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Gang of Four

The Gang of Four was a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials. They came to prominence during the Cultural Revolution and were charged with a series of treasonous crimes; the gang's leading figure was Jiang Qing. The other members were Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, Wang Hongwen; the Gang of Four controlled the power organs of the Communist Party of China through the stages of the Cultural Revolution, although it remains unclear which major decisions were made by Mao Zedong and carried out by the Gang, which were the result of the Gang of Four's own planning. The Gang of Four, together with general Lin Biao who died in 1971, were labeled the two major "counter-revolutionary forces" of the Cultural Revolution and blamed by the Chinese government for the worst excesses of the societal chaos that ensued during the ten years of turmoil, their downfall on October 6, 1976, a mere month after Mao's death, brought about major celebrations on the streets of Beijing and marked the end of a turbulent political era in China.

Their fall did not amount to a rejection of the Cultural Revolution as such. It was organized by the new leader, Premier Hua Guofeng, others who had risen during that period. Significant repudiation of the entire process of change came with the return of Deng Xiaoping at the 11th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, and Hua's gradual loss of authority. The group was led by Jiang Qing, consisted of three of her close associates, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, Wang Hongwen. Two other men who were dead in 1976, Kang Sheng and Xie Fuzhi, were named as having been part of the "Gang". Chen Boda and Mao Yuanxin, the latter being Mao's nephew, were considered some of the Gang's closer associates. Most Western accounts consider that the actual leadership of the Cultural Revolution consisted of a wider group, referring predominantly to the members of the Central Cultural Revolution Group. Most prominent was Lin Biao, until his purported flight from China and death in a plane crash in 1971. Chen Boda is classed as a member of Lin's faction rather than Jiang Qing's.

At the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, on November 10, 1965, Yao Wenyuan in one of Yao's most famous pieces of writing published an article "On the New Historical Beijing Opera'Hai Rui Dismissed from Office'" in Wenhuibao criticizing the play Hai Rui Dismissed from Office. The writing argues that portraying Peng Dehuai's position sympathetically was an attack on Chairman Mao's Great Leap Forward which led Mao to purge Peng; this article is cited as launching the Cultural Revolution. Jiang Qing met with the Red Guards; the removal of this group from power is sometimes considered to have marked the end of the Cultural Revolution, launched by Mao in 1966 as part of his power struggle with leaders such as Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping and Peng Zhen. Mao placed his wife Jiang Qing, a former film actress who before 1966 had not taken a public political role, in charge of the country's cultural apparatus. Zhang and Wang were party leaders in Shanghai who had played leading roles in securing that city for Mao during the Cultural Revolution.

Around the time of the death of Lin Biao, the Cultural Revolution began to lose momentum. The new commanders of the People's Liberation Army demanded that order be restored in light of the dangerous situation along the border with the Soviet Union. Premier Zhou Enlai, who had accepted the Cultural Revolution, but never supported it, regained his authority, used it to bring Deng Xiaoping back into the Party leadership at the 10th Party Congress in 1973. Liu Shaoqi had meanwhile died in prison in 1969. Near the end of Mao's life, a power struggle occurred between the Gang of Four and the alliance of Deng Xiaoping, Zhou Enlai, Ye Jianying. Zhou Enlai died in January 1976, in the subsequent months of mourning, a power struggle occurred in the top echelons of the party; the reformist Deng was named acting premier, while the Gang of Four began using their newspapers to criticize Deng and to mobilize their urban militia groups. Much of the military and party security remained under the control of the party elders of the Central Committee, who took a cautious role in mediating between the reformist Deng and the radical Gang of Four.

They agreed to the removal of Deng from office after the April Tiananmen Incident, but took steps to ensure that Deng and his allies would not be harmed in the process. On September 9, Chairman Mao died. For the next few weeks the Gang of Four retained control over the government media, many articles appeared on the theme of "principles laid down" by Mao near the end of his life. Urban militia units commanded by supporters of the radical group were placed on a heightened state of readiness. Premier Hua Guofeng attacked the radicals' media line at a Politburo meeting in late September; the meeting ended inconclusively. On October 4 the radical group warned, via an article in the Guangming Daily, that any revisionist who interfered with the established principles would "come to no good end"; the radicals hoped that the key military leaders Wang Dongxing and Chen Xilian would support them, but it seems that Hua won the Army over to his side. On 6 October 1976, Hua had the four leading radicals and a number of their lesser associates arrested.

