East India Company
The East India Company known as the Honourable East India Company or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, Company Bahadur, or The Company, was an English and British joint-stock company. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region with Mughal India and the East Indies, with Qing China; the company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia, colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China. Chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade in basic commodities including cotton, indigo dye, spices, saltpetre and opium; the company ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. In his speech to the House of Commons in July 1833, Lord Macaulay explained that since the beginning, the East India company had always been involved in both trade and politics, just as its French and Dutch counterparts had been.
The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, coming late to trade in the Indies. Before them the Portuguese Estado da Índia had traded there for much of the 16th century and the first of half a dozen Dutch Companies sailed to trade there from 1595; these Dutch companies amalgamated in March 1602 into the United East Indies Company, which introduced the first permanent joint stock from 1612. By contrast, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the EIC's shares; the government owned no shares and had only indirect control until 1657 when permanent joint stock was established. During its first century of operation, the focus of the company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the French East India Company during the Carnatic Wars of the 1740s and 1750s; the battles of Plassey and Buxar, in which the British defeated the Bengali powers, left the company in control of Bengal and a major military and political power in India.
In the following decades it increased the extent of the territories under its control, controlling the majority of the Indian subcontinent either directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force by its Presidency armies, much of which were composed of native Indian sepoys. By 1803, at the height of its rule in India, the British East India company had a private army of about 260,000—twice the size of the British Army, with Indian revenues of £13,464,561, expenses of £14,017,473; the company came to rule large areas of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India began in 1757 and lasted until 1858, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown's assuming direct control of the Indian subcontinent in the form of the new British Raj. Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances, it was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act passed one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by rendered it vestigial and obsolete.
The official government machinery of British India assumed the East India Company's governmental functions and absorbed its navy and its armies in 1858. Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, the captured Spanish and Portuguese ships with their cargoes enabled English voyagers to travel the globe in search of riches. London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean; the aim was to deliver a decisive blow to the Portuguese monopoly of Far Eastern Trade. Elizabeth granted her permission and on 10 April 1591 James Lancaster in the Bonaventure with two other ships sailed from Torbay around the Cape of Good Hope to the Arabian Sea on one of the earliest English overseas Indian expeditions. Having sailed around Cape Comorin to the Malay Peninsula, they preyed on Spanish and Portuguese ships there before returning to England in 1594; the biggest capture that galvanised English trade was the seizure of the large Portuguese Carrack, the Madre de Deus by Sir Walter Raleigh and the Earl of Cumberland at the Battle of Flores on 13 August 1592.
When she was brought in to Dartmouth she was the largest vessel, seen in England and her cargo consisted of chests filled with jewels, gold, silver coins, cloth, pepper, cinnamon, benjamin, red dye and ebony. Valuable was the ship's rutter containing vital information on the China and Japan trades; these riches aroused the English to engage in this opulent commerce. In 1596, three more English ships were all lost at sea. A year however saw the arrival of Ralph Fitch, an adventurer merchant who, along with his companions, had made a remarkable fifteen-year overland journey to Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. Fitch was consulted on the Indian affairs and gave more valuable information to Lancaster. On 22 September 1599, a group of merchants met and stated their intention "to venture in the pretended voyage to the East Indies, the sums that they will adventure", committing £30
Gujarat University is a state university situated at Ahmedabad, India. The university is an affiliating university at the under-graduate level and a teaching university at the postgraduate level, it is accredited B++ by NAAC. It was established in 1949. Many leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel, Anandshankar Dhruv, Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar and Kasturbhai Lalbhai recommended formation of the university in the 1920s, the university was established soon after the independence of India. Gujarat University was evolved out of Ahmedabad Education Society, a major educational organisation of Gujarat then. Gujarat University was formed under the Gujarat University Act of the Government of Gujarat in 1949 as a teaching and affiliating university, it was established under the recommendation of a committee headed by Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar for rearrangement of university education in Bombay State. Many universities were established which resulted in decrease in jurisdiction of Gujarat University, it is an affiliating university at the under-graduate level and a teaching one at the post-graduate level.
