Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE
Archaeological Museum of Gandia
The Archaeological Museum of Gandia is a center where is shown the archaeological heritage of La Safor and Gandia area, but the materials of the Parpalló cave. In 1972, with the collaboration of the Diputación de Valencia, was inaugurated the Museum, now known by the acronym Maga, is located in the old building of the Sant Marc Hospital, in the South-East end of the medieval walls of Gandia, on the left bank of the river Serpis; the Museum was closed to the public during the period from 1987 to 2003. In this period have been conducted research and restoration of the Museum's collections, it has a permanent exhibition on the regional prehistory, from the first inhabitants of the Paleolithic to the Iron age. It houses parts of some of the main archaeological sites of Europe, such as the Bolomor cave, the Parpalló cave and the Maravillas cave. Route of the Borgias Route of the Valencian classics Website of the Archaeological Museum of Gandia
Mercadona is a Spanish family-owned supermarket chain. Francisco Roig Ballester and his wife, Trinidad Alfonso Mocholi, founded the company in 1977, which began as a small butcher shop in a village in Valencia. Juan Roig assumed the role of CEO in 1981 and the company has since expanded nationwide. In the 1990s, Juan Roig oversaw a series of changes companywide and revealed the new façade of Mercadona, able to compete with its French competitor Carrefour and the co-operative Eroski. Mercadona has locations in 46 provinces of 17 autonomous communities. Mercadona was ranked the 9th most reputable company in the world in 2009 by the Reputation Institute as listed in Forbes magazine. Since its days as a butcher shop in 1977, Mercadona expanded to eight stores in 1981 and 1,148 stores as of October 2013 with more on the way. Today it holds 13.5% of Spain’s total food retail space and brought in more than €508 million in profits for the 2012 fiscal year. CEO Juan Roig plans to bring Mercadona to Italy or France in 2014, but may modify his Spanish model of business to compete in the new markets.
He was quoted in the Economist saying, "We must learn everything from everyone". Juan Roig, is the CEO and major shareholder, his wife Hortensia Herrero owns 28%, his brother Fernando Roig owns, 9%, they are all billionaires. Mercadona was the first Spanish company to use barcodes in its stores; the system has since permitted increased monitoring of product movement, in addition to an increase in the speed of customer checkout times. Mercadona has an automated distribution center, in the outskirts of Madrid, where computer monitors keep track of orders, while robot arms do all the work; the modern adaptability of Mercadona has been a positive model for increasing productivity, growing with the needs of the consumer. Mercadona dedicates much of its resources to eliminating unnecessary costs in its packaging. According to the Economist, the chain has saved €2.2 billion by reducing packaging materials. This included opting out of a glossy finish on packaging which company leaders deemed unnecessary, adding a plastic lid to a can of tuna, making it easier to open and more appealing to purchase.
Mercadona does not spend capital resources on advertising or marketing campaigns, yet another method of cutting costs. It instead relies on word of mouth and free social media to maintain its brand, their Twitter Facebook and YouTube accounts share pictures and videos of products and company practices. Mercadona employs all on permanent contracts. Upon hire, workers are required to complete four weeks of training, costing the company an average of $6,500 per employee. Employees must go through twenty additional hours of training each year. Employees receive salaries above the national average of workers in the grocery store industry and the majority of employees receive a bonus each year. Leaders of Mercadona believe this combination of training and payment creates employees who are dedicated and flexible when it comes to meeting customer needs, it is believed to have helped the company to maintain a low level of only 5% employee turnover in 2012. Mercadona offers over 850 products for the wheat-intolerant.