Han Suyin gave a detailed ac

Margaret G. Reid

Margaret Gilpin Reid was an economist in the area of household production and non-market activities. Margaret Gilpin Reid was born in 1896 in Cardale, Manitoba in Canada, completed a degree in Home Economics at the University of Manitoba in 1921, she received her PhD from the University of Chicago in 1931 titled The Economics of Household Production. She taught at Connecticut College, Iowa State College and the University of Chicago, where she received tenure as a Professor of Home Economics and Economics, she became emeritus in 1961. Reid served as an economic advisor to the Division of Statistical Standards during 1943 and 1944, she served as the Head of Family Economics for the Department of Agriculture. She returned to academia in 1948 as a full professor in economics at the University of Chicago, she was a member of the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities. Margaret G. Reid was a pioneer in the research on the importance of non-market activities of the household for the economy.

Her work included household production and consumption, relationships between health and productivity and housework. Her first book, Economics of Household Production, was published in 1934. Reid, like her PhD advisor Hazel Kyrk, sought to theorize the productive contribution made by domestic activities within the household, she was arguing for a national accounting that included non-market activities to better mirror economic activities. Furthermore, she called for the recognition of unpaid work and delivered a pragmatic definition for work itself as activities that have a positive utility and could be transferred through a market. Feminist economists would argue that this work was underappreciated and ignored, pointing out its similarity to Gary Becker's 1965 Nobel-prize winning theory of time allocation. After becoming emeritus, she continued to research and write until her death in 1991. In years her work was preoccupied with the relationship between demographic factors such as age, race and income, productivity and consumption.

The American Economic Association named Reid a Distinguished Fellow in 1980, recognizing her as a "truly tireless colleague" whose contributions to the field were complemented by a "felicitous sense of humour." In 1996 Feminist Economics devoted an issue to recognizing her research

Slavko Löwy

Slavko Löwy was well-known Croatian architect. Löwy was born in Koprivnica to a respectable and wealthy Croatian Jewish family, who were engaged in trade. In Koprivnica he attended the gymnasium school, after graduation in 1923, he was enrolled in the Vienna Technical College. After four semesters, in 1925 he continued his studies in Zagreb at the department of architecture in Royal Technical College. In 1927 he continued his education in Dresden, where he graduated in 1930. Löwy moved to Zagreb, in 1930, where he started working in the architectural studio of Ignjat Fischer. In 1931 in collaboration with Vlado Antolić, Löwy starts a tender for the city Savings Bank project in Sarajevo; that same year he moved into the architectural studio of Stanko Kliske. Löwy became a licensed architect in 1931, that same year he established his own architectural studio, „Löwy“; that same year he performed his first self-derived house in Petrić street 7, at the space of the former Zagreb Trust block. He married his wife Terezija Rakić in 1932, on November 8, 1933 Löwy son Miroslav was born.

Löwy realized his most important achievement in 1933, the nine floors skyscraper in Masarykova street, which will be called the "first skyscraper of Zagreb". He moved his architectural studio, in 1934, at the top floor of that same skyscraper, in Masarykova street, that he designed. From 1934 until 1941 Löwy implemented a number of major housing and business establishments in Zagreb, which belong to the top of Croatian modernism. In 1945 he started to work on reconstruction of the Nama department stores in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1946 Löwy was forcibly moved by communists regime to the Bureau of Architecture project, where he worked on the types of "rational residential buildings. Since 1950 until 1953 he was forcibly moved to Macedonia, where he designed the public buildings. Apartment with his studio, in Masarykova street, were returned to him in 1953 when he returned to Zagreb. After return Löwy renewed his studio in the original space. In 1962 the "Architectural firm Löwy" is merged with "Tehnoprojekt".

