Siguiri is a city in northeastern Guinea on the River Niger. It is a capital of Siguiri Prefecture in the Kankan Region, its population was estimated at 28,319 in 2008. It is known for its goldsmiths and as the birthplace of Sekouba Bambino Diabaté. Placer gold is mined here. North and northwest of Siguiri, along the Tinkisso River, is the Bouré region; this region replaced Bambouk as a major gold producer in the 11th-12th centuries. Gold is found along the Sankarani River; this is the place where Sundiata Keita fought Soumaoro Kanté, located here is a former French fort built in 1888, the Siguiri Airport. Siguiri has a tropical savanna climate. Birimian Spinning around the source. Slumbering stories in and around Siguiri. Article by Rachel Laget based on anthropological field research. Mining for Gold in Siguiri: A Close Look at a High-Risk Population - USAID
Poni is one of the 45 provinces of Burkina Faso, located in its Sud-Ouest Region. Its capital is Gaoua. Poni is divided into 9 departments: Bouroum-Bouroum Djigoue Gaoua Gbomblora Kampti Loropeni Malba Nako Perigban Poni Province is home to Burkina Faso's first UNESCO World Heritage site, the Ruins of Loropéni, added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2009. Regions of Burkina Faso Provinces of Burkina Faso Departments of Burkina Faso
Gold panning, or panning, is a form of placer mining and traditional mining that extracts gold from a placer deposit using a pan. The process is one of the simplest ways to extract gold, is popular with geology enthusiasts because of its low cost and relative simplicity; the first recorded instances of placer mining are from ancient Rome, where gold and other precious metals were extracted from streams and mountainsides using sluices and panning. However, the productivity rate is comparatively smaller compared to other methods such as the rocker box or large extractors, such as those used at the Super Pit gold mine, in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, which has led to panning being replaced in the commercial market. Gold panning is a simple process. Once a suitable placer deposit is located, some alluvial deposits are scooped into a pan, where they are gently agitated in water and the gold sinks to the bottom of the pan. Materials with a low specific gravity are allowed to spill out of the pan, whereas materials with a higher specific gravity sink to the bottom of the sediment during agitation and remain within the pan for examination and collection by the prospector.
These dense materials consist of a black, magnetite sand with whatever stones or metal dust that may be found in the deposit, used for source material. While an effective method with certain kinds of deposits, essential for prospecting skilled panners can work but a limited amount of material less than the other methods which have replaced it in larger operation. Pans remain in use in places where there is limited capital or infrastructure, as well as in recreational gold mining. In many situations, gold panning turns up only minor gold dust, collected as a souvenir in small clear tubes by hobbyists. Nuggets and considerable amounts of dust are found, but panning mining is not lucrative. Panning for gold can be used to locate the parent gold veins which are the source of most placer deposits. Gold pans of various designs have been developed over the years, the common features being a means for trapping the heavy materials during agitation, or for removing them at the end of the process; some are intended for use with mercury, include screens, sharp corners for breaking ice, are non-round, or are designed for use "with or without water".
Edward Otho Cresap Ord, II, a former Army officer and co-owner of several mines, patented several pan designs including designs for use with mercury or dry. Pans are measured by their diameter in centimeters. Common sizes of gold pans today range between 10–17 inches, with 14 inches being the most used size; the sides are angled between 30° to 45°. Pans are manufactured in high-impact plastic. Russia iron or heavy gauge steel pans are traditional. Steel pans are stronger than plastic pans; some are made of lightweight alloys for structural stability. Plastic gold pans resist rust and corrosion, most are designed with moulded riffles along one side of the pan. Of the plastic gold pans and red ones are preferred among prospectors, as both the gold and the black sand stands out in the bottom of the pan, although many opt for black pans instead to identify gold deposits; the batea, Spanish for "gold pan", is a particular variant of gold pan. Traditionally made of a solid piece of wood, it may be made of metal.