Close to three-hundred thousand students study at university in the courses and affiliated institutes. The university caters for external as well as enrolled students. Affiliates include 285 colleges, 35 approved institutions and 20 recognised institutions, as of 2014. Organisation of the university is based on the Gujarat University Act, 1949; the authorities of the university are: Executive Council: governs activities at university Academic Council: maintains and prescribes standards of instructions and examinations Faculties Board of University Teaching and Research Board of Studies Board of Extra-Mural Studies Board of Student Welfare Board for Hostel’s Management Academic Planning BoardThe university functions in a democratic way by Senate, elected every year by faculties and students. Teachers of the colleges and schools are represented in on the Academic and Executive Councils. Office bearers of the university are: The Chancellor The Vice-Chancellor, the academic and the executive head of the university Former Vice-Chancellors of the University residing in the State Pro Vice-Chancellor Registrar, administrative head of the university University Librarian Directors of Schools Heads of the DepartmentsThe teaching and non-teaching staff are represented by their unions.
The campus of the university, located in the Navarangpura area of Ahmedabad, is spread over 260 acres. Affiliated colleges and institutes are spread across the Ahmedabad, Kheda district. In March 2012, the university started a campus radio service named GURU on 90.8 MHz, first kind of it in the state of Gujarat and fifth in India. Gujarat University has received University Level National Service Scheme Award by Hon'ble Shri President of India Ram Nath Kovindji NSS Award 2016-17; the schools and university departments are as follows: School of Commerce School of Law School of Languages Department of English Department of Gujarati Department of Hindi Department of Linguistics Department of Urdu and Persian Department of Pali, Prakrit & Apabhransha Department of Sanskrit School of Philosophy Education and Psychology Department of Education Department of Philosophy Department of Psychology School of Sciences Department of Climate Change Impacts Management Department of Botany Applied Botany Centre – Bioinformatics Centre and Climate Change and Impacts Management Department of Biochemistry Department of Chemistry Department of Environmental Science Department of Forensic Science Department of Computer Science Department of Life Science Department of Geography Department of Mathematics Department of Statistics Department of Physics, Space science and Electronics Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology Department of Zoology and Biomedical Technology Department of Animation, ITIMS and Mobile Applications School of Social Sciences Department of Economics Department of History Department of Labour Welfare Department of Political Science Department of Sociology Department of Social Work Department of Journalism Department of Library and Information Science Department of Physical Education Department of Yogic Science Department of Study Abroad Program B. K.
School of Business Management K. S. School of Business Management Centre for Development Communication H. K. Professional Centre Upasana School of Performing Arts A D Shodhan I A S Training Centre Department of Defence Studies Department of Home Science Gujarat University Administrative Office Rollwala Computer Centre Gujarat University Workshop Department of Publication Gujarat University Guest House Gujarat University Press Gujarat University Library Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Reading Centre Women’s Development Cell Gujarat University Consultancy Cell Gujarat University Skill and Innovation Council Gujarat University Startup And Entrepreneurship Council Gujarat University Health Centre James Reaney Canadian Study Centre Gujarat University Employment Bureau Department of Youth Welfare Gujarat University Boys Hostel Gujarat University Girls Hostel Sports Complex Canteen Internet Access Centre Dr B R Ambedkar Chair Gujarat University Central Consumer Co-Operative Stores Ltd Jan Shikshan Sansthan Open Air Theatre NRS Hall Gujarat University Convention and Exhibition Hall State Bank of India, Gujarat University Branch Census Micro Data Station Gujarat University Post Office Academic Staff College Department of Adult and Continuing Education and Extension works Department of Educational Multimedia Research Centre Information and Library Network
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy pronunciation was the sixth President of India, serving from 1977 to 1982. Beginning a long political career with the Indian National Congress Party in the Indian independence movement, he went on to hold several key offices in independent India—as the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, a two-time Speaker of the Lok Sabha and a Union Minister—before becoming the youngest-ever Indian president. Born in present-day Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh, Reddy completed his schooling at Adayar and joined the Government Arts College at Anantapur, he quit to become an Indian independence activist and was jailed for participating in the Quit India Movement. He was elected to the Madras Legislative Assembly in 1946 as a Congress party representative. Reddy became the deputy chief minister of Andhra State in 1953 and the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh in 1956, he was a union cabinet minister under Prime Ministers Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi from 1964 to 1967 and Lok Sabha Speaker from 1967 to 1969.