Mercadona has received over 750 comments and requests from wheat-intolerant customers and coeliac associations in 2013, has acted on these by passing them onto distribution companies and food manufacturers, as well as the store's own factories. Mercadona aims to create products. All of this while keeping the costs as low as possible. Products for the wheat-intolerant at Mercadona include yogurt, instant potato for making'tortilla', or Spanish omelet, sauces, hot chocolate powder, snack mixes, sliced bread, iced lollies and drinkable sorbets, it is said that the gluten-free movement started in Mercadona when a member of the founding family was diagnosed with coeliac disease. Gluten-free products were hard to come by in Spain, which prompted Mercadona to create a whole line of gluten-free products at affordable prices; the website caters to speakers of Spanish, Catalan, Basque and German. OfficialOfficial website
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
Route of the Borgias
The Route of the Borgias is a cultural route, that includes sites associated with the Borja or Borgia, located in their native Valencian Community, Spain. The marketing of the route was inaugurated in 2007; the Borgias were a family of Aragonese origin, who settled in the Kingdom of Valencia, after its James I of Aragon wrested control from Moorish rulers. In most translations, the family is known as the Borgia, the Italian way of transcribing the Borja surname from Valencian; the Popes Callixtus III and Alexander VI, Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia and Francis Borgia are the best-known figures of this lineage that originated in Canals and Xàtiva, via Valencia came to Rome return to Valencia to refound the Duchy of Gandia. The route through the legacy of the Borgias has its beginning in the city of Gandia and ends in Valencia passing through various monuments and Valencian towns where the Borja left their mark; the route includes the following monuments and towns: Gandía: Collegiate Basilica of Gandia Ducal Palace of Gandia Convent of Santa Clara Sant Marc HospitalAlfauir Monastery of Sant Jeroni de CotalbaSimat de la Valldigna Monastery of Santa María de la ValldignaAlbaida Palace of Milà i AragóCastelló de Rugat Remains of the Ducal PalaceCanals Oratory of the Borgias Tower and walls of the BorgiasXativa Collegiate Basilica of Xàtiva Natal house of Alexander VI Hermitage of Santa AnaLlombay Church of the Holy CrossValencia Valencia Cathedral Palace of the Borgias University of Valencia Church of San NicolásCastellnovo Castellnovo Castle Gandía: The vestige of the Borgia in Gandia is extensive.
The Collegiate Basilica of Gandia was expanded by Maria Enriquez de Luna, widow of the second duke, Juan Borgia, daughter-in-law of Alexander VI. She had the Apostles Door built by the famous sculptor Damià Forment and had the major altarpiece, nowadays disappeared, painted by Paolo da San Leocadio. Most of the Borgia dukes and their descendants were born in the Ducal Palace of Gandia, built in times of the royal dukes; the arms courtyard, the crown assembly hall, the eagles' hall and the stunning gold gallery are worth seeing. Inside the building you can find the Space of Emotions, a centre for virtual interpretation that will carry the visitor back to the Borgia time; the Convent of Santa Clara has an important art collection. Several monasteries were founded over the peninsula from this convent, such as the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales of Madrid or the one in Setubal; the pine tower, from the 16th century, was part of the wall enlargement carried out by the IV Duke of Gandia, Saint Francis Borgia.
His successor, Carlos Borgia, founded the convent of Sant Roc, now a cultural centre and was a baroque church in the 18th century. The Sant Marc Hospital was governed by the Dukes of Gandia, is today the archaeological museum of the city. Alfauir The Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba founded in 1388 and located about eight kilometres outside Gandia, came under the protection of the House of Borgia in the 16th century; the Duchess of Gandia, Maria Enríquez de Luna, widow of the duke Giovanni Borgia and daughter-in-law of the Pope Alexander VI, financed the monastery's enlargement such as the upper cloister of late Valencian Gothic style or the medieval cistern of the Orange Tree Patio. Saint Francis Borgia frequented the monastery and his wife, Leonor de Castro and intimate friend of the Empress Isabella of Portugal, spent her last days in it recovering from her ailments. Simat de la Valldigna In Simat we can find the Monastery of Santa María de la Valldigna, a Cistercian monastery built in 1298 by Jaime II.