Bateas are used in areas where there is less water available for use than with traditional gold pans, such as Mexico and South America, where it was introduced by the Spanish. Bateas are larger than other gold pans; the yuri-ita, Japanese for "rocking plate" is a traditional wooden gold pan used in Japan. Unlike other gold pans, it is rectangular in shape with a concave cross section and is sealed off at one end with the other end open; as the Japanese name implies, the gold is panned with a rocking motion
Departments of Burkina Faso
The provinces of Burkina Faso are divided into 351 departments, whose urbanized areas are grouped into the same commune with the same name as the department. The 351 communes created in those departments have three kinds of status: 49 urban communes, are grouping their main city/town and all other administrative villages in their department. 302 rural communes are grouping all administrative villages in their department. Departments have the same name as their capital city or town, with a few exceptions. For the local elections in 2012, communes were created in each department that still did not have one; the departments are listed below, by province: Bagassi Department Bana Department Boromo Department Fara Department Oury Department Pâ Department Pompoï Department Poura Department Siby Department Yaho Department Balavé Department Kouka Department Sami Department Sanaba Department Solenzo Department Tansila Department Barani Department Bomborokui Department Djibasso Department Dokuy Department Doumbala Department Kombori Department Madouba Department Nouna Department Bourasso Department Sono Department Bondokuy Department Dédougou Department Douroula Department Kona Department Ouarkoye Department Safané Department Tchériba Department Gassam Department Gossina Department Kougny Department Toma Department Yaba Department Yé Department Di Department Gomboro Department Kassoum Department Kiembara Department Lanfièra Department Lankoué Department Toéni Department Tougan Department Banfora Department Bérégadougou Department Mangodara Department Moussodougou Department Niangoloko Department Ouo Department Sidéradougou Department Soubakaniédougou Department Tiéfora Department Dakoro Department Douna Department Kankalaba Department Loumana Department Niankorodougou Department Ouéléni Department Sindou Department Wolonkoto Department Komki-Ipala Department Komsliga Department Koubri Department Ouagadougou Department Pabré Department Saaba Department Tanghin-Dassouri Department Bagré Department Bané Department Béguédo Department Bittou Department Boussouma Department Garango Department Komtoèga Department Niaogho Department Tenkodogo Department Zabré Department Zoaga Department Zonsé Department Bissiga Department Comin-Yanga Department Dourtenga Department Lalgaye Department Ouargaye Department Sangha Department Soudougui Department Yargatenga Department Yondé Department Andemtenga Department Baskouré Department Dialgaye Department Gounghin Department Kando Department Koupéla Department Pouytenga Department Tensobtenga Department Yargo Department Bourzanga Department Guibaré Department Kongoussi Department Nasséré Department Rollo Department Rouko Department Sabcé Department Tikaré Department Zimtenga Department Boulsa Department Bouroum Department Dargo Department Tougouri Department Yalgo Department Zéguédéguin Department Nagbingou Department Barsalogho Department Boussouma Department Dablo Department Kaya Department Korsimoro Department Mané Department Namissiguima Department Pensa Department Pibaore Department Pissila Department Ziga Department Bingo Department Imasgo Department Kindi Department Kokologho Department Koudougou Department Nanoro Department Pella Department Poa Department Ramongo Department Sabou Department Siglé Department Sourgou Department Thyou Department Nandiala Department Soaw Department Dassa Department Didyr Department Godyr Department Kordié Department Kyon Department Pouni Department Réo Department Ténado Department Zawara Department Zamo Department Biéha Department Boura Department Léo Department Nébiélianayou Department Niabouri Department Silly Department Tô Department Bakata Department Bougnounou Department Cassou Department Dalo Department Gao Department Sapouy Department Doulougou Department Ipelcé Department Kayao Department Kombissiri Department Saponé Department Toécé Department Gaongo Department Guiaro Department Pô Department Tiébélé Department Zecco Department Ziou Department Béré Department Bindé Department Gogo Department Gomboussougou Department Guiba Department Manga Department Nobére Department Bilanga Department Bogandé Department Coalla Department Liptougou Department Manni Department Piéla Department Thion Department Diabo Department Diapangou Department Fada N'gourma Department Matiacoali Department Tibga Department Yamba Department Bartiébougou Department Foutouri Department Gayéri Department Ko
A sacred grove or sacred woods are any grove of trees that are of special religious importance to a particular culture. Sacred groves feature in various cultures throughout the world, they were important features of the mythological landscape and cult practice of Celtic, Germanic, ancient Greek, Near Eastern and Slavic polytheism, were used in India and West Africa. Examples of sacred groves include the Greco-Roman temenos, the Norse hörgr, the Celtic nemeton, but not associated with Druidic practice. During the Northern Crusades, there was a common practice of building churches on the sites of sacred groves; the Lakota and various other North American tribes consider particular forests or other natural landmarks to be sacred. Ancient holy trees remain in the English and Estonian countryside and are mentioned in folklore and fairytales. There are two mentions on this tradition in the Bible: Abraham planted a grove in Beersheba, called there the name of God. —Genesis 21:33 and where the women wove hangings for the grove.
