A bus garage known as a bus depot, bus base or bus barn, is a facility where buses are stored and maintained. In many conurbations, bus garages are on the site of former car barns or tram sheds, where trams were stored, the operation transferred to buses. In other areas, garages were built to replace horse-bus yards or on virgin sites when populations were not as high as now; the largest bus depot in the world is Millennium Park Bus Depot In Delhi India. Most bus garages will contain the following elements: Internal parking External parking Fueling point Fuel storage tanks Engineering section Inspection pits Bus wash Brake test lane Staff canteen/break room Administration officeSmaller garages may contain the minimum engineering facilities, restricted to light servicing capabilities only. Garages may contain recovery vehicles converted buses, although their incidence has declined with the use of contractors to recover break-downs, the increase in reliability. Overnight, the more valuable or in-service buses will be stored in the interior of the garage, with less used or older service vehicles, vehicles withdrawn for storage or awaiting disposal, stored externally.
During the day and external areas will see a variety of movements. Heritage vehicles are exclusively stored inside the garage. Garages will feature rest rooms for drivers assigned to'as required' duties, whereby they may be required to drive relief or replacement buses in the event of breakdown; the garage may have'light duties' drivers, who move the buses internally around the garage called shunting. Several bus companies such as London Buses and Lothian Buses used to operate multiple storage garages around their operating area, supplemented by a central works facility. Central works have declined with increase in sub-contract engineering, improvements in mechanical reliability of bus designs; the practice of routine mid-life refurbishment of bus fleets has declined, which has resulted in shorter service lives. Some bus companies make use of outstations, as an additional bus storage facility; these are outdoor parking locations, where buses are stored overnight or between peaks, which are more conveniently located for operations, reducing dead mileage.
Incidents of vandalism and a general reduction in services has seen their decline in the UK. Bus garages will have large areas unobstructed by supporting columns as well as high roofs for storage of double-decker buses. In London, the transfer of routes from double-decker operation to articulated buses has caused problems at some garages that were found to be too small to accommodate all the replacement buses, requiring splitting of allocations, or the building of new garages. Bus station Bus terminus
Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces. Sheet metal is one of the fundamental forms used in metalworking and it can be cut and bent into a variety of shapes. Countless everyday objects are fabricated from sheet metal. Thicknesses can vary significantly. Sheet metal is available in coiled strips; the coils are formed by running a continuous sheet of metal through a roll slitter. In most of the world, sheet metal thickness is specified in millimeters. In the US, the thickness of sheet metal is specified by a traditional, non-linear measure known as its gauge; the larger the gauge number, the thinner the metal. Used steel sheet metal ranges from 30 gauge to about 7 gauge. Gauge differs between nonferrous metals such as aluminum or copper. Copper thickness, for example, is measured in ounces. Parts manufactured from sheet metal must maintain a uniform thickness for ideal results. There are many different metals that can be made into sheet metal, such as aluminium, copper, tin and titanium.
For decorative uses, some important sheet metals include silver and platinum Sheet metal is used in automobile and truck bodies, airplane fuselages and wings, medical tables, roofs for buildings and many other applications. Sheet metal of iron and other materials with high magnetic permeability known as laminated steel cores, has applications in transformers and electric machines. An important use of sheet metal was in plate armor worn by cavalry, sheet metal continues to have many decorative uses, including in horse tack. Sheet metal workers are known as "tin bashers", a name derived from the hammering of panel seams when installing tin roofs. Hand-hammered metal sheets have been used since ancient times for architectural purposes. Water-powered rolling mills replaced the manual process in the late 17th century; the process of flattening metal sheets required large rotating iron cylinders which pressed metal pieces into sheets. The metals suited for this were lead, zinc and steel. Tin was used to coat iron and steel sheets to prevent it from rusting.
This tin-coated sheet metal was called "tinplate." Sheet metals appeared in the United States in the 1870s, being used for shingle roofing, stamped ornamental ceilings and exterior facades. Sheet metal ceilings were only popularly known as "tin ceilings" as manufacturers of the period did not use the term; the popularity of both shingles and ceilings encouraged widespread production. With further advances of steel sheet metal production in the 1890s, the promise of being cheap, easy to install and fireproof gave the middle-class a significant appetite for sheet metal products, it was not until the 1930s and WWII that metals became scarce and the sheet metal industry began to collapse. However, some American companies, such as the W. F. Norman Corporation, were able to stay in business by making other products until Historic preservation projects aided the revival of ornamental sheet metal. Grade 304 is the most common of the three grades, it offers good corrosion resistance while maintaining weldability.