He retired from active politics but returned in 1975, responding to Jayaprakash Narayan's call for "Total Revolution" against the Indira Gandhi Government. Elected to Parliament in 1977 as a candidate of the Janata Party, Reddy was unanimously elected Speaker of the Sixth Lok Sabha and three months was elected unopposed as President of India; as president, Reddy worked with Charan Singh and Indira Gandhi. Reddy was succeeded by Giani Zail Singh in 1982 and he retired to his farm in Anantapur, he died in 1996 and his samadhi is at Kalpally Burial Ground, Bangalore. In 2013, the Government of Andhra Pradesh commemorated Reddy's birth centenary. Reddy was born into a Telugu-speaking Hindu family in Illur village, Madras Presidency on 19 May 1913, he studied at the Theosophical High School at Adayar in Madras and enrolled at the Government Arts College at Anantapur, an affiliate of the University of Madras, as an undergraduate. In 1958, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati bestowed the degree of Honorary Doctor of Laws on him because of his role in its founding.
Reddy was married to Neelam Nagaratnamma. The couple had three daughters. Reddy joined the Indian struggle for independence from the British Raj following Mahatma Gandhi's visit to Anantapur in July 1929 and dropped out of college in 1931, he was associated with the Youth League and participated in a student satyagraha. In 1938, Reddy was elected Secretary of the Andhra Pradesh Provincial Congress Committee, an office he held for ten years. During the Quit India Movement, he was imprisoned and was in jail between 1940 and 1945. Released in March 1942, he was arrested again in August and sent to the Amraoti jail where he served time with activists T Prakasam, S. Satyamurti, K Kamaraj and V V Giri till 1945. Elected to the Madras Legislative Assembly in 1946 as a Congress representative, Reddy became secretary of the Congress' legislature party, he was a Member of the Indian Constituent Assembly from Madras. From April 1949 to April 1951, he was the Minister for Prohibition and Forests of the Madras State.
Reddy lost the 1951 election to the Madras Legislative Assembly to the Communist leader Tarimela Nagi Reddy. In 1951, in a contested election, he was elected President of the Andhra Pradesh Congress Committee defeating N G Ranga; when the Andhra State was formed in 1953, T. Prakasam became its Chief Minister and Reddy became the deputy. After the formation of the Andhra Pradesh state by incorporating Telangana with the Andhra State, Reddy became its first Chief Minister from 1 November 1956 to 11 January 1960, he was Chief Minister for a second time from 12 March 1962 to 20 February 1964, thus holding that office for over five years. Reddy was MLA from Sri Kalahasti and Dhone during his stints as Chief Minister; the Nagarjuna Sagar and Srisailam multipurpose river valley projects were initiated during his tenure. The Government of Andhra Pradesh renamed the Srisailam project to Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Sagar in his honour; the Congress governments under Reddy placed emphasis on rural development and allied sectors.
The shift towards industrialisation remained limited and was driven by the central government's investments in large public sector enterprises in the state. Reddy's first term as Chief Minister ended in 1960 after he resigned on being elected President of the Indian National Congress. In 1964, he resigned voluntarily following unfavourable observations made against the Government of Andhra Pradesh by the Supreme Court in the Bus Routes Nationalisation case. Reddy served thrice as President of the Indian National Congress at its Bangalore and Patna sessions during 1960 to 1962. At the Congress session at Goa in 1962, Reddy's speech stating India's determination to end the Chinese occupation of Indian territory and the irrevocable nature of the liberation of Goa was enthusiastically received by attendees, he was thrice member of the Rajya Sabha. From June 1964, Reddy was Union Minister of Mines in the Lal Bahadur Shastri government, he served as Union Minister of Transport, Civil Aviation and Tourism from January 1966 to March 1967 in Indira Gandhi's Cabinet.
