The Pallava dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of what is today southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories, Pallavas are most noted for their patronage of architecture, the finest example being the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Mahabalipuram. The Pallavas, who left behind magnificent sculptures and temples, established the foundations of medieval South Indian architecture and they developed the Pallava script from which Grantha ultimately descended. The Pallava script gave rise to other southeast Asian scripts. Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Kanchipuram during Pallava rule and extolled their benign rule, the Pallavas themselves claimed to descend from Brahma and Ashvatthama. Though Manimekalai posits Ilam Tiriyan as a Chola, not a Pallava, came into existence the race of Pallavas. Vīrakūrcha, of celebrated name, who simultaneously with the daughter of the chief of serpents grasped the insignia of royalty.
The Proceedings of the First Annual Conference of South Indian History Congress notes, The word Tondai means a creeper, historian K. R. Subramanian says the Pallavas were originally a Telugu power rather than a Tamil one. Telugu sources know of a Trilochana Pallava as the earliest Telugu king, the first Chalukya king is said to have been met and killed by the same Trilochana near Mudivemu. A Buddhist story describes Kala the Nagaraja, resembling the Pallava Kalabhartar as a king of the region near Krishna district, the Pallava Bogga may be identified with the kingdom of Kala in Andhra which had close and early maritime and cultural relations with Ceylon. K. A. K. P. Jayaswal proposed a North Indian origin, the Pallavas captured Kanchi from the Cholas as recorded in the Velurpalaiyam Plates, around the reign of the fifth king of the Pallava line Kumaravishnu I. Thereafter Kanchi figures in inscriptions as the capital of the Pallavas, the Cholas drove the Pallavas away from Kanchi in the mid-4th century, in the reign of Vishugopa, the tenth king of the Pallava line.
The Pallavas re-captured Kanchi in the century, possibly in the reign of Simhavishnu, the fourteenth king of the Pallava line. Thereafter the Pallavas held on to Kanchi until the 9th century, until the reign of their last king, the Pallavas were in conflict with major kingdoms at various periods of time. A contest for political supremacy existed between the early Pallavas and the Kadambas, numerous Kadamba inscriptions provide details of Pallava-Kadamba hostlities. During the reign of Vishnugopavarman II, political convulsion engulfed the Pallavas due to the Kalabhra invasion of the Tamil country, towards the close of the 6th century, the Pallava Simhavishnu stuck a blow against the Kalabhras. Thereafter the Tamil country was divided between the Pallavas in the north with Kanchipuram as their capital, and Pandyas in the south with Madurai as their capital, the royal custom of using a series of descriptive honorific titles, was particularly prevalent among the Pallavas. The birudas of Mahendravarman I are in Sanskrit and Telugu, the Telugu birudas show Mahendravarmans involvement with the Andhra region continued to be strong at the time he was creating his cave-temples in the Tamil region
The Janapadas were the realms and kingdoms of the Indian Vedic period late Bronze Age into the from about 1200 BCE to the 6th century BCE. Concluding with the rise of sixteen Mahajanapadas, most of the states were annexed by more powerful neighbours. The Sanskrit term janapada is a compound term, composed of two words and pada. The word pada means foot, from its earliest attestation, the word has had a meaning of realm, territory. Linguist George Dunkel compares the Greek andrapodon slave, to PIE *pédom fetters, Sanskrit padám, usually taken to mean footprint, diverges in accent from the PIE reconstruction. For the sense of population of the land, padasya janas, a primary meaning of place of the people, janasya padam, would not explain why the compound is of masculine gender. An original dvandva land and people is conceivable, but a dual inflection would be expected, literary evidence suggests that the janapadas flourished between 1500 BCE and 500 BCE. The earliest mention of the term occurs in the Aitareya.
In the Vedic samhitas, the term denotes a tribe. The janas were headed by a king, the samiti was a common assembly of the jana members, and had the power to elect or dethrone the king. The sabha was an assembly of wise elders, who advised the king. The janas were originally semi-nomadic pastoral communities, but gradually came to be associated with specific territories as they became less mobile, various kulas developed within the jana, each with its own chief. Gradually, the necessities of defence and warfare prompted the janas to form military groupings headed by janapadins and this model ultimately evolved into the establishment of political units known as the janapadas. While some of the janas evolved into their own janapadas, others appear to have mixed together to form a common Janapada, according to the political scientist Sudama Misra, the name of the Panchala janapada suggests that it was a fusion of five janas. Some janas mentioned in the earliest texts do not find a mention in the texts, Misra theorizes that these smaller janas were conquered by and assimilated into the larger janas.
