click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gandy Bridge

Gandy Bridge is the southernmost bridge spanning Old Tampa Bay from St. Petersburg, Florida to Tampa, Florida; the original 1924 span was dismantled in 1975. The second bridge, constructed in 1956 was used for vehicular traffic until 1997, when it was converted to recreational use by non-motorized traffic, it became known as the Friendship Trail Bridge and was demolished in 2016, after closing in 2008 due to hazardous conditions and several failed efforts to preserve the span. The third and fourth spans of the Gandy Bridge are being used for vehicle traffic. Three miles long, the Gandy Bridge is one of three bridges connecting the mainland of Hillsborough County and Pinellas County. In 1910, H. Walter Fuller was a director of three companies owned by F. A. Davis. George S. Gandy Sr was the president of all three companies. Fuller prepared a map including a proposed bridge that would cross upper Tampa Bay following the route of Ninth Street North in St. Petersburg. Gandy partnered with Fuller, incorporating three companies towards design and construction of the bridge.

Survey crews decided to change the route from Ninth Street to Fourth Street. In 1918, World War I required that all projects exceeding $250,000 required a certificate of necessity from the War Industries Board headed by Bernard Baruch; the project was not approved and financing was canceled. Gandy continued alone. In 1922, Gandy hired promoter Eugene M. Elliott to attract new investment. Gandy sold enough stock to finance the bridge, which cost $1,932,000. Construction began in September 1922 and the bridge was completed for a formal opening on November 20, 1924; the steel and concrete bridge spanned a distance of two and a half miles, making it the longest automobile toll bridge in the world at that time. Its double steel bascule drawbridge operated electrically; the original toll to cross the bridge was $.75 for an automobile and driver and $.10 for additional passengers. The bridge stopped collecting tolls on April 27, 1944 after it was seized by the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. On December 23, 1945, a federal jury awarded The Gandy Company $2,383,642 in compensation for the property, plus $100,000 in interest.

The bridge reduced the distance between St. Petersburg from 43 to 19 miles, its location enabled travel by auto along the route of the world's first scheduled airline flight, which operated between Tampa and Saint Petersburg for six months in 1914. The Gandy Bridge opened on November 20, 1924 Sixteen visiting state governors and several foreign dignitaries attended the opening ceremony. During George Gandy's speech, he stated. Efforts to preserve the bridge for recreational purposes were not supported by the Pinellas County Commission, which felt the idea was too expensive, too dangerous, unnecessary. By 1947, state Sen. Raymond Sheldon described the bridge as "outmoded, too narrow and a traffic bottleneck." In 1956 a second higher, fixed span was added to the Gandy Bridge to serve westbound traffic. The first span would serve eastbound traffic until 1975; the second bridge remained in use until February 1997. Years before, the Florida Department of Transportation deemed the bridge structurally deficient to vehicular traffic unless costly repairs were made.

FDOT planned to demolish the middle section of the bridge and leave the remaining fishing pier segments intact. The demolished segments would have been used for an artificial reef; when residents and community groups in both Pinellas and Hillsborough Counties lobbied together against FDOT and the governments of the two counties to save the 1956 bridge, FDOT dropped its demolition plan. After two years of hearings and funding issues, the 1956 bridge reopened to pedestrian and bicycle traffic on December 11, 1999 as the Friendship Trail Bridge. On November 6, 2008, the Friendship Trail was shut down "indefinitely" after a state inspection determined that there were significant structural problems with the bridge's superstructure; the bridge had been decaying for years forcing the closure of the span to vehicular traffic. However, the inspection yielded that the corrosion of the superstructure had worsened and that the overall condition of the bridge was no longer suitable to keep it open due to safety issues.

Only a couple months before, the Sunshine Skyway Bridge's fishing piers were deemed to the same fate. There was a repair plan in place for the bridge that would have repaired the pylons at a cost of $4.2 million. That project was cancelled due to the new developments. December 17 brought further gloom for the trail when preliminary estimates to retrofit the bridge added up to about $30 million. Furthermore, the projected costs would only provide a temporary solution to the structure that would only last about ten years. With the state and the nation in recession, county governments saw no way to meet the staggering costs, leaving the trail closed for good. December 20, 2008 a report done by Kisinger Campo & Associates and SDR Engineering Consultants showed that the bridge could collapse due to the amount of decay on the structure. After the report was released and Pinellas County officials decided to close the entire bridge permanently; the report suggested the following: $4.1 million to retrofit both ends of the bridge only $13 million to demolish the bridge only $30 million to retrof

Muslims Condemn

Muslims Condemn is an interactive website containing lists of Muslims who condemn negative things such as terrorism, climate change, discrimination against women, more. The website was inspired by a 712-page long list with sources, produced by Heraa Hashmi, a 19-year-old American Muslim student. Muslims Condemn website was a Google spreadsheet containing a 712-page list of Muslims condemning things with sources produced by Heraa Hashmi, a 19-year-old American Muslim student at the University of Colorado, it took three weeks for Hashmi to create the spread sheet after she engaged in a discussion with a classmate asking why Muslims did not "condemn violence when perpetrators committed such acts in the name of Islam." She posted the list to Twitter. Muslims Condemn was created based on the spreadsheet by two Nigerian software developers; the website is designed to show that Muslims are condemning terrorism and to demonstrate how ridiculous it is that Muslims are expected to apologise for terrorist acts.

