Gangotri is a town and a Nagar Panchayat in Uttarkashi district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is a Hindu pilgrim town on origin of River Ganges, it is at a height of 3,100 metres. According to popular Hindu legend, it was here that Goddess Ganga descended when Lord Shiva released the mighty river from the locks of his hair. Gangotri is located at 30.98°N 78.93°E / 30.98. Gangotri, the origin of the River Ganges and seat of the goddess Ganga, is one of the four sites in the Chota Char Dham pilgrimage circuit; the original Gangotri Temple was built by the Nepalese general Amar Singh Thapa. The river is called Bhagirathi at the source and acquires the name Ganga from Devprayag onwards where it meets the Alaknanda; the origin of the holy river is at Gaumukh, set in the Gangotri Glacier, is a 19 km trek from Gangotri. The temple is reopened in May. During this time, the idol of the goddess is kept near Harsil. Ritual duties of the temple are supervised by the Semwal family of pujaris; these pujaris hail from Mukhba village.
Places to visit near the Gangotri Temple Bhagirath Shila is believed to be the holy rock where King Bhagirath prayed to Lord Shiva. Pandava Gufa, located 1.5 km from Gangotri, is the place where the Pandavas are believed to have meditated and rested en route Kailash. Pilgrims will have to trek up to the Pandava Gufa. In the pilgrimage journey of Chota Char Dham, Gangotri is visited after Yamunotri. Pilgrims make Uttarkashi as their base camp; the time taken from Uttarkashi to Gangotri temple is about 4 hours by road. According to Hindu mythology, Goddess Ganga took the form of a river to absolve the sins of King Bhagiratha's predecessors, following his severe penance of several centuries. According to this legend, King Sagara, after slaying the demons on earth decided to stage an Ashwamedha Yajna as a proclamation of his supremacy; the horse, to be taken on an uninterrupted journey around the earth was to be accompanied by the King's 60,000 sons born to Queen Sumati and one son Asamanja born of the second queen Kesani.
Indra, supreme ruler of the gods feared that he might be deprived of his celestial throne if the "Yajna" succeeded and took away the horse and tied it to the ashram of Sage Kapila, in deep meditation. The sons of the King Sagara searched for the horse and found it tied near the meditating sage. Sixty thousand angry sons of King Sagara stormed the ashram of sage Kapila; when he opened his eyes, the 60,000 sons had all perished, by the curse of sage Kapila. Bhagiratha, the grandson of King Sagar, is believed to have meditated to please the Goddess Ganga enough to cleanse the ashes of his ancestors, liberate their souls, granting them salvation or Moksha; as of 2001 India census, Gangotri had a population of 606. Males constitute 60% of the population and females 40%. Gangotri has an average literacy rate of 89%, male literacy is 91%, female literacy is 80%. In Gangotri, average age of the population is under 6 years of age. Gangotri National Park Harsil Yamuna
Rancho San Rafael was a 36,403-acre Spanish land grant in the San Rafael Hills, bordering the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco in present-day Los Angeles County, southern California, given in 1784 to Jose Maria Verdugo. The rancho includes the present day cities of Glendale, La Cañada Flintridge, Verdugo City; the rancho's boundaries were defined by the Verdugo Mountains on the west, the Crescenta Valley and Rancho La Cañada on the north, the Arroyo Seco on the east, the Los Angeles River on the south. The boundary followed north along the northeast bank of the L. A. River, wrapped westerly around present day Griffith Park to a point near the Travel Town Museum there. Corporal José María Verdugo, a Spanish soldier who had served with the 1769 Portola-Serra Expedition, received a provisional eight square league grant of the Rancho San Rafael in 1784, from his army commander Governor Pedro Fages, confirmed in 1798 by Governor Diego de Borica. In 1798 Verdugo retired from the army to become a full-time rancher.
Verdugo died in 1831 and he left his property to his surviving son Julio Antonio Verdugo and daughter María Catalina Verdugo. With the cession of California to the United States following the Mexican–American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored; as required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim was filed with the Public Land Commission in 1852, confirmed by the Commission in 1855, the grant was patented to Julio and Catalina Verdugo in 1882. In 1857, Jonathan R. Scott traded Rancho La Cañada to Julio and Catalina Verdugo, heirs of Jose Maria Verdugo, for 4,607 acres acres on the west side of Rancho San Rafael - what is today Burbank. In 1861 Julio and Catalina Verdugo split the rancho between northern portions. In 1861, Julio Verdugo mortgaged a substantial portion of the Rancho to Jacob Elias under terms that he could not afford. By the late 1860s, several parcels of Rancho San Rafael had been either sold, or lost due to foreclosures. Many individuals were claiming ownership to multiple sections of the rancho.
