on the Fox sitcom Raising Hope. In 2017, she played the role of Zorya Vechernyaya on the Starz drama American Gods. Leachman was born in Des Moines, the eldest of three sisters, she attended Theodore Roosevelt High School. Her parents were Berkeley Claiborne "Buck" Leachman. Mr. Leachman worked at the family-owned Leachman Lumber Company; the youngest sister, was not in show business. Middle sister Claiborne Cary was an singer, her maternal grandmother was of Bohemian descent. As a teenager, Leachman appeared in plays by local youth on weekends at Drake University in Des Moines. After graduating from high school, she enrolled at Illinois State University studying drama, Northwestern University, where she was a member of Gamma Phi Beta and a classmate of future comic actors Paul Lynde and Charlotte Rae, she began appearing on television and in films shortly after competing in Miss America in 1946. After winning a scholarship in the Miss America pageant placing in the Top 16, Leachman studied acting under Elia Kazan at the Actors Studio in New York City.
She was cast as a replacement for the role of Nellie Forbush during the original run of Rodgers and Hammerstein's South Pacific. A few years she appeared in the Broadway-bound production of William Inge's Come Back, Little Sheba, but left the show before it reached Broadway when Katharine Hepburn asked her to co-star in a production of William Shakespeare's As You Like It. Leachman appeared in many live television broadcasts in the 1950s, including such programs as Suspense and Studio One, she made her feature film debut as an extra in Carnegie Hall, but had her first real role in Robert Aldrich's film noir classic Kiss Me Deadly, released in 1955. Leachman was several months pregnant during the filming, appears in one scene running down a darkened highway wearing only a trench coat. A year she appeared opposite Paul Newman and Lee Marvin in The Rack, she appeared with Newman again in a brief role in the Sundance Kid. She continued to work in television, with appearances in Rawhide and in The Twilight Zone episode "It's a Good Life" as well as the sequel "It's Still a Good Life" in the 2002-2003 UPN series revival.
During this period, Leachman appeared opposite John Forsythe on the popular anthology Alfred Hitchcock Presents in an episode titled "Premonition". She appeared as Ruth Martin, Timmy Martin's adoptive mother, in the last half of season four of Lassie. Jon Provost, who played Timmy, said, "Cloris did not feel challenged by the role; when she realized that all she'd be doing was baking cookies, she wanted out." She was replaced by June Lockhart in 1958. That same year, she appeared in an episode of One Step Beyond titled "The Dark Room", in which she portrayed an American photographer living in Paris. In 1960, she played Marilyn Parker, the roommate of Janice Rule's character, Elena Nardos, in the Checkmate episode "The Mask of Vengeance". In 1966, she guest starred on Perry Mason as Gloria Shine in "The Case of the Crafty Kidnapper". In late 1970, Leachman starred in one episode of That Girl as Sandy. Leachman won an Oscar for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in The Last Picture Show, based on the bestselling book by Larry McMurtry.
She played the high school gym teacher's neglected wife, with whom Timothy Bottoms' character has an affair. Director Peter Bogdanovich had predicted during production that she would win an Academy Award for her performance; the part was offered to Ellen Burstyn, but Burstyn wanted another role in the film. Leachman has won a record-setting eight Primetime and one Daytime Emmy Awards and has been nominated more than 20 times, most notably for playing Phyllis Lindstrom on The Mary Tyler Moore Show. Lindstrom was a recurring character on the program for five years and was subsequently featured in a spinoff series, for which Leachman won a Golden Globe Award; the series ran for two seasons. Its cancellation was due to the deaths of three regular or recurring cast members during its brief run: Barbara Colby, Judith Lowry and Burt Mustin. In 1977, she guest-starred on The Muppet Show, episode 2.24. In 1978, she won the Sarah Siddons Award for her work in Chicago theater. In 1987, she hosted the VHS releases of Schoolhouse Rock! and portrayed the evil witch Griselda for Di
Camp Fire (organization)
Camp Fire Camp Fire USA and Camp Fire Girls of America, is a co-ed inclusive youth development organization. Camp Fire was the first multicultural organization for girls in America, its programs emphasize other outdoor activities for youth. Its informal roots extend back to 1910, with efforts by Mrs. Charles Farnsworth in Thetford and Luther Gulick M. D. and his wife Charlotte Vedder Gulick on Sebago Lake, near South Casco, Maine. Camp Fire Girls, as it was known at the time, was created as the sister organization to the Boy Scouts of America; the organization changed its name in 1985 to Camp Fire Boys and Girls when membership eligibility was expanded to include boys. In 2001, the name Camp Fire USA was adopted, in 2012 it became Camp Fire. Camp Fire's programs, including small group experiences, after-school programs and environmental education, child care and service learning, build confidence in younger children and provide hands-on, youth driven leadership experiences for older youth. In 1910, young girls in Thetford, watched their brothers and schoolmates – all Boy Scouts – practice their parts in the community's 150th anniversary, which would be celebrated the following summer.