In the general elections of 1967, Reddy was elected to the Lok Sabha from Hindupur in Andhra Pradesh. On 17 March 1967, Reddy was elected Speaker of the Fourth Lok Sabha becoming only the third person to be elected Speaker of the house during their inaugural term. To emphasize the independence of the Speaker's office, Reddy resigned from the Congress Party, his term as Speaker was marked by several firsts including the admission of a No-Confidence Motion on the same day as the President's address
The Salt March known as the Dandi March and the Dandi Satyagraha, was an act of nonviolent civil disobedience in colonial India led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi to produce salt from the seawater in the coastal village of Dandi, as was the practice of the local populace until British officials introduced taxation on salt production, deemed their sea-salt reclamation activities illegal, repeatedly used force to stop it. The 24-day march lasted from 12 March 1930 to 6 April 1930 as a direct action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly, it gained worldwide attention which gave impetus to the Indian independence movement and started the nationwide Civil Disobedience Movement. Mahatma Gandhi started this march with 78 of his trusted volunteers. Walking ten miles a day for 24 days, the march spanned over 240 miles; the march was the most significant organised challenge to British authority since the Non-cooperation movement of 1920–22, directly followed the Purna Swaraj declaration of sovereignty and self-rule by the Indian National Congress on 26 January 1930.
Gandhi led the Dandi March from his base, Sabarmati Ashram, 240 miles to the coastal village of Dandi, at a small town called Navsari to produce salt without paying the tax, growing numbers of Indians joined them along the way. When Gandhi broke the salt laws at 6:30 am on 6 April 1930, it sparked large scale acts of civil disobedience against the British Raj salt laws by millions of Indians; the campaign had a significant effect on changing world and British attitudes towards Indian sovereignty and self-rule and caused large numbers of Indians to join the fight for the first time. After making salt at Dandi, Gandhi continued southward along the coast, making salt and addressing meetings on the way; the Congress Party planned to stage a satyagraha at the Dharasana Salt Works, 25 miles south of Dandi. However, Gandhi was arrested on the midnight of 4–5 May 1930, just days before the planned action at Dharasana; the Dandi March and the ensuing Dharasana Satyagraha drew worldwide attention to the Indian independence movement through extensive newspaper and newsreel coverage.
The satyagraha against the salt tax continued for a year, ending with Gandhi's release from jail and negotiations with Viceroy Lord Irwin at the Second Round Table Conference. Over 60,000 Indians were jailed as a result of the Salt Satyagraha. However, it failed to result in major concessions from the British; the Salt Satyagraha campaign was based upon Gandhi's principles of non-violent protest called satyagraha, which he loosely translated as "truth-force". It is formed from the Sanskrit words satya, "truth", agraha, "insistence". In early 1930 the Indian National Congress chose satyagraha as their main tactic for winning Indian sovereignty and self-rule from British rule and appointed Gandhi to organise the campaign. Gandhi chose the 1882 British Salt Act as the first target of satyagraha; the Salt March to Dandi, the beating by British police of hundreds of nonviolent protesters in Dharasana, which received worldwide news coverage, demonstrated the effective use of civil disobedience as a technique for fighting social and political injustice.
The satyagraha teachings of Gandhi and the March to Dandi had a significant influence on American activists Martin Luther King Jr. James Bevel, others during the Civil Rights Movement for civil rights for African Americans and other minority groups in the 1960s. At midnight on 31 December 1929, the Indian National Congress raised the tricolour flag of India on the banks of the Ravi at Lahore; the Indian National Congress, led by Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, publicly issued the Declaration of sovereignty and self-rule, or Purna Swaraj, on 26 January 1930. The declaration included the readiness to withhold taxes, the statement: We believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe that if any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them the people have a further right to alter it or abolish it.
The British government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, has ruined India economically, politically and spiritually. We believe therefore, that India must sever the British connection and attain Purna Swaraji or complete sovereignty and self-rule; the Congress Working Committee gave Gandhi the responsibility for organising the first act of civil disobedience, with Congress itself ready to take charge after Gandhi's expected arrest. Gandhi's plan was to begin civil disobedience with a satyagraha aimed at the British salt tax; the 1882 Salt Act gave the British a monopoly on the collection and manufacture of salt, limiting its handling to government salt depots and levying a salt tax. Violation of the Salt Act was a criminal offence. Though salt was available to those living on the coast, Indians were forced to buy it from the colonial government. Gandhi's choice of the salt tax was met with incredulity by the Working Committee of the Congress, Jawaharlal Nehru and Dibyalochan Sahoo were ambivalent.
