Bot is a town located in the comarca of Terra Alta, province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain. It is located between the Serra dels Pesells ranges. In 2003 Bot had a total population of 793; the people in the town of Bot have been traditionally engaged in wine production. There was a RENFE railway line from Tortosa to Alcañiz and Zaragoza that used to pass through Bot until 1973; this line was dismantled as a result of a 1962 World Bank report advising the Spanish State to concentrate investment in the great lines and to abandon the less profitable railways connecting rural areas. Since the line was terminated, the rails were pulled off and the Bot train station buildings lie abandoned; the train was affectionately known as "el tramvia" by locals. Official Website Government data pages
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War took place from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with the Anarchists and Communists, fought against the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists and Catholics, led by General Francisco Franco. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets, different views saw it as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, between fascism and communism; the Nationalists won the war in early 1939 and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975. The war began after a pronunciamiento against the Republican government by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces under the leadership of José Sanjurjo; the government at the time was a moderate, liberal coalition of Republicans, supported in the Cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left President Manuel Azaña.
The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups, including both the opposing sides of Alfonsists and the religious conservative Carlists, the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista, a fascist political party. Sanjurjo was killed in an aircraft accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal, whereupon Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists; the coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Burgos, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, Seville. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Valencia, Málaga—did not gain control, those cities remained under the control of the government. Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided; the Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. The Nationalist forces received munitions and air support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico.
Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, continued to recognise the Republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention. Notwithstanding this policy, tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries directly participated in the conflict, they fought in the pro-Republican International Brigades, which included several thousand exiles from pro-Nationalist regimes. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937, they besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war. After much of Catalonia was captured in 1938 and 1939, Madrid cut off from Barcelona, the Republican military position became hopeless. Madrid and Barcelona were occupied without resistance, Franco declared victory and his regime received diplomatic recognition from all non-interventionist governments. Thousands of leftist Spaniards fled to refugee camps in southern France.
Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists. With the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime; the war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Organised purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans; the extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied. The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain; those in favour of reforming Spain's government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain and to establish a liberal state.
The reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government. Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874; until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was based on agriculture. There was little development of a bourgeois commercial class; the land-based oligarchy remained powerful. In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon. Two distinct factors led to the uprisings: a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated owing to increasing political pressure, the short-lived First Spanish Republic was proclaimed. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy. Alejandro Lerroux, Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party, helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was acute.
Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week in Barcelona in 1909. Spain was neutral in World War I. Following the war, the working class, industrial class, military united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuc
Battle of the Ebro
The Battle of the Ebro was the longest and largest battle of the Spanish Civil War. It took place between July and November 1938, with fighting concentrated in two areas on the lower course of the Ebro River, the Terra Alta comarca of Catalonia, the Auts area close to Fayón in the lower Matarranya, Eastern Lower Aragon; these sparsely populated areas saw the largest array of armies in the war. The results of the battle were disastrous for the Second Spanish Republic, with tens of thousands of dead and wounded and little effect on the advance of the Nationalists. By 1938, the Second Spanish Republic was in dire straits; the Republican Northern zone had fallen, in the winter of 1937/38 the Republican Popular Army had spent its forces in the Battle of Teruel, a series of bloody combats in subzero temperatures around the city of Teruel, which ended up being retaken by the Francoist army in February. The Nationalists launched an offensive in Aragon in March without giving their enemies a chance to recover.
Fighting in the middle of bitter winter temperatures, the exhausted Republican army could offer only feeble resistance. By April 15, Franco's troops reached the Mediterranean Sea at Vinaròs, cutting Republican territory in two; as a result, the Nationalist army conquered Lleida and the hydroelectric dams that provided much of the Catalan industrial areas with electricity. On 17 March 1938, after the Anschluss, the French government decided to reopen the frontier; the Republican Army in Catalonia received 18,000 tons of war material between March and mid-June and twelve new divisions were formed from Nationalist prisoners-of-war and an extended call-up, which included conscripts that ranged in age from sixteen years old, the so-called Quinta del Biberón, to middle-aged fathers. A new army, the Ebro's army, was formed. Meanwhile, the Francoist armies attacked the XYZ Line north of Valencia with the intention of capturing the Republican capital, instead of advancing towards Barcelona, fearing that France would enter the war in support of the ailing Republic.