The pageant's organizer, William Chauncey Langdon, promised the girls that they, would have an organized role in the pageant, although no organization such as Boy Scouts existed for girls. Langdon consulted with Mrs. Charles Farnsworth, preceptress of Horace Mann School near Thetford, Vermont. Both approached Luther Halsey Gulick M. D. about creating a national organization for girls. Gulick introduced the idea to friends, among them G. Stanley Hall, Ernest Thompson Seton, James West, executive secretary of the Boy Scouts. After many discussions and help from Gulick and his wife Charlotte, Langdon named the group of Thetford girls the Camp Fire Girls. In 1907, the Gulicks had established Camp WoHeLo, a camp for girls, on Lake Sebago, near South Casco, Maine. There were seventeen WoHeLo maidens at the camp in the summer of 1910. Both the Vermont group and the Maine group would lead to the creation of the organization formally organized as Camp Fire Girls in 1912. On March 22, 1911 Dr. Gulick organized a meeting "To consider ways and means of doing for the girls what the Boy Scout movement is designed to do for the boys".
On April 10, 1911 James E. West issued a press release from Boy Scouts of America headquarters announcing that with the success of the Boy Scout movement a group of preeminent New York men and women were organizing a group to provide outdoor activities for girls, similar to those in the Boy Scout movement. In 1911, the Camp Fire Girls planned to merge with the Girls Scouts of America formed by Clara A. Lisetor-Lane of Des Moines and Girl Guides of America to form the Girl Pioneers of America, but relationships fractured and the merger failed. Grace Seton quit the group over the rejection of her committee's draft of a handbook, followed by Linda Beard in September 1911 over difference with the Gulicks. However, there was an organization meeting held by Lina Beard on February 7, 1912 in Flushing, New York of a Girl Pioneers of America organization. Camp Fire Girls of America was incorporated in Washington, D. C, as a national agency on March 17, 1912. In late 1912, Juliette Gordon Low proposed that the Camp Fire Girls merge with her group, Girl Guides of America, but was rejected in January 1913 as the Camp Fire Girls were the larger group.
By December 1913, Camp Fire Girls' membership was an estimated 60,000, many of whom began attending affiliated summer camps. The Bluebird program was introduced that year for younger girls, offering exploration of ideas and creative play built around family and community. In 1989 the Bluebirds became Starflight; the first official Camp Fire handbook was published in 1914. During World War I Camp Fire Girls helped to sell over one million dollars in Liberty Bonds and over $900,000 in Thrift Stamps; the first local Camp Fire council was formed in 1918 in Mo.. In 1977 Kansas City would become the national headquarters for Camp Fire. Camp Fire celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1960 with the "She Cares... Do You?" program. During the project, Camp Fire planted more than two million trees, built 13,000 bird houses, completed several other conservation-oriented tasks. To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Camp Fire Girls, in connection with their Golden Jubilee Convention celebration, a stamp designed by H. Edward Oliver was issued featuring the Camp Fire Girls insignia.
A new program, Junior Hi, wherein twelve- and thirteen-year-old girls explore new interests as a group and as individuals was created in 1962. This program name changed to Discovery; that same year, the WoHeLo medallion became honor. In 1969, Camp Fire Girls were allowed to be "Participants" in BSA's Explorer Posts; this arrangement ended in 1971. Membership was at 274,000 by 1974 in 1,300 communities of the United States. Camp Fire expanded its horizons in 1975. While boys were invited to Camp Fire Girls Horizon Conferences in the late 1960s and early 1970s, official membership was not offered them until 1975, when the organization became coeducational. Camp Fire decided boys and girls should be together in one organization, so they learn to play and work alongside each other and appreciate their similarities and differences in positive ways. In 1975, the Camp Fire Girls of America changed its membership policy to being co-ed and its name to Ca
The Red Violin
The Red Violin is a 1998 drama film directed by François Girard and starring Samuel L. Jackson, Carlo Cecchi and Sylvia Chang, it spans four centuries and five countries as it tells the story of a mysterious red-coloured violin and its many owners. The instrument, made in Cremona in 1681 with a future forecast by tarot cards, makes its way to Montreal in 1997, where an appraiser identifies it and it goes to auction; the film was an international co-production among companies in Canada and the United Kingdom. The screenplay was written by Don McKellar, who acts, Girard, inspired by a historic 1720 Stradivarius violin nicknamed the "Red Mendelssohn"; the film was shot in Austria, China and Italy and features a soundtrack by John Corigliano, with solos performed by violinist Joshua Bell. After premiering in the Venice Film Festival, it received some positive reviews from critics and grossed $10 million in the U. S. box office. It received numerous honours, including the Academy Award for Best Original Score and eight Genie Awards, including Best Motion Picture.