The Statesman, a prominent newspaper, wrote about the choice: "It is difficult not to laugh, we imagine that will be the mood of most thinking Indians."The British establishment too was not disturbed by these plans of resistance against the salt tax. The Vicero
Rajapur is a city and a municipal council in Ratnagiri district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is 385 km away from Mumbai. Rajapur has an average elevation of 72 metres; as of 2001 India census, Rajapur had a population of 10,499. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Rajapur has an average literacy rate of 78%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 82%, female literacy is 74%. In Rajapur, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. During the days of the Bijapur Sultanate, Rajapur was important maritime trade centre due to a navigable creek that connects it to the Arabian sea, it became an access point to the rich cities of Deccan for those involved in the Arabia-India commerce. After defeating the Bijapuri general Afzal Khan, the Maratha king Shivaji entered the present-day Ratnagiri district and started capturing the important ports and towns. Many Bijapuri generals fled to Rajapur because its governor, known by the title Rustam-i-Zamani, was on friendly terms with Shivaji.
However, one of Shivaji's generals, attacked Rajapur. The East India Company had stationed several men in the town, under the charge of Henry Revington to facilitate the trade of saltpeter, pepper and cotton; when Rustam-i-Zamani heard about the approach of the Maratha army, he procured funds from one of the Company's brokers and escaped with the money in a junk. Revington sent an English ship Diamond to stop him; when confronted by the English, Rustam offered the company the ownership of two of his junks in lieu of payment. At the same time, the Marathas arrived, asked the English to hand over the junks to them; the English declined to oblige. The angry Marathas seized two of the Company's brokers and Balaji, in Jaitapur; when the English sent Philip Gyffard to demand their release, he was arrested as well. The three prisoners were taken to Kharepatan fort on 18 January 1660. Henry Revington wrote to Shivaji in February 1660. Meanwhile, the brokers had pleaded for their release, Shivaji issued an order to set them free.
Shivaji condemned the attack on Rajapur, dismissed Doroji and issued an order to restore all the loot from Rajapur. However, a rogue officer at Kharepatan refused to set Gyfford free, he decided to move Gyfford to another location, escorted by his small Maratha contingent. Revington dispatched an armed party that waylaid the rescued Gyfford by force; the East India Company personnel at Rajapur maintained amicable relations with Shivaji until June 1660, when the Adilshahi general Siddi Jauhar attacked Shivaji's camp at Panhala. During this siege, Siddi Jauhar used, he hired some English artillerymen, who came to Panhala with an English flag, although the Company did not support him. Shivaji managed to escape from Panhala, decided to take revenge as he assumed that the Company had supported Siddi Jauhar, he plundered the English factory at Rajapur in December 1661. During the attack, Shivaji captured four Englishmen - Henry Revington, Richard Taylor, Randolph Taylor and Philip Gyffard - who were imprisoned, first at Vasota and at Songd.
Shivaji's officer Raoji Pandit treated them well, but the Marathas demanded ransom for their release. The English would be unable to pay a ransom. Instead, they tried to negotiate their release in exchange for their support in capturing the Danda Rajpuri sea fort; this negotiation could not happen due to the absence of Shivaji, away on an expedition near Kalyan. The English prisoners wrote an angry letter to the Company's President, who replied that they had been imprisoned not for performing the Company duties, but for illegally supporting Siddi Jauhar without the Company's permission. Subsequently, the four made an escape attempt. Shivaji came to know that the Company had not supported Siddi Jauhar, that some rogue personnel had joined Jauhar without the Company's permission, he ordered the release of the English prisoners in 1663. In a letter dated 6 February 1663, Shivaji assured that the English would enjoy his protection in the future; the English informed him about the losses suffered by them at Rajapur, tried to negotiate a settlement.
In 1672, Shivaji offered them 5000 pagodas towards the losses. He promised that if the English decided to set up a new factory at Rajapur, he would "show all kindness and civility imaginable to the said factory"; the English and French East India Companies had factories. It is known that these factories were abandoned in the early 18th century and appear to be used for offices. Rajapur is mentioned in novel Parashuramachi Savli by the Marathi author Ravindra Pinge. Aacharya Narendra Dev Vidyamandir, Bhoo. Abbasaheb Marathe Arts & New Commerce Science College Affiliated to University of Mumbai. Is one of the important higher educational institute, run by Rayat Shikshan Sanstha, Satara. Abbasaheb Marathe Arts and New Commerce, Science College is established in 1994; the college was run in the building of Navajeevan High-School and shifted in its own building in 8 January 2001. This college was first started in Navajeevan High school since 1994 but now it is working in Vikhare Gothane, the part of Rajapur Tahasil.