In 1871, law partners Alfred Chapman and Andrew Glassell filed a lawsuit, known as "The Great Partition", against thirty-six separate defendants. The plaintiffs contended that there were numerous alleged property owners occupying tracts of land whose boundaries were illegally established. Once the validity of the claims were proven, a partition was demanded. Rancho San Rafael was divided into thirty-one sections given to twenty-eight different people, some of which included members of the Verdugo family. Casa Adobe De San Rafael: An 1865 hacienda-type adobe built by Tomas Avila Sanchez and Maria Sepulveda. Catalina Verdugo Adobe: An 1860 adobe built by Catalina's nephew, Teodoro Verdugo; the property is the location of the Oak of Peace, where early Californio leaders, including Andres Pico, met in 1847 and decided to surrender to Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémont. Ranchos of California List of Ranchos of California Ranchos of Los Angeles County Map of old Spanish and Mexican ranchos in Los Angeles County
West Haven is a city in New Haven County, United States. At the 2010 census, the population of the city was 55,564. Settled in 1648, West Haven was a part of the original New Haven Colony. In 1719, it became the separate parish of West Haven, but was still a part of New Haven until 1822. During the American Revolution, West Haven was the frequent launch and arrival point for raiding parties on both sides of the war. On July 5, 1779, the British came ashore in West Haven and East Haven. Thomas Painter, a teenaged militiaman watching for the approaching British ships while standing atop Savin Rock, is depicted on the city seal; the main commercial street, Campbell Avenue, is named for British Adjutant William Campbell, at the time an ensign in the Third Guards, who rescued the Reverend Noah Williston, the local Congregational minister and outspoken revolutionary, from being bayoneted by British and Hessian troopers, after he broke his leg trying to escape his captors. Campbell ordered the soldiers to help the minister back to the parsonage and had the regimental surgeon set his leg.
Campbell is credited with keeping the troops in reasonably good order during their march through the village and had two soldiers arrested after a local woman accused them of stealing her jewelry. Campbell was killed hours atop Allingtown Hill on his way to New Haven by a local farmer-turned defender. Campbell is buried in the Allingtown section of town off Prudden Street. Patriot victims of the invasion are buried in the Christ First Society Cemetery. A historical headstone marks Campbell's approximate gravesite and is maintained by the West Haven Historical Society. While West Haven again attempted to incorporate as its own town in 1784, that attempt failed due to the protests of neighboring Milford, which opposed North Milford becoming part of the new town. West Haven and North Milford tried again in 1787 with the same result; the two joined to become Orange. In 1921, West Haven split from Orange to become a separate town, it was incorporated as a city in 1961 and is known as "Connecticut's Youngest City", but it is one of the state's oldest settlements.
The Savin Rock section of West Haven was the site of the Savin Rock Amusement Park, which began in the late 19th century as a regionally renowned seaside resort. It evolved into a general amusement park in the 20th century and closed in the 1960s; the park ran along the west side of the New Haven Harbor beachfront. What followed was a 40 year struggle to stop Savin Rock's Redevelopment - approved by voters in 1963 and starting in 1966, it involved multiple referenda, petition drives, court cases, Connecticut Supreme Court decisions affecting the 40 acre area. Opposition began about 1971 soon after old Savin Rock had been torn down and the first project built, but ballooned in 1973 when Save Our Shore led a referendum to stop “the Great Wall of China”, an 800 foot 12 story apartment, proposed for a 10 acre parcel, blocking the shore view. A 1974 referendum to stop all development was organized by IMPACT, but was overturned by the Supreme Court in 1978; this led to a struggle for a Compromise Plan, initiated by Mayor Robert Johnson, brought to completion by action of the Concerned Citizens for Bradley Point, which petitioned the final holdout to the Plan, to which the Supreme Court had required all developers to agree for any significant change.
The Compromise was signed by all in May, 1979, but IMPACT continued to oppose it thru 1980. Thereafter, a committee sought public input and federal money, in July, 1984, the 20 acre Bradley Point Veterans Memorial Park opened. In 1987 and 1989, the city bought development rights of all the remaining parcels, part of which became the Old Grove Park and part included a former restaurant that became the Savin Rock Conference Center. In 1991, the Land Trust of West Haven, Inc. was founded, but it was not until 2007 that a Conservation Easement was signed, preserving all but the Conference Center, as open space forever - beautiful parks, with walks and bike path, along Connecticut’s longest public shoreline. Several restaurants remain as last reminders of the area including Jimmies, Turk's of Savin Rock, both for their seafood and split hot dogs and Mike's Apizza & Restaurant. West Haven has a mayor-council form of government. Nancy R. Rossi, the city's twelfth mayor, was elected in 2017, she is West Haven's first female mayor.
There are two independent fire districts served by the First Fire West Shore. The Allingtown Fire District was recently subsumed by the City who's now responsible for all of its pension-related obligations going forward. Residents expect efforts will be made to consolidate the remaining two fire districts based, in large part, on the recommendation of the State's Municipal Accountability Review Board, providing financial support and guidance to the City; as it stands, each of the remaining independent Fire Districts levy its own tax rate. In 1986, West Haven observed the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution. During the year-long celebrations, the mayor and council passed numerous resolutions to encourage community involvement, including naming the official ship of West Haven—the U. S. Navy destroyer USS Edson -- and the daylily. Public schools included curriculum on the Constitution from K-12, school children were released from class to participate in a Constitution Day parade up Campbell Avenue.