Janapadas were gradually dissolved around 500 BCE and their disestablishment can be attributed to the rise of imperial powers within India, as well as in the Northwest of South Asia by foreign invaders. The Janapada were highest political unit in Ancient India during this period these polities were usually monarchical, the head of a kingdom was called a or king. A chief or priest and a or commander of administrating the army who would assist the king, there were two other political bodies, the thought to be a council of elders and the a general assembly of the entire people
Edakkal Caves are two natural caves at a remote location at Edakkal,25 km from Kalpetta in the Wayanad district of Kerala in Indias Western Ghats. They lie 1,200 m above sea level on Ambukutty Mala, inside the caves are pictorial writings believed to date to at least 6,000 BCE, from the Neolithic man, indicating the presence of a prehistoric civilization or settlement in this region. The Stone Age carvings of Edakkal are rare and are the known examples from south India. These are not technically caves, but rather a cleft, rift or rock shelter approximately 96 ft by 22 ft, on one side of the cleft is a rock weighing several tons that covers the cleft to form the roof of the cave. The carvings are of human and animal figures, tools used by humans and of symbols yet to be deciphered, the petroglyphs inside the cave are of at least three types. The oldest may date back to over 8,000 years, evidences suggest that the Edakkal caves were inhabited several times at different points in history. The caves were discovered by Fred Fawcett, an official of the erstwhile Malabar state in 1890 who immediately recognised their anthropological and historical importance.
He wrote an article about them, attracting the attention of scholars, the caves contain drawings that range over periods from the Neolithic as early as 5,000 BC to 1,000 BCE. The youngest group of paintings have been in the news for a connection to the Indus Valley Civilization. Historian Raghava Varier of the Kerala State Archaeology Department identified a depiction as “a man with jar cup” that is the most distinct motif of the Indus valley civilization, the finding, made in September 2009, indicates that the Harappan civilization was active in the region. The “a man with jar cup” symbol from Edakkal seems to be similar to the Indus motif than those already known from Tamil Nadu. Mr. Varier said “The discovery of the symbols are akin to that of the Harappan civilization having predominantly Dravidian culture and testimony to the fact that cultural diffusion could take place. It is wrong to presume that the Indus culture disappeared into thin air. ”Iravatham Mahadevan, petroglyph Rock art Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka Edakkal Caves Website On a history trail cave-biology.
org Cave biology in India
The history of the kingdom is documented from around the 2nd century BCE. They are mentioned in Indian epics and Puranas, the Mahabharata relates they were defeated by Arjuna. One of the first kings of the Kuninda was Amoghbhuti, who ruled in the valley of the Yamuna. The Greek historian Ptolemy linked the origin of the Kuninda to the country where the rivers Ganges, the Kuninda kingdom disappeared around the 3rd century, and from the 4th century, it seems the region shifted to Shaivite beliefs. According to Hari Krishan Mittoo author of books on Himachal. There are two types of Kuninda coinage, the first one issued around the 1st century BCE, the first coins of the Kuninda were influenced by the numismatic model of their predecessor Indo-Greek kingdoms, and incorporated Buddhist symbolism such as the triratna. These coins typically follow the Indo-Greek weight and size standards, and their coins are found together with Indo-Greek coins in hoards, such as those of the Yaudheyas. They represent the first effort by a native Indian king to produce coins that could compare with those of the Indo-Greeks, the finds of Kuninda coins have often been associated with finds of Indo-Greek coins, particularly those of Appolodotus.