Cremona, 1681 Nicolò Bussotti is a violin-maker whose Anna Rudolfi, is pregnant. Anna asks her servant Cesca to foretell her unborn child's future. Cesca cannot determine the future of someone not born, but she does offer to read Anna's future using tarot cards; the first, The Moon, signifies. In the meantime, Nicolò has fashioned a new violin, he is about to varnish it when he finds that both the child have died. Distraught, Nicolò varnished the violin with a red color; the violin makes its way to an orphanage in Austria. Vienna, 1793 Cesca turns over the second card, The Hanged Man, which means disease and suffering for those around Anna. At the orphanage, the violin comes into the possession of Kaspar Weiss, a young but brilliant violin prodigy; the monks at the orphanage ask a violin instructor, Poussin, to adopt the boy to further his development. Poussin brings the violin to Vienna, they learn that Prince Mannsfeld is visiting Vienna and is looking for a prodigy to accompany him back to Prussia, promising a generous reward.
Poussin puts Weiss through a strict practice regimen. However, the regimens and "Poussin Meter" take a toll on Weiss' heart defect. On the day of the recital, as he starts playing, Weiss's heart gives out from the stress and he collapses, dead. Weiss is buried at the orphanage; when Poussin inquires about the violin, the monks explain. The violin is stolen by grave robbers travelling in a gypsy procession, who take it to England. Oxford, late 1890s Cesca's third card is The Devil and she explains that Anna will meet a handsome and intelligent man that will seduce her. Frederick Pope comes across the gypsy procession setting up camp on his estate, as a gypsy woman plays the violin, he offers his hospitality in exchange for the violin. Frederick finds great praise in his public concerts with the violin as well as his compositions, with his lover Victoria Byrd serving as his carnal muse. Victoria, a writer, announces to Frederick that she needs to travel to Russia to research a novel she is working on.
While Victoria is absent, Frederick degenerates. When Victoria does not receive his letters for a full week, she resolves to return immediately, but when she arrives, she finds him in the arms of the violinist gypsy woman. In a moment of rage, Victoria shoots the violin, grazing its neck and detaching its strings and tailpiece, before storming out. Frederick's final letter to Victoria states that he will be committing suicide and that he is leaving his entire estate to her; the violin ends up in the hands of Frederick's Chinese servant, who returns to Shanghai and sells it to an antiques dealer, who repairs the damage. The instrument is sold to a young woman with her daughter during the 1930s. Shanghai, late 1960s Cesca predicts the fourth card, means tough times ahead, featuring a trial and persecution, where Anna shall be guilty. In the chaos of China's Cultural Revolution, any ideas or items deemed "bourgeois" are denounced and should be destroyed. One target for public denunciation and self-criticism is a music teacher named Zhou Yuan, berated for his fondness for Western classical music.
A political officer, Xiang Pei defends Zhou. Xiang returns to her residence and retrieves the Red Violin, given as a gift from her mother. Several Red Guards raid Xiang's apartment after learning of its existence. Xiang pleads with him to take the violin to keep it safe, he relents and vows to keep it hidden, while Xiang leaves to face possible prosecution from Communist Party officials. Years Chinese police enter Zhou's home to find his dead body amid a "sanctuary" of dozens of musical instruments. Upon this discovery, the present-day Chinese government ships these items to Montreal for appraisal and sale at auction. Montréal, 1997 The final card, Cesca sees not as predicting death, due to its upside-down positioning, as rebirth. Morritz arrives in Montreal as an appraiser for the violins sent by the Chinese government, he notices the Red Violin and believes it may be the legendary last violin of Nicolò Bussotti. He has restorer Evan Williams perform some work on it, while sending samples of the varnish to a lab at the University of Montreal.