In response to the situation, Spanish premier Juan Negrín approved a plan by General Vicente Rojo Lluch to launch attacks against the main Francoist forces advancing towards Valencia. The purpose of the attacks was to relieve the pressure on Valencia and Catalonia, as well as to show European governments that the Republican government was still viable. In order to distract the Nationalist armies that were advancing towards Valencia, the Popular Republican Army decided upon an offensive in the lower Ebro basin; the size of the army was important but it lacked enough air and artillery support. The Ebro Army was formed on May 15 under Lieutenant Colonel Juan Modesto, merging the 15th and the 5th Army Corps, it would receive reinforcements from 18th Army Corps as soon as the battle began. The 15th Army Corps XV Cuerpo del Ejército was led by Manuel Tagüeña from Escaladei and was formed by the following divisions: 35th International Division led by Commander Pedro Mateo Merino, including the XI, XIII and XV International Brigades.
3rd Division, led by Commander Esteban Cabezos Morente, including the 31st, 33rd and 60th mixed brigades. 42nd Division, under Commander Manuel Alvarez, including the 226th, 227th and 59th brigades. In mid-July the 15th Army Corps was reinforced by the 16th Popular Republican Army Division of the 12th Army Corps, the 3rd Cavalry Regiment, anti-aircraft guns, armoured vehicles and army engineers; the 5th Army Corps V Cuerpo del Ejército Popular, led by Lieutenant Colonel Enrique Líster, with base in Salou: 11th Division led by Commander Joaquim Rodríguez, including the 1st, 9th and 100th mixed brigades. 46th Division led by Commander Valentín González "El Campesino", including the 10th, 60th and 101st mixed brigades. 45th Division, international division led by Lieutenant Colonel Hans Kahle, including the 12th "Garibaldi", 14th "Marsellesa" and 139th mixed brigades. The 12th Army Corps led by Lieutenant Colonel Etelvino Vega, was based at Bisbal de Falset: 16th Division led by Commander Manuel Mora Torres, including the 23rd and 24th mixed brigades.
44th Division led including the 140th, 144th and 145th mixed brigades. The 18th Army Corps, led by Lieutenant Colonel José del Barrio acted as tactical reserve of the two first ones: 27th Division, led by Marcelino Usatorre including the 122nd (with its 1st Battalion, "la Bruixa", 123rd and 124th mixed brigades. 60th Division led including the 95th, 84th and 224th mixed brigades. 43a División, led by Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Beltrán Casaña "l'Esquinazau", including the 72nd, 102nd and 130th mixed brigades. The Morocco Army Corps was positioned on the right bank of the Ebro; the Maestrazgo Army Corps was sent as reinforcements, led by General Rafael García Valiño. General Fidel Davila The Morocco Army Corps Cuerpo del Ejército de Marruecos led by General Juan Yagüe: 40a División 50a División, led by Colonel Campos. 105a DivisiónExcept for the 50a División, made up of inexperienced soldiers, all other divisions were battle-hardened Legionarios, African mercenaries from Ifni and Western Sahara, as well as Carlist and Falangist militias.