A very large portion of the Kuninda coins are in the name of king Amoghabhuti, some coins of the 2nd century CE bear the symbol of the Hindu god Shiva. Amoghabhuti Indo-Greek Kingdom Kuninda Coins, Himvan Blog, www. himvan. com Scripts in Kuninda coinage
The Shunga Empire was an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled vast areas of the Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE. The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Shunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire and its capital was Pataliputra, but emperors such as Bhagabhadra held court at Besnagar in eastern Malwa. Pushyamitra Shunga ruled for 36 years and was succeeded by his son Agnimitra, the empire is noted for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. They fought the Kalinga, the Satavahana dynasty, the Indo-Greek Kingdom, Shunga rulers helped to establish the tradition of royal sponsorship of learning and art. The script used by the empire was a variant of Brahmi script and was used to write Sanskrit, the Shunga Empire played an imperative role in patronizing culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu thought were taking place. Patanjalis Mahābhāṣya was composed in this period, artistry progressed with the rise of the Mathura art style.
The Kanva dynasty succeeded the Shungas around 73 BCE, Pushyamitra Shunga ascended the throne. Pushyamitra Shunga became the ruler of Magadha and neighbouring territories, the empire of Pushyamitra was extended to the Narmada River in the south, controlled Jalandhar and Sialkot in the Punjab region in the northwest and the city of Ujjain in Central India. Kabul and much of the Punjab passed into the hands of the Indo-Greeks, Pushyamitra died after ruling for 36 years. He was succeeded by son Agnimitra and this prince is the hero of a famous drama by one of Indias greatest playwrights, Kālidāsa. Agnimitra was viceroy of Vidisha when the story takes place, the power of the Shungas gradually weakened. It is said there were ten Shunga emperors. The Shungas were succeeded by the Kanva dynasty around 73 BCE, buddhist scripture Divyavdan and ancient Tibbatan historian Taranath have written about persecution of Buddhists, there is doubt as to whether he did persecute Buddhists actively. Later Shunga emperors were seen as amenable to Buddhism and as having contributed to the building of the stupa at Bharhut, some writers believe that Brahmanism competed in political and spiritual realm with Buddhism in the Gangetic plains.
Buddhism flourished in the realms of the Bactrian kings, some Indian scholars are of the opinion that the orthodox Shunga emperors were not intolerant towards Buddhism and that Buddhism prospered during the time of the Shunga emperors. The existence of Buddhism in Bengal in the Shunga period can be inferred from a tablet that was found at Tamralipti and is on exhibit at the Asutosh Museum in Kolkata. An inscription at Bodh Gaya at the Mahabodhi Temple records the construction of the temple as follows, another inscription reads, The gift of Kurangi, the mother of living sons and the wife of Emperor Indragnimitra, son of Kosiki. The gift of Srima of the palace shrine
The Nanda dynasty originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 4th century BCE and lasted between 345–321 BCE. At its greatest extent, the empire ruled by the Nanda Dynasty extended from Bengal in the east, to the Punjab region in the west, the rulers of this dynasty were famed for the great wealth which they accumulated. The Nanda Empire was conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, who founded the Maurya Empire and he expanded his territory south of the Vindhya Range into the Deccan Plateau. The Nandas, who usurped the throne of the Shishunaga dynasty c.345 BCE, were thought to be of low origin and he was the son of Mahanandin, and a Shudra mother. The Nanda kings built on the foundations laid by their Haryanka, to achieve this objective they built a vast army, consisting of 200,000 infantry,20,000 cavalry,2,000 war chariots and 3,000 war elephants. According to the Greek historian Plutarch, the size of the Nanda army was larger, numbering 200,000 infantry,80,000 cavalry,8,000 war chariots.
A possible indication of Nanda military victories in Kalinga is suggested by the Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela, the existence of a place called Nau Nand Dehra on the Godavari is taken by some scholars as reflecting Nanda rule over the Deccan. The evidence for the extension of Nanda rule into trans-Vindhyan India is not, the Nandas were renowned for their immense wealth. They undertook irrigation projects and invented standardized measures for trade across their empire, the Nanda Dynasty was mentioned in the ancient Sangam literature of the Tamil people. The famous Tamil poet Mamulanar of the Sangam literature described the capital city Pataliputra of the Nanda Dynasty and their unpopularity, possibly due to their financial extortion, facilitated a revolution, leading to their overthrow by Chandragupta Maurya and Kautilya. Nevertheless, the greatness attained in the Maurya Age would hardly have been possible but for the achievements of their predecessors, the advisors of the king were fewer in number but were most respected on account of their high character and wisdom.