—II Kings 23:7 Excavations at Labraunda have revealed a large shrine assumed to be that of Zeus Stratios mentioned by Herodotus as a large sacred grove of plane trees sacred to Carians. In Syria, there was a grove sacred to Adonis at Afqa; the most famous sacred groves in mainland Greece was the oak grove at Dodona. Outside the walls of Athens, the site of the Platonic Academy was a sacred grove of olive trees, still recalled in the phrase "the groves of Academe". In central Italy, the town of Nemi recalls the Latin nemus Aricinum, or "grove of Ariccia", a small town a quarter of the way around the lake. In Antiquity the area had no town, but the grove was the site of one of the most famous of Roman cults and temples: that of Diana Nemorensis, a study of which served as the seed for Sir James Frazer's seminal work on the anthropology of religion, The Golden Bough. A sacred grove behind the House of the Vestal Virgins on the edge of the Roman Forum lingered until its last vestiges were burnt in the Great Fire of Rome in 64 CE.
In the town of Spoleto, two stones from the late third century BCE, inscribed in archaic Latin, established punishments for the profanation of the woods dedicated to Jupiter have survived. The Bosco Sacro in the garden of Bomarzo, lends its associations to the uncanny atmosphere. Lucus Pisaurensis, the Sacred Grove of Pesaro, Italy was discovered by Patrician Annibale degli Abati Olivieri in 1737 on property he owned along the'Forbidden Road', just outside Pesaro; this Sacred Grove is the site of the Votive Stones of Pesaro and was dedicated to Salus, the ancient Roman demi-goddess of well-being. The city of Massilia, a Greek colony, had a sacred grove so close by it that Julius Caesar had it cut down to facilitate his siege. In Pharsalia, the poet Lucan dramatized it as a place where sunlight could not reach through the branches, where no animal or bird lived, where the wind did not blow, but branches moved on their own, where human sacrifice was practiced, in a clear attempt to dramatize the situation and distract from the sacrilege entailed in its destruction.
Sacred groves have survived in the Baltic states longer than in other parts of Europe. The main Baltic Prussian sanctuary, considered a sacred grove was Romowe. An important wave of destruction of sacred groves was carried out in the lands of present-day Lithuania after its Christianization in 1387, in Samogitia in 1413. However, some groves, such as in Šventybrastis, still survive in Lithuania. A sacred grove is known as svētbirzs in Latvian. Conversely, in Estonia numerous sacred groves have survived to the present day and have been protected by the government of the country; the Celts used sacred groves, called nemeton in Gaulish, for performing rituals, based on Celtic mythology. The deity involved was Nemetona – a Celtic goddess. Druids oversaw such rituals. Existence of such groves have been found in Germany, Czech Republic and Hungary in Central Europe, in many sites of ancient Gaul in France, as well as England and Northern Ireland. Sacred groves had been plentiful up until the 1st century BC, when the Romans attacked and conquered Gaul.
One of the best known nemeton sites is that in the Nevet forest near Locronan in France. Gournay-sur-Aronde, a village in the Oise department of France houses the remains of a nemeton. Nemetons were fenced off by enclosures, as indicated by the German term Viereckschanze – meaning a quadrangular space surrounded by a ditch enclosed by wooden palisades. Many of these groves, like the sacred grove at Didyma, Turkey are thought to be nemetons, sacred groves protected by druids based on Celtic mythology. In fact, according to Strabo, the central shrine at Galatia was called Drunemeton; some of these were sacred groves in Greek times, but were based on a different or changed mythology. In the animistic native Filipino religions worshiping anito spirits, balete trees known as nonok or nunuk, were regarded as abodes of spirits or gateways to the spirit world. Cutting them down was taboo, a superstition, still followed today. Outdoor shrines or altars known as dambana and tambara among other names were built near the trees during shaman rituals.
Aside from individual trees, natural formations, bodies of water, rocks and entire forests commonly became sacred places to various communities. Sacred groves feature prominently in Scandinavia; the most famous sacred grove of Northern Europe was at the Temple at Upps
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa. It covers an area of around 274,200 square kilometres and is surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north; the July 2018 population estimate by the United Nations was 19,751,651. Burkina Faso is a francophone country, with French as the official language of government and business. 40% of the population speaks the Mossi language. Called the Republic of Upper Volta, the country was renamed "Burkina Faso" on 4 August 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara, its citizens are known as Burkinabé. Its capital is Ouagadougou; the Republic of Upper Volta was established on 11 December 1958 as a self-governing colony within the French Community, on 5 August 1960 it gained full independence, with Maurice Yaméogo as President. After protests by students and labour unions, Yaméogo was deposed in the 1966 coup d'état, led by Sangoulé Lamizana, who became President, his rule coincided with the Sahel drought and famine, facing problems from the country's traditionally powerful trade unions he was deposed in the 1980 coup d'état, led by Saye Zerbo.