Muslims “held to a different standard than other minorities: 1.6 billion people are expected to apologise and condemn on behalf of a couple of dozen lunatics. It makes no sense,” Hashmi said

Speedway, Indiana

Speedway is a town in Wayne Township, Marion County, United States. The population was 11,812 at the 2010 census. Speedway is home of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Speedway was laid out in 1912 as a residential suburb, it took its name from the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. It is an early example of a residential community planned for the industrial plants located nearby. Carl G. Fisher, James A. Allison, Frank Wheeler, Arthur Newby, founders of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, planned the suburb of Speedway west of the track. Fisher and Allison owned plants nearby that needed workers, the Prest-O-Lite factory and Allison Engine Company; the investors' goal was to create a city without horses, where residents would drive automobiles, as well as participate in creating mechanical parts for new modes of transportation. The Speedway Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. Speedway is located at 39°47′31″N 86°15′0″W. According to the 2010 census, Speedway has a total area of 4.768 square miles, of which 4.76 square miles is land and 0.008 square miles is water.

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Speedway has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps. With a January daily mean of −2 °C however, Speedway is close to the humid continental type; as of the census of 2010, 11,812 people, 5,550 households, 2,931 families resided in the town. The population density was 2,481.5 inhabitants per square mile. The 6,709 housing units averaged 1,409.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 74.2% White, 16.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 4.4% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 7.6% of the population. Of the 5,550 households, 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.4% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.2% were not families. About 39.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age in the town was 37.8 years. About 21.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 51.7 % female. As of the census of 2000, 12,882 people, 6,151 households, 3,278 families resided in the town; the 6,151 households had 24.5% with children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% married couples living together, 12.5% female householders with no husband present, 46.7% not families. In the town, the population was spread out with 20.9% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $37,713, for a family was $49,005. Males had a median income of $36,756 versus $26,954 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,468.

About 5.6% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.7% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over. The School Town of Speedway has six campuses, including the Speedway Senior High School, an enrollment of 1,650 students. St Christopher SchoolThe town has the Speedway Public Library. In addition to the Indianapolis Motor Speedway itself, several related companies are located south of the racetrack, such as the United States Auto Club headquarters, the Dallara racecar factory, racing teams A. J. Foyt Racing, Harding Racing and Juncos Racing, the Speedway Indoor karting racetrack. Allison Transmission has a factory near them. Donald Davidson, historian Joyce DeWitt, actress Barbara Higbie, jazz musician and composer Motegi, Japan Varano de' Melegari, Italy Burger Chef murders Indianapolis Indianapolis Motor Speedway Speedway bombings Town of Speedway official website

Mirta González Suárez

Mirta González Suárez is a Costa Rican social psychologist and novelist. She is an emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Costa Rica, where she has conducted research in women's studies and political psychology, her first novel, Crimen con sonrisa, won a national literary award. González Suárez was born in San José, Costa Rica, in 1948, she earned her PhD in psychology from the Autonomous University of Madrid in 1987, with a dissertation on sexism in Costa Rican education. While pursuing her doctoral studies, she earned a Fulbright Award, which she used to compare sexism in American and Costa Rican texts. González Suárez is a professor emeritus of psychology at the University of Costa Rica, her research interests include sexism in education and political psychology. She has published more than 50 works including books and peer-reviewed articles. González Suárez was the first director of the University of Costa Rica/National University of Costa Rica joint Women's Studies graduate program.

She was the deputy director of the Centre for Research in Women's Studies at the University of Costa Rica. In 1993, she chaired the organizing committee for the Fifth International Interdisciplinary Congress on Women, held in San José. González Suárez published her first novel, Crimen con sonrisa, in 2013, her 2016 novel, La Gobernadora, won the UNA Palabra Prize from the National University of Costa Rica. González Suárez, Mirta. Estudios de la mujer: conocimiento y cambio. Editorial Universitaria Centroamericana. ISBN 9977-30-112-3. OCLC 19628865. González Suárez, Mirta. El sexismo en la educación: la discriminación cotidiana. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial UCR. ISBN 9977-67-123-0. OCLC 22662864. González Suárez, Mirta. Psicología política. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial UCR. ISBN 978-9968-936-78-1. OCLC 422754297. González Suárez, Mirta. "Feminismo, academia y cambio social". Educación. 26: 169–183. Doi:10.15517/revedu.v26i2.2913. ISSN 2215-2644. González Suárez, Mirta. "Agenda política del movimiento de mujeres: demandas de inicios del siglo XXI".