The Maestrazgo Army Corps Cuerpo del Ejército del Maestrazgo was led by General Rafael García Valiño. 1a División de Navarra, led by Mohammed el Mizzian. 74a División la Leona, led by Coronel Arias. 84a División. Led by Coronel Galera. 13a División, led by Fernando Barron. The Republican Army spent a week preparing to cross the Ebro; the commandos of the XIV Corps slipped across the river in order to obtain information about the Nationalist positions and the Republican troops rehearsed the crossing in ravines, rivers on the
Prat de Comte
Prat de Comte is a municipality in the comarca of Terra Alta, in the province of Tarragona, Spain. The name of the place has its origins in the Middle Ages, in the words: "el prat donat pel comte", the pasture donated by the Count. Battle of the Ebro Pàgina web de l'Ajuntament Government data pages
Benissanet is a municipality in the comarca of Ribera d'Ebre in the province of Tarragona, Spain. Government data pages
Noucentisme in Catalonia was a Catalan cultural movement of the early 20th century that originated as a reaction against Modernisme, both in art and ideology, was a perception of art opposite to that of avantgardists. In 1906, Eugeni d'Ors coined the term following the Italian tradition of naming styles after the centuries and using the phonetically equivalent words nou and nou to suggest it was a renovation movement; the same year two essential works for Noucentisme were published: "Els fruits saborosos" by poet Josep Carner and "La nacionalitat catalana" by the Conservative politician Enric Prat de la Riba. Despite certain similarities between the movements, it opposed Modernisme, the previous movement, the radical and individualist views and Bohemian lifestyle most of its proponents engaged in. Noucentisme glorified order and what they saw as the spirit of the 20th century and an idealist expectancy of change; the novel was excluded in favour of poetry, more useful to convey the spirit of the style.
The style as a whole shows a predilection for a Classicist approach, Modernism and a struggle to perfect the literary style of language. Artists and politicians were close collaborators, its main defining features in poetry are a return to Apollonian classicism, a refined and accurate language and rejection of abrupt feelings and a particular interest in nature. Its stylistical origins in the tradition started by Josep Torras i Bages, the Escola Mallorquina led by the Conservative Joan Alcover and the priest Miquel Costa i Llobera, the French Parnassian poetry and the Symbolists are obvious in most of the works produced in the period that spans from 1906 to 1923; the Vienna Secession was a key influence to their ideal of beauty in architecture. The architect Rafael Masó i Valentí, works in Girona and its regions, is one of the clearest promoters of nineteenth-century architecture; the architects of the first period, as Josep Maria Pericas mix and nineteenth-century modernist elements in civil engineering.
Its most prominent adherent, Josep Carner, known by his epithet of "prince of the Catalan poets" and produced elaborate, ornate poetry, reminiscent of the baroque and still admired for his beautiful style and refined language. In the following decades, the name of the movement has acquired a negative connotation of an excessively affected and artificial literature, just the opposite of Moderniste Joan Maragall's Romantic theory of "the living word", that is, spontaneity in creation. Painters and sculptors of the Noucentista period are Joaquim Sunyer, Joaquín Torres-García and Manolo Hugué. Catalonia was the therefore wealthiest region of Spain at the time. A change of attitude towards politics among members of Catalan bourgeoisie helped develop the basis of political pragmatism and idealism in Noucentisme. Catalan nationalism was becoming influential in politics for the first time incarned in the right-wing and Catholic party Regionalist League, whose goal, despite having a full national conscience, was to achieve a number of reforms to reassure the hegemony of the Catalan principate within Spain and to become more influential in the decision-making in Spanish politics, instead of achieving formal independence.
Following the disagreements that took place among Catalan politicians, intellectuals and, most prominently, the working class of Barcelona, a segment of the population wished to disengage from Spain. The Catalan nationalist tradition in the 19th century had relied on protectionist views held by both the bourgeoisie and the working classes. On the other hand, an anti-liberal and reactionary Carlism that reclaimed its ancient rights and privileges still existed in the countryside and helped give birth, through Vigatanisme, to the emerging right-wing Catalanism; these new Noucentista views had assimilated and inherited these ideals, but were in favour of more modern values that represented their faith in idealist changes. A majority of members of the industrial bourgeoisie of the country supported the Regionalist League, which became the most influential party until about 1925. Now that they had been given the chance, intellectuals of Noucentisme, led by Eugeni d'Ors, advocated a project of cultural intervention based on four principles: Imperialism, Arbitrarism and Classicism.