At the same time, he purchases a copy of the Red Violin from a private collection in London, the closest copy to the original available. When the results of the varnish te
Delta Gamma known as DG, is a sorority in the United States and Canada with over 250,000 initiated members. It has more than 200 alumnae groups; the organization's executive office is in Ohio. The Delta Gamma Foundation gives more than 150,000 volunteer service hours and raises hundreds of thousands of dollars annually for scholarships and grants for its members and assistance for the visually impaired, support for U. S. veterans. In 2013, Delta Gamma founded the #IAmASororityWoman campaign; this movement calls on members of any sorority to spark meaningful conversations about what sorority women value, in an effort to combat common stereotypes. Delta Gamma is one of 26 national sororities which are members under the umbrella organization of the National Panhellenic Conference. Delta Gamma was founded in December 1873 at the Lewis School for Girls in Oxford, Mississippi near the University of Mississippi; the group's founders were Mary Comfort Leonard, Eva Webb Dodd, Anna Boyd Ellington. The early growth for Delta Gamma was confined to women's colleges in the southern United States.
Within a few years, Delta Gamma had established itself in the northern United States and to the East with the help of George Banta, a member of Phi Delta Theta Fraternity and Delta Gamma's only male initiate. Banta played an integral part in the expansion of Delta Gamma chapters from Oxford, Mississippi, to well-recognized northern colleges. In 1882, Banta married a Delta Gamma at Franklin College. After Lillian died in 1885, he was remarried to Ellen Lee Pleasants. In his years, he assisted with the rewriting of the Delta Gamma ritual, he visited Delta Gamma conventions participating as a guest speaker. He appeared for his last speech in 1934, a year before his death; as a result of the assistance provided by Banta, Delta Gamma retains close historical ties with the Phi Delta Theta fraternity. Delta Gamma was one of seven charter members of the National Panhellenic Conference when the first inter-sorority meeting was held in Boston, Massachusetts in 1891. Delta Gamma and the six other charter members formally joined the National Panhellenic Conference in 1902.
The Delta Gamma Foundation was formed in 1951. Today, Delta Gamma has 151 collegiate chapters in the United States and Canada, it has more than 200 alumnae groups in the United States and England. Although Delta Gamma has no official jewel, the fraternity recognizes the anchor as its official symbol, its official colors are bronze and blue; the official flower is the cream-colored rose, the only sorority flower registered with the American Rose Society. The Hannah Doll is their mascot; the badge of Delta Gamma may be worn only by initiated members. Before the adoption of the golden anchor, the symbol of Delta Gamma was a "H" for the word "Hope". In 1877, the original "Hope" badge was changed to the traditional symbol of the anchor. Today's badge has a small cable wrapping around the top of the anchor, with the Greek letters Tau Delta Eta on the crosspiece. Delta Gamma's motto is "Do Good." The Delta Gamma Foundation has three main focuses: Service for Sight, grants to the fraternity for educational and leadership purposes, grants to individual members.
Members contribute to its funds, which go into Service for Sight, fellowships, loans and educational programming, assistance to members in crisis. Delta Gamma gives more than 150,000 volunteer hours to Service for Sight each year; the sorority is one of the first recipients of the Helen Keller Philanthropic Service Award, given by the American Foundation for the Blind for assistance to those who are visually impaired and for sight conservation, it is the first recipient of the Virginia Boyce Award presented by Prevent Blindness America Anchor Splash and Anchor Games are the sorority's fundraising events hosted on college campuses across North America. The proceeds raised at these events support Delta Gamma's philanthropies; the official Delta Gamma magazine is the Anchora, published continuously since 1884. The Anchora serves as an archival resource of member activities; the oldest existing chapter of Delta Gamma, Eta, is located at the University of Akron in Akron and was founded in 1879. The Zeta Phi chapter at Harvard University announced in 2018 that it was closing due to Harvard's policy against gender-segregated organizations.