Revista Reflexiones. 90: 9–22. González Suárez, Mirta. "Psicología política y feminismo". Revista Psicologia Política. 13: 507–523. González Suárez, Mirta. Crimen con sonrisa. Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, Costa Rica: Editorial UCR. ISBN 978-9968-46-392-8. OCLC 882283084. González Suárez, Mirta. La gobernadora. Heredia, Costa Rica: EUNA. ISBN 978-9977-65-485-0. OCLC 1021956928

Maximino Ávila Camacho

Maximino Ávila Camacho was a Constitutionalist Army in the Mexican Revolution and afterwards politician who served as governor of Puebla from 1937 to 1941 and as secretary of Public Works in the cabinet of his brother, President Manuel Ávila Camacho. The Avila Camacho family grew up in modest circumstances, with Maximino being the oldest of three brothers, he attended the National Military College as a young man, in 1914 joined the Constitutionalist Army, rising to the rank of. Following the end of the military phase of the Mexican Revolution in 1920, he continued in the military, rising to the rank of brigadier general in 1929 and in 1940 a division general, he saw combat in the Cristero War, the religious conflict that broke out in the late 1920s when President Plutarco Elías Calles began enforcing the anti-clerical laws of the 1917 Mexican Constitution. According to historian Enrique Krauze, Maximino participated in the 1929 mass murder of student supporters of José Vasconcelos, following the 1929 election for president.

He became the caudillo of his home state of Puebla, serving as governor starting in 1937. The strong man of the state of San Luis Potosí, Gonzalo N. Santos, said of him "The governor of the state, Major General Maximino Ávila Camacho, was in command in Puebla, I mean in command and not just governing, because he commanded the military, the finance ministry, the telegraphs, the mails, the administration of the railroads, the diocese." He amassed a significant personal fortune in land and horses as well as making alliances with enormously wealthy foreign businessmen, such as the Swedish entrepreneur Axel Wenner-Gren and U. S. businessman William O. Jenkins. Ruthless and arrogant, Maximino was the opposite of his younger brother, the affable Manuel Ávila Camacho, whose good manners temper and diplomatic skills were famous; the President had trouble protecting his brother from himself, Maximino got into fights, seduced women and dispensed public funds at will. His arrogance reached its limits when he proclaimed that he would be the next President because, since his brother had been President he had the right to be his successor leading to a rift between the two.

In 1945 the dominant party, founded by Plutarco Elías Calles, renamed the PRI in 1946, would name its presidential candidate, the assured winner of the 1946 elections. Maximino was determined to become the candidate or, at least, have a great influence on the decision, he swore that if the party nominated politician Miguel Alemán Valdés, the son of a Mexican revolutionary but not one himself, Maximino would kill him. Maximino died of a heart attack on February 1945, before the party's convention. Poor health ran in the family, with his brother Manuel suffering heart attacks while campaigning for the presidency and while in office. However, "there were some who wondered whether something more than seasoning had been added to food" the day he died. Maximino's death averted a potential political crisis were he to be the presidential candidate, creating a family dynasty; the party nominated Maximino’s hated enemy, Miguel Alemán Valdés, who went on to succeed Manuel Ávila Camacho as president. Maximino's life inspired Ángeles Mastretta's novel, Arráncame la Vida and the film adaptation Tear This Heart Out.

Hartford Web Publishing at www.hartford-hwp.com

Cohocton, New York

Cohocton is a town in Steuben County, New York, United States. The population was 2,626 at the 2000 census; the name might be the native term for "log in the water."The town contains a village called Cohocton and is in the northwest part of the county. The town was first settled around 1794; the town was formed from the towns of Bath and Dansville in 1812. It was known as the town of Liberty. Part of the town was used to form new towns in the county: Avoca and Wayland. In 1874, the town was enlarged by the addition of a part of the town of Prattsburgh; the Larrowe House known as The Cohocton Town and Village Hall and located at the village of Cohocton, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989. At least as late as 1836 the spellings Cohocton and Conhocton were used in the same text, but by 1860 the shorter spelling was consistent. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 56.1 square miles, all of it land. The north town line is the border of Ontario County.

Interstate 390, New York State Route 21, New York State Route 371 and New York State Route 415 pass through the town. The Interstate and NY-415 follow the course of the Cohocton River; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,626 people, 972 households, 704 families residing in the town. The population density was 46.8 people per square mile. There were 1,144 housing units at an average density of 20.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.49% White, 0.46% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.19% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.27% of the population. There were 972 households out of which 38.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.5% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.10.

In the town, the population was spread out with 28.8% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $35,559, the median income for a family was $39,583. Males had a median income of $28,333 versus $25,208 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,243. About 12.9% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.1% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over. The 1890 population was 3,475. Atlanta – A hamlet in the northeast part of the town at the junction of County Roads 36 and 39 was known as "Bloods." It was founded around 1840. The Cohocton River changes from east-flowing to south-flowing at Atlanta; the Presbyterian Church of Atlanta was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2010.

Bowles Corners – A location in the northwest corner of the town on NY-21 and County Road 37. Cohocton – A village adjacent to Interstate 390 in the south part of the town. For a period in the 19th Century, it was called "Liberty." Kirkwood – A hamlet northeast of Cohocton village on NY-371. North Cohocton – A hamlet in the northeast part of the town at the junction of NY-21 and NY-371; the community dates from before 1850. Charlotte Fowler Wells, publisher Official Site Brief Cohocton information Cohocton history/links