Navajeevan High school is one of the well known high school and junior college in the Rajapur Tahasil. Rajapur High School is situated in the heart of the town, it extends education in various subjects like drawing, carp
History of India
Anatomically modern humans are thought to have arrived on the Indian subcontinent between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago. Settled life, which involves the transition from foraging to farming and pastoralism, began in South Asia around 7,000 BCE. By 4,500 BCE, settled life had become more prevalent, evolved into the Indus Valley Civilization. Considered a cradle of civilisation, the Indus Valley civilisation, which spread and flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1300 BCE, was the first major civilisation in South Asia. A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE. Indus Valley Civilisation was noted for developing new techniques in handicraft, carnelian products, seal carving, urban planning, baked brick houses, efficient drainage systems, water supply systems and clusters of large non-residential buildings; this civilisation collapsed at the start of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilisation.
In the beginning of the second millennium BCE climate change, with persistent drought, led to the abandonment of the urban centers of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Its population resettled in smaller villages, and, in the north-west, mixed with Indo-Aryan tribes, who moved into the area in several waves of Aryan migration driven by the effects of this climate change; the Vedic period was marked by the composition of the Vedas, large collections of hymns of some of the Aryan tribes, whose postulated religious culture, through synthesis with the preexisting religious cultures of the subcontinent, gave rise to Hinduism. The era saw the eventual emergence of Janapadas, social stratification based on caste, which created a hierarchy of priests, warriors and laborers; the Later Vedic Civilisation extended over the Indo-Gangetic plain and much of the Indian subcontinent, as well as witnessed the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas. In one of these kingdoms, Gautama Buddha and Mahavira propagated their Śramaṇic philosophies during the fifth and sixth centuries BCE.
Most of the Indian subcontinent was conquered by the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. From the 3rd century BCE onwards Prakrit and Pali literature in the north and the Tamil Sangam literature in southern India started to flourish. Wootz steel originated in south India in the 3rd century was exported to foreign countries. During the Classical period, various parts of India were ruled by numerous dynasties for the next 1,500 years, among which the Gupta Empire stands out; this period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or "Golden Age of India". During this period, aspects of Indian civilisation, administration and religion spread to much of Asia, while kingdoms in southern India had maritime business links with the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia, which led to the establishment of Indianised kingdoms in Southeast Asia; the most significant event between the 7th and 11th century was the Tripartite struggle centred on Kannauj that lasted for more than two centuries between the Pala Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara Empire.
Southern India saw the rise of multiple imperial powers from the middle of the fifth century, most notably the Chalukya, Pallava, Chera and Western Chalukya Empires. The Chola dynasty conquered southern India and invaded parts of Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Bengal in the 11th century. In the early medieval period Indian mathematics, including Hindu numerals, influenced the development of mathematics and astronomy in the Arab world. Islamic conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Sindh as early as the 8th century, the Delhi Sultanate was founded in 1206 CE by Central Asian Turks who ruled a major part of the northern Indian subcontinent in the early 14th century, but declined in the late 14th century; this period saw the emergence of several powerful Hindu states, notably Vijayanagara and Ahom, as well as Rajput states, such as Mewar. The 15th century saw the advent of Sikhism; the early modern period began in the 16th century, when the Mughal Empire conquered most of the Indian subcontinent, becoming the biggest global economy and manufacturing power, with a nominal GDP that valued a quarter of world GDP, superior than the combination of Europe's GDP.