Rodrigo Borgia and his son Cesare were the monastery abbots. From its remains is possible to see the royal door, the convent, the chapter-house, the cloister and the abbot palace. Different earthquakes have destroyed the church and the one, possible to see nowadays has a baroque style. Albaida Palace of Milà i Aragó: The palace was constructed by the cardinal Luis de Milà y de Borja, nephew of the Pope Callixtus III, who after being papal vicarious in Rome, built this palace in the center of the municipality. Canals Tower and walls of the Borgias: According to the tradition, Alfonso Borgia, the future Pope Calixtus III, was born in the Tower of Canals. Opposite the tower we can find the Oratory of the Borgias, with a medieval altarpiece about the Last Judgement, by the master of Borboto. Both buildings are worth visiting. Xativa: The legacy of the Borja in Xativa is important. In the Collegiate Basilica of Xàtiva where different members of the Borgia family are buried, is possible to see at the museum the altarpiece of the cardinal Alfonso Borgia and a silver chalice with the name of the Pope Calixtus III and another artworks of the Borgia family.
Natal house of Alexander VI: Rodrigo Borgia, Pope Alexander VI, was born in Xativa and was christened in the church of San Pedro in 1431. Both, the birthplace and the church can be visited. Another Borgian place in Xativa is the Hermitage of patron saint of the family. Valencia: The legacy of the family in the capital of the Kingdom of Valencia was numerous. In the Valencia Cathedral the Pope Callixtus III had the Chapel of "San Pedro" built; the Pope Alexander VI, before becoming pope, ordered the Italian painter Paolo da San Leocadio to paint frescoes for the dome of the apse. This was part of the beginning of the Italian Renaissance painting in Spain. In the chapel devoted to Saint Francis Borgia there are two Goya canvasses for the fourth duke of Gandia; the Palace of the Borgias, built by the first duke of Gandia and son of Alexander VI, Pedro Luis Borgia, is the headquarters for the Valencian Parliament. The University of Valencia (Estudio General
Alicante, or Alacant, both the Spanish and Valencian being official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community. It is a historic Mediterranean port; the population of the city of Alicante proper was 330,525, estimated as of 2016, ranking as the second-largest Valencian city. Including nearby municipalities, the Alicante conurbation had 452,462 residents; the population of the metropolitan area was 757,085 as of 2014 estimates, ranking as the eighth-largest metropolitan area of Spain. The name of the city echoes the Arabic name Laqant or Al-Laqant, which in turn reflects the Latin Lucentum; the area around Alicante has been inhabited for over 7000 years. The first tribes of hunter-gatherers moved down from Central Europe between 5000 and 3000 BC; some of the earliest settlements were made on the slopes of Mount Benacantil. By 1000 BC Greek and Phoenician traders had begun to visit the eastern coast of Spain, establishing small trading ports and introducing the native Iberian tribes to the alphabet and the pottery wheel.
The Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca established the fortified settlement of Akra Leuka, in the mid-230s BC, presumed to have been on the site of modern Alicante. Although the Carthaginians conquered much of the land around Alicante, the Romans would rule Hispania Tarraconensis for over 700 years. By the 5th century AD, Rome was in decline and the Roman predecessor town of Alicante, known as Lucentum, was more or less under the control of the Visigothic warlord Theudimer and thereafter under Visigothic rule from 400 to 700 A. D; the Goths did not put up much resistance to the Arab conquest of Medina Laqant in the beginning of the 8th century. The Moors ruled eastern Spain until the 13th century Reconquista. Alicante was taken in 1247 by the Castilian king Alfonso X, but it passed soon and definitively to the Kingdom of Valencia in 1296 with King James II of Aragon, it gained the status of Royal Village with representation in the medieval Valencian Parliament. After several decades of being the battlefield where the Kingdom of Castile and the Crown of Aragon clashed, Alicante became a major Mediterranean trading station exporting rice, olive oil and wool.
But between 1609 and 1614 King Felipe III expelled thousands of Moriscos who had remained in Valencia after the Reconquista, due to their cooperation with Barbary pirates who continually attacked coastal cities and caused much harm to trade. This act cost the region dearly. Things got worse in the early 18th century; the end of the 19th century witnessed a sharp recovery of the local economy with increasing international trade and the growth of the city harbour leading to increased exports of several products. During the early 20th century, Alicante was a minor capital that enjoyed the benefit of Spain's neutrality during World War I, that provided new opportunities for local industry and agriculture; the Rif War in the 1920s saw numerous alicantinos drafted to fight in the long and bloody campaigns in the former Spanish protectorate against the Rif rebels. The political unrest of the late 1920s led to the victory of Republican candidates in local council elections throughout the country, the abdication of King Alfonso XIII.
The proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic was much celebrated in the city on 14 April 1931. The Spanish Civil War broke out on 17 July 1936. Alicante was the last city loyal to the Republican government to be occupied by General Franco's troops on 1 April 1939, its harbour saw the last Republican government officials fleeing the country. Vicious air bombings were targeted on Alicante during the three years of civil conflict, most notably the bombing by the Italian Aviazione Legionaria of the Mercado de Abastos on 25 May 1938 in which more than 300 civilians perished; the late 1950s and early 1960s saw the onset of a lasting transformation of the city by the tourist industry. Large buildings and complexes rose in nearby Albufereta and Playa de San Juan, with the benign climate being the biggest draw to attract prospective buyers and tourists who kept the hotels reasonably busy. New construction benefited the whole economy, as the development of the tourism sector spawned new businesses such as restaurants and other tourist-oriented enterprises.
The old airfield at Rabassa was closed and air traffic moved to the new El Altet Airport, which made a more convenient and modern facility for charter flights bringing tourists from northern European countries. When Franco died in 1975, his successor Juan Carlos I played his part as the living symbol of the transition of Spain to a democratic constitutional monarchy; the governments of regional communities were given constitutional status as nationalities, their governments were given more autonomy, including that of the Valencian region, the Generalitat Valenciana. The Port of Alicante has been reinventing itself since the industrial decline the city suffered in the 1980s. In recent years
Convent of Santa Clara of Gandia
The Convent of Santa Clara is 15th-century, Roman Catholic convent belonging to cloistered order of the Colettine Poor Clares, located in the town of Gandia, province of Valencia, Spain. It is located in the centre of Gandia and at few meters from the Collegiate Basilica of Gandia, in María Enríquez de Luna square; the Convent of Santa Clara was founded in 1431 by Violante of Aragon, daughter of Alfonso of Aragon and Foix, Royal Duke of Gandía. It is a clear demonstration of the artistic significance of the city; the Gothic-style church houses an altarpiece by Paolo da San Leocadio. There were many women of the Borgia family. After the death of its founder, Violante of Aragon, spend a few years in which the convent is uninhabited; the valencian noble Luis Vich y de Corbera will be who decided to restore this convent. The convent was the new home for ten nuns from the same community who abandoned her French convent of the city of Lézignan-Corbières. Among these nuns was María Escarlata, the sister of the French Prince.
She took refuge in the convent of Gandia fleeing of being married by force. María Enríquez de Luna, Duchess of Gandia entered the convent with the name of Sister Gabriela, she became Abbess of the convent in 1530, died nine years later. Would be his daughter, Sister Francisca de Jesús, chosen abbess of the convent in 1533, ruled it until in 1548, he resigned to foundations away from their family environment, he had the satisfaction of seeing religious of his convent of Gandia to his own mother, Sister María Gabriela and five nieces, daughters of his brother Juan de Borja y Enríquez de Luna, sisters of Saint Francis Borgia. In the courtyard of the convent is an olive tree which according to tradition was planted by Saint Francis Borgia; the convent has the image of the Virgin of the Virgin of the Bastion. The convent preserves an outstanding art collection bequeathed by the Borgias including the works of José de Ribera, Juan de Juanes, Paolo da San Leocadio, Francisco Salzillo or Francisco Ribalta school painters.
In 2010 the convent signed a collaboration agreement which yields works to the Town Hall of Gandia that are a part of the future Museum of the Poor Clares, at the old Sant Marc Hospital. It is a cloistered convent, so it is only possible to visit the church of Valencian Gothic style, located on the right side of the construction. Route of the Borgias Route of the Valencian classics Artícle about the Convent of Santa Clara