They are mentioned by the Greek observers who wrote about conditions in the fourth century BCE, next to the advisors were the generals of the army. Bhadrasala, one of such generals, is mentioned in the Milinda-Panho, a passage of the Kathasaritsagara refers to the kataka of Nanda in Ayodhya. Mookerji, Radha Kumud, Chandragupta Maurya and his times, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0433-3 Panda, Raychaudhuri, as a Historian, Northern Book Centre, ISBN 81-7211-210-6 Raychaudhuri, H. C. Political History of Ancient India, From the Accession of Parikshit to the Extinction of the Gupta Dynasty, Oxford University Press Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta, the Early History of India, Atlantic Publishers and distributors, ISBN 978-81-7156-618-1
The Vedic period was the period in Indian history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. During the early part of the Vedic period, the Indo-Aryans settled into northern India, scholars consider Vedic civilisation to have been a composite of the Indo-Aryan and Harappan cultures. The end of the Vedic period witnessed the rise of large, around the beginning of the Common Era, the Vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of the so-called Hindu synthesis. The commonly proposed period of earlier Vedic age is dated back to 2nd millennium BCE, after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation, which ended c.1900 BCE, groups of Indo-Aryan peoples migrated into north-western India and started to inhabit the northern Indus Valley. The knowledge about the Aryans comes mostly from the Rigveda-samhita, which was composed between c and they brought with them their distinctive religious traditions and practices. The Vedic beliefs and practices of the era were closely related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion.
According to Anthony, the Old Indic religion probably emerged among Indo-European immigrants in the zone between the Zeravshan River and Iran. It was a mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo-European elements. At least 383 non-Indo-European words were borrowed from this culture, including the god Indra, Indra was the subject of 250 hymns, a quarter of the Rig Veda. He was associated more than any other deity with Soma, a stimulant drug probably borrowed from the BMAC religion and his rise to prominence was a peculiar trait of the Old Indic speakers. These migrations may have been accompanied with violent clashes with the people who inhabited this region. The Rig Veda contains accounts of conflicts between the Aryas and the Dasas and Dasyus, the Rig Veda describes Dasas and Dasyus as people who do not perform sacrifices or obey the commandments of gods. Their speech is described as mridhra which could variously mean soft, hostile, other adjectives which describe their physical appearance are subject to many interpretations.
Internecine military conflicts between the tribes of Vedic Aryans are described in the Rig Veda. Most notable of such conflicts was the Battle of Ten Kings, which took place on the banks of the river Parushni. The battle was fought between the tribe Bharatas, led by their chief Sudas, against a confederation of ten tribes— Puru, Turvasha, Druhyu, Bhalanas, Siva, Vishanin. Bharatas lived around the regions of the river Saraswati, while Purus, their western neighbours. The other tribes dwelt north-west of the Bharatas in the region of Punjab, division of the waters of Ravi could have been a reason for the war
The Cheras were the principal ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India. Along with the Ay kingdom and the Ezhimala kingdom, they formed the kingdoms of Kerala in the early years of the Christian Era. The origins of the dynasty are unclear and it is understood that they were speakers of Proto-Tamil-Malayalam while some being practitioners of literary writing in Old Tamil. In fact, most of their history is reconstructed from the body of known as the Sangam literature written in Old Tamil around the 3rd century CE. While Pliny and Ptolemy refer to the Cheras as Calobotras, the Periplus refers to them as the Keprobotras, the earliest Sanskrit works which refer to the Cheras and Kerala is probably the Aitreya Aranyaka. It refers to the land as Chera-pada - and as one of the three peoples who did not follow some ancient injunctions, there are brief references by Katyanana and Kautilya, however Panini does not mention of the land.
The Tamil works collectively known as the Sangam literature form one of the most important sources for a detailed history of the Cheras. These works roughly span the period 300 BCE to 300 CE, among them, the most important sources for the Cheras are the Pattittupattu, the Agananuru, the Purananuru and the Silappatikaram. By the early centuries of the Common Era, civil society, the location of the Chera capital is generally assumed to be at modern Karur. The Cheras were in conflict with the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. The Cheras are said to have defeated the armies of the Pandyas. They made battles with the Kadambās of Banavasi and the Yavanas on the Indian coast, after the 2nd century CE, the Cheras power decayed rapidly with the decline of the lucrative trade with the Romans. Sangam literature describes a line of Chera rulers dated to the first few centuries CE. It records the names of the kings, the princes, the internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled, and at present a connected account of the history of the period cannot be derived.