Arts and broadcast journalism Mona Kosar Abdi – multimedia journalist with WSET ABC 13, the Al Jazeera Media Network and KGTV Channel 10 Jill Arrington – former sports reporter for CBS Diem Brown – Reality TV star Sabrina Bryan – co-star of Disney Channel's original TV film series and musical group The Cheetah Girls, contestant on Dancing with the Stars seasons 5 and 15 Nadine Jolie Courtney – beauty journalist, Bravo TV personality Newlyweds: The First Year Cheryl Crawford – Broadway producer. Patricia Heaton – actress, Everybody Loves Raymond E. D. Tarbox Hill – Fox and Friends host Christine Lahti – actress Julia Louis-Dreyfus – Emmy-winning actress Joan Lunden – former host of Good Morning America Donna Mills – actress, Knots Landing Terry Murphy – Emmy Award–winning journalist of Hard Copy Cristina Perez – lawyer, television personality, radio host, author Kyra Phillips – CNN anchor, four-time Emmy award winner Alice Ripley – Broadway actress.
Fraternities and sororities
Fraternities and sororities, or Greek letter organizations, are social organizations at colleges and universities. A form of the social fraternity, they are prominent in the United States, with small numbers of non-residential fraternities existing in France and the Philippines. Similar organizations exist in other countries as well, including the Studentenverbindungen of German-speaking countries. Similar, but much less common, organizations exist for secondary school students, as do fraternal orders for other adults. In modern usage, "Greek letter organization" is synonymous with the terms "fraternity" and "sorority". Two additional types of fraternities, professional fraternities and honor societies, incorporate some limited elements of traditional fraternity organization, but are considered a different type of association. Traditional fraternities of the type described in this article are called "social fraternities". Membership in a fraternity or sorority is obtained as an undergraduate student but continues, for life.
Some of these organizations can accept graduate students as well as undergraduates, per constitutional provisions. Individual fraternities and sororities vary in organization and purpose, but most share five common elements: Secrecy Single-sex membership Selection of new members on the basis of a two-part vetting and probationary process known as rushing and pledging Ownership and occupancy of a residential property where undergraduate members live A set of complex identification symbols that may include Greek letters, armorial achievements, badges, hand signs, passwords and colorsFraternities and sororities engage in philanthropic activities, host parties, provide "finishing" training for new members such as instruction on etiquette and manners, create networking opportunities for their newly graduated members; the first fraternity in North America to incorporate most of the elements of modern fraternities was Phi Beta Kappa, founded at the College of William and Mary in 1775. The founding of Phi Beta Kappa followed the earlier establishment of two other secret student societies that had existed at that campus as early as 1750.
In 1779 Phi Beta Kappa expanded to include chapters at Yale. By the early 19th century, the organization transformed itself into a scholastic honor society and abandoned secrecy. In 1825, Kappa Alpha Society, the oldest extant fraternity to retain its social characteristic, was established at Union College. In 1827, Sigma Phi and Delta Phi were founded at the same institution, creating the Union Triad; the further birthing of Psi Upsilon, Chi Psi and Theta Delta Chi collectively established Union College as the Mother of Fraternities. It should be noted that the social fraternity Chi Phi, although formed in 1854, traces its roots to 1824, oldest.org considers it the oldest social fraternity. Fraternities represented the intersection between dining clubs, literary societies and secret initiatory orders such as Freemasonry, their early growth was opposed by university administrators, though the increasing influence of fraternity alumni, as well as several high-profile court cases, succeeded in muting opposition by the 1880s.
The first fraternity meeting hall, or lodge, seems to have been that of the Alpha Epsilon chapter of Chi Psi at the University of Michigan in 1845, leading to a tradition in that fraternity to name its buildings "lodges". As fraternity membership was punishable by expulsion at many colleges at this time, the house was located deep in the woods; the first residential chapter home, built by a fraternity, is believed to have been Alpha Delta Phi's chapter at Cornell, with groundbreaking dated to 1878. Alpha Tau Omega became the first fraternity to own a residential house in the South when, in 1880, its chapter at the University of the South acquired one. Chapters of many fraternities followed suit and less building them with support of alumni. Phi Sigma Kappa's chapter home at Cornell, completed in 1902, is the oldest such house still occupied by its fraternal builders. Sororities began to develop in 1851 with the formation of the Adelphean Society Alpha Delta Pi, though fraternity-like organizations for women didn't take their current form until the establishment of Pi Beta Phi in 1867 and Kappa Alpha Theta in 1870.
The term "sorority" was invented by a professor of Latin who felt the word "fraternity" was inappropriate for a group of ladies. The first organization to use the term "sorority" was Gamma Phi Beta, established in 1874; the development of "fraternities for women" during this time was a major accomplishment in the way of women's rights and equality. By mere existence, these organizations were defying the odds; the first "Women's Fraternities" not only had to overcome "restrictive social customs, unequal status under the law and the underlying presumption that they were less able than men," but at the same time had to deal with the same challenges as fraternities with college administrations. Today, both social and multicultural sororities are present on more than 650 college campuses across the United States and Canada; the National Panhellenic Conference serves as the "umbrella organization" for 26 national sororities. Founded in 1902, the NPC is one of the oldest and largest women's membership organizations, representing more than 4 million women at 655 college/university campuses and 4,500 local alumnae chapters in the U.