The Mughals suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century, which provided opportunities for the Marathas, Sikhs and Nawabs of Bengal to exercise control over large regions of the Indian subcontinent. From the late 18th century to the mid-19th century, large areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company of the British Empire. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, after which the British provinces of India were directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of rapid development of infrastructure, economic decline and major famines. During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched, led by the Indian National Congress, joined by other organisations; the Indian subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, after the British provinces were partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the princely states all acceded to one of the new states. Hominins expansion from Africa
The Bombay Presidency known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India. Headquartered in the city of Bombay, at its greatest extent, the presidency included the Konkan and Pune divisions of the present-day Indian state of Maharashtra, Anand, Gandhinagar, Kheda and Surat districts of the present-day state of Gujarat, Belagavi, Dharwad and Uttara Kannada districts of the present-day state of Karnataka and the South Canara (Dakshina Kannada and Udupi district including Kasargod District of Kerala; the Bombay Presidency was created when the city of Bombay was leased in fee tail to the East India Company by a Royal Charter from the King of Britain, Charles II, who had in turn acquired it on May 11, 1661, when his marriage treaty with Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands of Bombay in possession of the English Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles. The English East India Company transferred its Western India headquarters from Surat, its first colony in that region, to Bombay in 1687.
The Presidency was brought under British Parliament control along with other parts of British India through Pitt's India Act. Major territorial acquisitions were made during the Anglo-Maratha Wars when the whole of the Peshwa's dominions and much of the Gaekwad's sphere of influence were annexed to the Bombay Presidency in different stages till 1818. Aden was annexed in 1839, while Sind was annexed by the Company in 1843 after defeating the Talpur dynasty in the Battle of Hyderabad and it was made a part of the Bombay Presidency. At its greatest extent, the Bombay Presidency comprised the present-day state of Gujarat, the western two-thirds of Maharashtra state, including the regions of Konkan and Kandesh, northwestern Karnataka state of India; the districts and provinces of the presidency were directly under British rule, while the internal administration of the native or princely states was in the hands of local rulers. The presidency, managed the defence of princely states and British relations with them through political agencies.
The Bombay Presidency along with the Bengal Presidency and Madras Presidency were the three major centres of British power. The first English settlement in the Presidency known as Western Presidency was begun in 1618 at Surat in present-day Gujarat, when the East India Company established a factory, protected by a charter obtained from the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. In 1626 the Dutch and the English made an unsuccessful attempt to gain possession of the island of Bombay in the coastal Konkan region from Portugal, in 1653 proposals were suggested for its purchase from the Portuguese. In 1661 Bombay was ceded to the Kingdom of England as part of the dowry of the infanta Catherine of Braganza on her marriage to King Charles II. So was the acquisition esteemed in England, so unsuccessful was the administration of the crown officers, that in 1668 Bombay was transferred to the East India Company for an annual payment of £10, the Company established a factory there. At the time of the transfer, powers for the island's defence and for the administration of justice were conferred on the Company.
As English trade in Bombay increased, Surat began its relative decline. In 1687, Bombay was made the headquarters of all the East India Company's possessions in India. However, in 1753 the governor of Bombay became subordinate to that of Calcutta. During the 18th century, the Hindu Maratha Empire expanded claiming Konkan and much of eastern Gujarat from the disintegrating Mughal Empire. In western Gujarat, including Kathiawar and Kutch, the loosening of Mughal control allowed numerous local rulers to create independent states; the first conflict between the British and the Marathas was the First Anglo-Maratha War which began in 1774 and resulted in the 1782 Treaty of Salbai, by which the island of Salsette, adjacent to Bombay island, was ceded to the British, while Bharuch was ceded to the Maratha ruler Scindia. The British annexed Surat in 1800. British territory was enlarged in the Second Anglo-Maratha War which ended in 1803; the East India Company received the districts of Bharuch, etc. and the Maratha Gaekwad rulers of Baroda acknowledged British sovereignty.
In 1803 the Bombay Presidency included only Salsette, the islands of the harbour and Bankot. The Gujarat districts were taken over by the Bombay government in 1805 and enlarged in 1818. Baji Rao II, the last of the peshwas, who had attempted to shake off the British yoke, was defeated in the Battle of Khadki, captured subsequently and pensioned, large portions of his dominions were included in the Presidency, the settlement of, completed by Mountstuart Elphinstone, governor from 1819 to 1827, his policy was to rule as far as possible on native lines, avoiding all changes for which the population was not yet ripe. The period that followed is notable for the enlargement of the Presidency through the lapse of ce