In 1942 the work of Löwy architectural studio was prohibited by Nazis and NDH regime. Apartment with his studio, in Masarykova street, was taken away from him, most project documentation of his studio has been destroyed. Löwy parents were deported to Nazi death camps, he somehow survived while hiding in Zagreb, one of his hiding places was truss of Art Pavilion in Zagreb. Surviving members of his family claim that Löwy has changed, in that period, as many as 17 locations in Zagreb as he hide from Nazis and NDH regime. After the World War II things were not much better for Löwy. Under communists regime of newly founded SFR Yugoslavia he had a problems for being a Jew, but his acquaintance with sculptor Augustinčić helped him through those times, he retired in 1966. In 1970 he was awarded with the prize of Viktor Kovačić for a lifetime achievement, in 1977 he was awarded with the prize of Vladimir Nazor for a lifetime achievement. Löwy died on April 1, 1996 on the 9th floor of his apartment and studio skyscraper in Masarykova Street.

Residential and commercial building Grünsberg, Petrićeva 7, 1932–1933. Residential and commercial building Schlenger, Bogovićeva 4, 1932–1933. Hirschler residential house, Gornje Prekrižje 2, 1932–1933. Nossan residential house, Zvonimirova 23, 1932–1933. Residential and commercial building Radovan, Masarykova 22, 1933. – 1934. Polak residential house, Tuškanova 15, 1936. – 1937. Lebinec residential house, Ribnjak 20, 1936. – 1937. Federbuš residential house, Novakova 19, 1936. – 1937. Residential and commercial building Schlenger, Boškovićeva 7b, 1936. – 1937. Wiener Bankverein residential house, Bulićeva 4, 1936. – 1937. Residential and commercial building Jadranskog osiguravajućeg društva, Draškovićeva 13, 1936. – 1937. Residential and commercial building Radovan, Savska 8, 1937. Beck residential house, Vinkovićeva 8, 1937. Prpić residential house, Solovljeva 22, 1938. Marko Kasumović villa, Njegoševa 1, 1936. - 1938. Löwy residential house, Mandrovićeva 12, 1938. – 1939. Bukovačka 149, 1941. Pichler residential house, Grškovićeva 7, 1941.

Master workshop Vanje Radauša, Zmajevac 8, 1949. Master workshop Antuna Augustinčića, Jabukovac 10, 1949. Residential buildings factory „Rade Končar“, Gajnice, 1949. Residential buildings, Galjufova 4 – 12, 1949. Steiner residential house, Grškovićeva 25, 1955. Dorm „Cvjetno naselje“, Odranska 8, 1955. Nursing home „Lavoslav Švarc“, Bukovačka 55, 1955. – 1956. Economics institute, Kennedyjev trg 7, 1957. – 1963. Restaurant „Trnjanka“, Trnjanska cesta 31, 1959. – 1960. Dorm „Ante Starčević“, Ljubljanska avenija 2, 1961. Dorm „Stjepan Radić“, Horvoćanska cesta/ Jarunska cesta 2, 1961. Arrangement of the Jewish cemetery, Koprivnica, 1930. Memorial to the Jews who died in World War I in the town of Koprivnica cemetery, Koprivnica, 1930. Löwy family tomb, Koprivnica, 1930. Remaking of the Koprivnica Synagogue, 1937. Elektroprimorje administration building, Viktora Cara Emina 2, Rijeka, 1953. – 1955. Central substation, Grohovčeva 2, Rijeka, 1960. Dorm, I. G. Kovačića 4, Osijek, 1962. Dorm Podmurvica, Čandekova 4, Rijeka, 1963.

Excursion forest management „Crna Gora“, Koprivnica, 1970. Residential family house Švarc, Krešimirov trg 5, Koprivnica, 1973. Memorial to the Jews who died in World War I in the town of Koprivnica cemetery, The city public beach, Macedonia, 1950–1951 Student village, Macedonia, 1950–1951 Administrative centre, Macedonia, 1952–1953 Disabled persons home, Macedonia, 1953 City hotel with a Vardar promenade Vardar, Macedonia Department store, Macedonia, 1957 Federal Chamber of Commerce building, Serbia

Swedish colony of Saint Barthélemy

The Swedish colony of Saint Barthélemy existed for nearly a century. In 1784, one of Louis XVI's ministers ceded the French Caribbean island to Sweden in exchange for trading rights in the Swedish port of Gothenburg. Swedish rule lasted until 1878. Following problems experienced by early French settlers, Saint Barthélemy was colonized by French mariners in 1763. Attracted by the island's prosperity during the American Revolutionary War, Gustav III of Sweden agreed to exchange French trading rights in Gothenburg against Swedish colonization of the island. In addition to its fresh water sources, the island produced moderate amounts of cotton, cocoa and fruits while it promised substantial revenue from trade through its natural harbour on the island's west coast. On 1 July 1784, the island became a Swedish possession; the king informed Sweden's privy council of the acquisition on 23 August. On 1 September, Swedish officials under the leadership of Salomon von Rajalin, the island's first Swedish governor, were appointed to administer the island.