Encountering resistance from trade unions again, Zerbo's government was overthrown in the 1982 coup d'état, led by Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo. The leader of the leftist faction of Ouédraogo's government, Thomas Sankara, became Prime Minister but was imprisoned. Efforts to free him led to the popularly-supported 1983 coup d'état. Sankara renamed the country Burkina Faso and launched an ambitious socioeconomic programme which included a nationwide literacy campaign, land redistribution to peasants and road construction and the outlawing of female genital mutilation, forced marriages and polygamy. Sankara was overthrown and killed in the 1987 coup d'état led by Blaise Compaoré – deteriorating relations with former coloniser France and its ally the Ivory Coast were the reason given for the coup. In 1987, Blaise Compaoré became President and, after an alleged 1989 coup attempt, was elected in 1991 and 1998, elections which were boycotted by the opposition and received a low turnout, as well as in 2005.
He remained head of state until he was ousted from power by the popular youth upheaval of 31 October 2014, after which he was exiled to the Ivory Coast. Michel Kafando subsequently became the transitional President of the country. On 16 September 2015, a military coup d'état against the Kafando government was carried out by the Regiment of Presidential Security, the former presidential guard of Compaoré. On 24 September 2015, after pressure from the African Union, ECOWAS and the armed forces, the military junta agreed to step down, Michel Kafando was reinstated as Acting President. In the general election held on 29 November 2015, Roch Marc Christian Kaboré won in the first round with 53.5% of the vote and was sworn in as President on 29 December 2015. The 2018 CIA World Factbook provides this summary of the issues facing Burkina Faso. "The country experienced terrorist attacks in its capital in 2016, 2017 and 2018, continues to mobilize resources to counter terrorist threats". In 2018, several governments were warning their citizens not to travel into the northern part of the country and into several provinces in the East Region.
The CIA report states that "Burkina Faso's high population growth, recurring drought and perennial food insecurity, limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens". The report is optimistic in some aspects concerning activities being done with assistance by the International Monetary Fund. "A new three-year IMF program, approved in 2018, will allow the government to reduce the budget deficit and preserve critical spending on social services and priority public investments". Called the Republic of Upper Volta, the country was renamed "Burkina Faso" on 4 August 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara; the words "Burkina" and "Faso" both stem from different languages spoken in the country: "Burkina" comes from Mossi and means "upright", showing how the people are proud of their integrity, while "Faso" comes from the Dyula language and means "fatherland". The "bè" suffix added onto "Burkina" to form the demonym "Burkinabè" comes from the Fula language and means "men or women".
The CIA summarizes the etymology as "name translates as "Land of the Honest Men". The French colony of Upper Volta was named for its location on the upper courses of the Volta River; the northwestern part of present-day Burkina Faso was populated by hunter-gatherers from 14000 BC to 5000 BC. Their tools, including scrapers and arrowheads, were discovered in 1973 through archaeological excavations. Agricultural settlements were established between 3600 and 2600 BC; the Bura culture was an Iron-Age civilization centred in the southwest portion of modern-day Niger and in the southeast part of contemporary Burkina Faso. Iron industry, in smelting and forging for tools and weapons, had developed in Sub-Saharan Africa by 1200 BC. From the 3rd to the 13th centuries AD, the Iron Age Bura culture existed in the territory of present-day southeastern Burkina Faso and southwestern Niger. Various ethnic groups of present-day Burkina Faso, such as the Mossi and Dyula, arrived in successive waves between the 8th and 15th centuries.
From the 11th century, the Mossi people established several separate kingdoms. In the 1890s, during the European Scramble for Africa, the territory of Burkina Faso was invaded by France, colonial control was established following a wa
The Black Volta or Mouhoun is a river that flows through Burkina Faso flowing about 1,352 km to the White Volta in Dagbon, Ghana. The Black Volta forms part of Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. Within Ghana, it forms the border between the Brong-Ahafo Region; the Bui Dam is built on the river in Ghana. The river bisects Bui National Park in Ghana