Noucentista imperialism was a conservative and up-to-date version of the principles of Spanish Regenerationism designed to make Catalonia the leading region of modernization of the Spanish state and society. Arbitrarism was a philosophy naming literary creation, their particular will could be summed up as an "ideal Catalonia" that would come to replace the "real Catalonia" through the remaining two precepts and Classicism. Their concept of civility was rooted in a vision of an "ideal Catalonia" equalled to that of a Catalan polis ruled on the principles of culture, harmony, a democratic community life and order versus what they saw as the barbaric countryside, their interest in an Apollonian Classicism was not only of a literary nature: they desired formal perfection and flawless proportion to be everywhere. Mediterraneity came to be seen as a synthesis of the Noucentista ideal, their intervention in practice was carried out following three
Modernisme known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the search of a new entitlement of Catalan culture, one of the most predominant cultures within Spain. Nowadays it is considered a movement based on the cultural reivindication of a catalan identity, its main form of expression was in architecture, but many other arts were involved, the design and the decorative arts, which were important in their role as support to architecture. Modernisme was a literary movement. Although Modernisme was part of a general trend that emerged in Europe around the turn of the 20th century, in Catalonia the trend acquired its own unique personality. Modernisme's distinct name comes from its special relationship with Catalonia and Barcelona, which were intensifying their local characteristics for socio-ideological reasons after the revival of Catalan culture and in the context of spectacular urban and industrial development. At the end of the 19th century, architectural tendencies arise in Europe that break with the traditional criteria and seek new ways of building with the intention of the twentieth century, which give great relevance to aesthetics.
This movement is a consequence of the Second Industrial Revolution, which has taken root in the various countries, the advances derived from it, such as electricity, the railroad and the steam engine, which have changed the way of living population and have led to the growth of cities, in which industries have been established that run a growing number of bourgeois. Modernisme was, therefore, an urban and bourgeois style, on horseback between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, it was an international movement with different names being developed all over the western world: Art Nouveau in France and Belgium, Modern Style or Glasgow Style in Scotland and the United Kingdom, Jugendstil in Germany, Secession in Austria, Liberty in Italy, etc. In Catalonia, it had his own personality to speak of Catalan modernisme, due to the large quantity and quality of the works carried out and the great number of leading artists who cultivated this style. Stylistically, it is a heterogeneous movement, with many differences between artists, each one with its personal stamp, but with the same spirit, an eagerness to modernize and Europeanise Catalonia.
The recovery of the medieval architectural past advocated by John Ruskin and Viollet-le-Duc and the aesthetics of William Morris, Walter Crane, Mackintosh, among others, were accepted as the basis for artistic renewal. The Modernistas believed in the creative imagination as a creator of symbols in contrast to eclectics who thought of art as an objective representation of reality. In fact, Modernisme represents all over the world and in Catalonia the freedom to create new forms unacceptable, removing the art of academicism; these new trends become evident in different arts such as architecture, painting, decorative arts, in literature and music. It is considered that Catalan Modernisme began in 1888 as the first universal exhibition in Barcelona but there are features of Modernisme in the new Provincial School of Architecture, inaugurated in Barcelona in 1871 and directed by the architect Elies Rogent i Amat, and before this milestone trends of Modernisme are presented in the work of architects such as Josep Domènech i Estapà, although he himself, refused to be a follower of Modernisme.
The circumstance occurred that to the demolition of the walls of Barcelona and to become effective the construction of the Barcelona extension until uniting the different municipalities of the plain, it is put underway the growth of the city taking the dimension from on from the big city, as a result of it a large number of witnesses of that urbanization and construction fever. Catalan nationalism was an important influence upon Modernista artists, who were receptive to the ideas of Valentí Almirall and Enric Prat de la Riba and wanted Catalan culture to be regarded as equal to that of other European countries; such ideas can be seen in some of Rusiñol's plays against the Spanish army, in some authors close to anarchism or in the articles of federalist anti-monarchic writers such as Miquel dels Sants Oliver. They opposed the traditionalism and religiousness of the Renaixença Catalan Romantics, whom they ridiculed in plays such as Santiago Rusiñol's Els Jocs Florals de Canprosa, a satire of the revived Jocs Florals and the political milieu which promoted them.
Modernistes rejected bourgeois values, which they thought to be the opposite of art. They adopted two stances: they either set themselves apart from society in a bohemian or culturalist attitude or they attempted to use art to change society At the end of the 19th century, product of industrialization, throughout Europe there was an intellectual debate in kee