They sailed from Gothenburg on 4 December 1784 on the frigate Sprengtporten, arriving in Saint Barthélemy on 6 March 1785. In January 1785, the Swedish merchants Jacob Röhl and Adolf Fredrik Hansen had arrived to establish a trading post with warehousing. At the time, the island had a population of some 750 of. French was spoken in the rural areas. On 7 March 1785, the French commandant Chevalier de Durant ceded authority to von Rajalin who, on 16 April 1785, introduced tax free trading for visiting ships. On 7 September, he established Saint Barthélemy as a free port; the French port of La Carénage was renamed Gustavia after the Swedish king. From 28 August 1786, slave trade was included in a royal letter and on 12 March 1790 the taxation regime for the shipment of slaves was established. Between a third to half of Saint Barthélemy's population were registered slaves in year 1819. On 31 October 1786, the Swedish West India Company was established on the island with responsibility for maintaining the port and the employment of Swedish officials.

By the end of the century, around 1,330 ships visited the port of Gustavia annually. By the beginning of the 19th century, the population had grown to around 6,000, with some 5,000 living in Gustavia. From 19 March 1801 to 10 July 1802, the British occupied the island; the weekly journal The Report of St Bartholomew was published from 1804 to 1819 documenting life on the island over a period of 15 years. Following rioting between the island's French and English communities in September 1811, an administrative council consisting of the governor and six officials was established on 25 September to govern the island. Arrangements were made for popular representation within an assembly which met every three years. Trade continued to flourish during the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States when 20% of American exports were routed via St Barthélemy. In 1812, the Swedish parliament transferred the colony to the king as his private property. A colonial department was established in the king's chancellery and customs duties and revenues were paid into the king's Saint Barthélemy fund.

Revenues from 1812 to 1816 amounted to around SEK 1.9 million and from 1817 to 1830 to SEK 1.8 million providing a total surplus of SEK 2.2 million. In 1839, Gustavia lost its role as a free port. Thereafter Sweden provided the necessary financial support. In 1840, around 300 died when a feverish epidemic hit the island, reducing the population to about 2,500. In 1850, the island suffered a severe drought. In the mid-1840s, the Swedish parliament ruled that Saint Barthélemy should again be included under national administration; the parliament abolished slave trading and slavery on the island. A census in late 1875 indicated there were around 2,300 living on the island, 800 of whom resided in Gustavia; that year only 399 ships sailed to the island of which 227 were from 132 from Sweden. As a result of increases in the financial support required to administer the colony, the Swedish authorities began negotiations with France for the island's repurchase. On 10 August 1877, the transfer agreement was signed in Paris.

It was ratified in Stockholm on 9 November 1877 and in Paris on 4 March 1878. The transaction price was 80,000 francs for Swedish assets and 320,000 francs for the repatriation and retirement of Swedish officials. On 16 March 1878, the French reoccupied Saint Barthélemy. Salomon von Rajalin Pehr Herman von Rosenstein Carl Fredrik Bagge af Söderby Georg Henrik Johan af Trolle Hans Henrik Anckarheim Berndt Robert Gustaf Stackelberg Johan Samuel Rosensvärd Carl Fredrik Berghult Johan Norderling James Haarlef Haasum and Lars G Morsing James Haarlef Haasum Fredrik Carl Ulrich Georg Wilhelm Netherwood Bror Ludvig Ulrich Alarik Helleday

Lums Pond State Park

Lums Pond State Park is a 1,790-acre Delaware state park near Bear, New Castle County, Delaware in the United States. The park surrounds Lums Pond, an impoundment built by the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal on St. Georges Creek; the C&D built the pond as a source of water to fill the locks of the canal that connected the Chesapeake Bay with the Delaware River during the early 19th century. Lums Pond State Park is open for a wide variety of year-round recreation. Lums Pond, the largest freshwater pond in Delaware, covering 200 acres in central New Castle County, was built in the early 19th century as an impoundment for the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal; the pond supplied water to fill the locks of the water power for a local gristmill. The pond became a natural recreational draw for the residents of Delaware. Ownership was transferred to the state of Delaware in the mid-20th century. Lums Pond State Park was opened to the public in 1963; the Lum's Mill House was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.