Uthiyan Cheralathan, Nedum Cheralathan and Senguttuvan Chera are some of the referred to in the Sangam poems. Senguttuvan Chera, the most celebrated Chera king, is famous for the legends surrounding Kannagi, the Chera kingdom owed its importance to trade with West Asia and Rome. The Later Cheras ruled from the 9th century, little is known about the Cheras between the two dynasties. The second dynasty, Kulasekharas ruled from a city on the banks of River Periyar called Mahodayapuram, the Chera rulers of Venad, based at the port Quilon in southern Kerala, trace their relations back to the later/second Cheras
The Parthian Empire, known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq. Mithridates I of Parthia greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia from the Seleucids, at its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran. The empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han Empire of China, became a center of trade and commerce. The Parthians largely adopted the art, religious beliefs, and royal insignia of their culturally heterogeneous empire, which encompassed Persian and regional cultures. For about the first half of its existence, the Arsacid court adopted elements of Greek culture, the court did appoint a small number of satraps, largely outside Iran, but these satrapies were smaller and less powerful than the Achaemenid potentates. With the expansion of Arsacid power, the seat of government shifted from Nisa to Ctesiphon along the Tigris.
The earliest enemies of the Parthians were the Seleucids in the west, however, as Parthia expanded westward, they came into conflict with the Kingdom of Armenia, and eventually the late Roman Republic. Rome and Parthia competed with other to establish the kings of Armenia as their subordinate clients. The Parthians soundly defeated Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC, Mark Antony led a counterattack against Parthia, although his successes were generally achieved in his absence, under the leadership of his lieutenant Ventidius. Also, various Roman emperors or their appointed generals invaded Mesopotamia in the course of the several Roman-Parthian Wars which ensued during the few centuries. The Romans captured the cities of Seleucia and Ctesiphon on multiple occasions during these conflicts, native Parthian sources, written in Parthian and other languages, are scarce when compared to Sassanid and even earlier Achaemenid sources. These include mainly Greek and Roman histories, but Chinese histories, Parthian artwork is viewed by historians as a valid source for understanding aspects of society and culture that are otherwise absent in textual sources.
The Parni most likely spoke an eastern Iranian language, in contrast to the northwestern Iranian language spoken at the time in Parthia, the latter was a northeastern province, first under the Achaemenid, and the Seleucid empires. Why the Arsacid court retroactively chose 247 BC as the first year of the Arsacid era is uncertain, Bivar concludes that this was the year the Seleucids lost control of Parthia to Andragoras, the appointed satrap who rebelled against them. Hence, Arsaces I backdated his regnal years to the moment when Seleucid control over Parthia ceased, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis asserts that this was simply the year Arsaces was made chief of the Parni tribe. It is unclear who immediately succeeded Arsaces I, Bivar and Katouzian affirm that it was his brother Tiridates I of Parthia, who in turn was succeeded by his son Arsaces II of Parthia in 211 BC. Yet Curtis and Brosius state that Arsaces II was the successor of Arsaces I, with Curtis claiming the succession took place in 211 BC.
Bivar insists that 138 BC, the last regnal year of Mithridates I, is the first precisely established regnal date of Parthian history, due to these and other discrepancies, Bivar outlines two distinct royal chronologies accepted by historians
Black and red ware culture
The black and red ware culture is an early Iron Age archaeological culture of the northern Indian subcontinent. It is dated to roughly the 12th – 9th century BCE, BRW pottery is unknown west of the Indus Valley. Recent findings in Northern India show Iron working since 1800 BCE, according to Shaffer, the nature and context of the iron objects involved are very different from early iron objects found in Southwest Asia. It is succeeded by the Painted Grey Ware culture, Mathura, A protohistoric Perspective in D. M. Srinivasan, the Cultural Heritage,1989, pp. 171–180, the origins of iron-working in India, new evidence from the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas by Rakesh Tewari India Heritage - Earthenware and Pottery