S. and Canada. In 1867, the Chi Phi fraternity established its Theta chapter at the University of Edi
Brown is a composite color. In the CMYK color model used in printing or painting, brown is made by combining red and yellow, or red and blue. In the RGB color model used to project colors onto television screens and computer monitors, brown is made by combining red and green, in specific proportions. In painting, brown is made by adding black to orange. Mixing red-green-blue pigments makes mud color; the brown color is seen in nature, in wood, human hair color, eye color and skin pigmentation. Brown is the color of rich soil. According to public opinion surveys in Europe and the United States, brown is the least favorite color of the public; the term is in origin for any dusky or dark shade of color. The first recorded use of brown as a color name in English was in 1000; the Common Germanic adjective *brûnoz, *brûnâ meant both dark colors and a glistening or shining quality, whence burnish. The current meaning developed in Middle English from the 14th century. Words for the color brown around the world come from foods or beverages.
In Southeast Asia, the color name comes from chocolate: coklat in Malay. In Japan, the word chairo means the color of tea. Brown has been used in art since prehistoric times. Paintings using umber, a natural clay pigment composed of iron oxide and manganese oxide, have been dated to 40,000 BC. Paintings of brown horses and other animals have been found on the walls of the Lascaux cave dating back about 17,300 years; the female figures in ancient Egyptian tomb paintings have brown skin, painted with umber. Light tan was used on painted Greek amphorae and vases, either as a background for black figures, or the reverse; the Ancient Greeks and Romans produced a fine reddish-brown ink, of a color called sepia, made from the ink of a variety of cuttlefish. This ink was used by Leonardo da Vinci and other artists during the Renaissance, by artists up until the present time. In Ancient Rome, brown clothing was associated with barbarians; the term for the plebeians, or urban poor, was "pullati", which meant "those dressed in brown".
In the Middle Ages brown robes were worn by monks of the Franciscan order, as a sign of their humility and poverty. Each social class was expected to wear a color suitable to their station. Russet was a coarse homespun cloth made of wool and dyed with woad and madder to give it a subdued grey or brown shade. By the statute of 1363, poor English people were required to wear russet; the medieval poem Piers Plowman describes the virtuous Christian: And is gladde of a goune of a graye russetAs of a tunicle of Tarse or of trye scarlet. In the Middle Ages dark brown pigments were used in art; the umbers were not used in Europe before the end of the fifteenth century. Artists began using far greater use of browns when oil painting arrived in the late fifteenth century. During the Renaissance, artists used four different browns. In Northern Europe, Jan van Eyck featured rich earth browns in his portraits to set off the brighter colors; the 17th and 18th century saw the greatest use of brown. Caravaggio and Rembrandt Van Rijn used browns to create chiaroscuro effects, where the subject appeared out of the darkness.
Rembrandt added umber to the ground layers of his paintings because it promoted faster drying. Rembrandt began to use new brown pigment, called Cassel earth or Cologne earth; this was a natural earth color composed of over ninety percent organic matter, such as soil and peat. It was used by Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, became known as Van Dyck brown. Brown was hated by the French impressionists, who preferred bright, pure colors; the exception among French 19th-century artists was Paul Gauguin, who created luminous brown portraits of the people and landscapes of French Polynesia. In the late 20th century, brown became a common symbol in western culture for simple, inexpensive and healthy. Bag lunches were carried in plain brown paper bags. Brown bread and brown sugar were viewed as more natural and healthy than white bread and white sugar. Brown is a composite color, made by combining red and black.. It can be thought of as dark orange, but it can be made in other ways. In the RGB color model, which uses red and blue light in various combinations to make all the colors on computer and television screens, it is made by mixing red and green light.
In terms of the visible spectrum, "brown" refers to high wavelength hues, orange, or red, in combination with low luminance or saturation. Since brown may cover a wide range of the visible spectrum, composite adjectives are used such as red brown, yellowish brown, dark brown or light brown; as a color of low intensity, brown is a tertiary color: a mix of the three subtractive primary colors is brown if the cyan content is low. Brown exists as a color perception only in the presence