Lums Pond is the center of recreation at Lums Pond State Park. Although swimming is not permitted in the pond, it is open to fishing. Rowboats, kayaks and pedalos are available to rent. Lums Pond is a freshwater fishery with the common game fish being carp, crappie and largemouth bass and hybrid striped bass; the hybrid striped bass are stocked by the Fish and Wildlife Division of the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control. The other game fish are native species. Many visitors to Lums Pond State Park take advantage of the wide variety of camping opportunities that are available. There 62 campsites without electric connections, six sites with electricity, two yurts, four sites with stabling facilities for horses; the campsites are open to tents. The yurts feature bunk beds and a futon, a large outdoor deck with freshwater and a grill; the Whale Wallow Nature Center is open seasonally. Lums Pond State Park is open to hiking, cross-country skiing and snowmobiling on the park's network of trails.

Summit North Marina is located on the Delaware Canal. It offers boat and fuel sales, boat storage and boat repair. Many different ballfields and game courts are spread throughout Lums Pond State Park; the fields are open to football, soccer and softball. The courts are open to basketball and tennis. Horseshoes pits are available. Hunting is permitted with a hunting license from the Division of Fish and Wildlife but a special permit from the Division of Parks and Recreation is required since the park is Parks and Recreation property; the special permit can be acquired at the park office. In June 2013, a Go Ape tree-top adventure course was added to the park; the following state parks are within 30 miles of Lums Pond State Park: Alapocas Run State Park Auburn Valley State Park Bellevue State Park Brandywine Creek State Park Elk Neck State Park Fort Delaware State Park Fort DuPont State Park Fort Mott State Park Fox Point State Park First State Heritage Park at Dover Parvin State Park Ridley Creek State Park Susquehanna State Park Wilmington State Parks White Clay Creek Preserve White Clay Creek State Park

Westville, New York

Westville is a town in Franklin County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 1,819. Westville is on the north border of the county, northwest of Malone; the area was first settled around 1800. The town of Westville was formed from the town of Constable in 1829; the community has always been a farming community, with rich clay soils in the north and sandy soils in the southern part of the town. The Salmon River meanders through the township and was important to its early industry and its agriculture. In the 19th century, Westville was settled by Scottish and English people who had migrated from Vermont and other parts of New England; the only churches in the community were Protestant, the Presbyterian Church at Westville Corners and Methodist-Episcopal at Westville Center. Around the time of the Civil War, there was an influx of French Canadians into northern New York, some took up farming in the community. In the 19th century and early 20th century there were several small industries in the community, a gristmill, a butter factory, a starch factory, several sawmills.

Most of these industries were located on the Salmon River. Over time the industries disappeared and left only farming as the stable economic activity as it is today; the north town line is the international border with Canada. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 34.8 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 0.04%, is water. New York State Route 37 intersects New York State Route 122 at Westville Center; the Salmon River, a tributary of the St. Lawrence River, flows northward through the town; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,823 people, 671 households, 503 families residing in the town. The population density was 52.4 people per square mile. There were 766 housing units at an average density of 22.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.98% White, 0.66% African American, 0.82% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 1.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.82% of the population. There were 671 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.1% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.0% were non-families.

19.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.07. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 24.8% from 45 to 64, 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $32,452, the median income for a family was $36,964. Males had a median income of $28,167 versus $20,291 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,809. About 9.4% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.7% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. Westville – A hamlet in the northern part of the town on NY-37 at County Road 20, it was called "West Constable" and "Westyville." Westville Center – A hamlet at the junction of NY-37, NY-122, County Road 19, south of Westville.

Town of Westville official website Early history of Westville Read or Listen to the Oral History of Westville Westville Historical Organizatiion