Available finishes are #2B, #3, #4. Grade 303 is not available in sheet form. Grade 316 possesses more corrosion resistance and strength at elevated temperatures than 304, it is used for pumps, chemical equipment, marine applications. Available finishes are #2B, #3, #4. Grade 410 is a heat treatable stainless steel, but it has a lower corrosion resistance than the other grades, it is used in cutlery. The only available finish is dull. Grade 430 is popular grade, low cost alternative to series 300's grades; this is used. Common grade for appliance products with a brushed finish. Aluminum is a popular metal used in sheet metal due to its flexibility, wide range of options, cost effectiveness, other properties; the four most common aluminium grades available as sheet metal are 1100-H14, 3003-H14, 5052-H32, 6061-T6. Grade 1100-H14 is commercially pure aluminium chemical and weather resistant, it has low strength. It is used in chemical processing equipment, light reflectors, jewelry. Grade 3003-H14 is stronger than 1100, while maintaining the same low cost.
It is corrosion weldable. It is used in stampings and drawn parts, mail boxes, cabinets and fan blades. Grade 5052-H32 is much stronger than 3003, it maintains weldability. Common applications include electronic chassis and pressure vessels. Grade 6061-T6 is a common heat-treated structural aluminium alloy, it is weldable, corrosion resistant, stronger than 5052, but not as formable. It loses some of its strength, it is used in modern aircraft structures. Brass is an alloy of copper, used as a sheet metal, it has more strength, corrosion resistance and formability when compared to copper while retaining its conductivity. In sheet hydroforming, variation in incoming sheet coil properties is a common problem for forming process with materials for automotive applications. Though incoming sheet coil may meet tensile test specifications, high rejection rate is ofte
Denting is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Communes of the Moselle department
A warehouse is a building for storing goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, exporters, transport businesses, etc, they are large plain buildings in industrial parks on the outskirts of cities, towns or villages. They have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways, airports, or seaports, they have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks. Stored goods can include any raw materials, packing materials, spare parts, components, or finished goods associated with agriculture and production. In India, a warehouse may be referred to as a godown. A warehouse can be defined functionally as a building in which to store bulk produce or goods for commercial purposes; the built form of warehouse structures throughout time depends on many contexts: materials, technologies and cultures. In this sense, the warehouse postdates the need for communal or state-based mass storage of surplus food.
Prehistoric civilizations relied on family- or community-owned storage pits, or ‘palace’ storerooms, such as at Knossos, to protect surplus food. The archaeologist Colin Renfrew argued that gathering and storing agricultural surpluses in Bronze Age Minoan ‘palaces’ was a critical ingredient in the formation of proto-state power; the need for warehouses developed in societies in which trade reached a critical mass requiring storage at some point in the exchange process. This was evident in ancient Rome, where the horreum became a standard building form; the most studied examples are in the port city that served Rome. The Horrea Galbae, a warehouse complex on the road towards Ostia, demonstrates that these buildings could be substantial by modern standards. Galba’s horrea complex contained 140 rooms on the ground floor alone, covering an area of some 225,000 square feet; as a point of reference, less than half of U. S. warehouses today are larger than 100,000 square feet. The need for a warehouse implies having quantities of goods too big to be stored in a domestic storeroom.
But as attested by legislation concerning the levy of duties, some medieval merchants across Europe kept goods in their large household storerooms on the ground floor or cellars. An example is the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, the substantial quarters of German traders in Venice, which combined a dwelling, warehouse and quarters for travellers. From the middle ages on, dedicated warehouses were constructed around ports and other commercial hubs to facilitate large-scale trade; the warehouses of the trading port Bryggen in Bergen, demonstrate characteristic European gabled timber forms dating from the late middle ages, though what remains today was rebuilt in the same traditional style following great fires in 1702 and 1955. During the industrial revolution, the function of warehouses became more specialised. Always a building of function, in the past few decades warehouses have adapted to standardisation, technological innovation and changes in supply chain methods; the mass production of goods launched by the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries fuelled the development of larger and more specialised warehouses located close to transport hubs on canals, at railways and portside.
Specialisation of tasks is characteristic of the factory system, which developed in British textile mills and potteries in the mid-late 1700s. Factory processes speeded up deskilled labour, bringing new profits to capital investment. Warehouses fulfill a range of commercial functions besides simple storage, exemplified by Manchester’s cotton warehouses and Australian wool stores: receiving and despatching goods; the utilitarian architecture of warehouses responded fast to emerging technologies. Before and into the nineteenth century, the basic European warehouse was built of load-bearing masonry walls or heavy-framed timber with a suitable external cladding. Inside, heavy timber posts supported timber beams and joists for the upper levels more than four to five stories high. A gabled roof was conventional, with a gate in the gable facing the street, rail lines or port for a crane to hoist goods into the window-gates on each floor below. Convenient access for road transport was built-in via large doors on the ground floor.
If not in a separate building and display spaces were located on the ground or first floor. Technological innovations of the early 19th century changed the shape of warehouses and the work performed inside them: cast iron columns and moulded steel posts. All were adopted and were in common use by the middle of the 19th century. 1. Strong, slender cast iron columns began to replace masonry piers or timber posts to carry levels above the ground floor; as modern steel framing developed in the late 19th century, its strength and constructability enabled the first skyscrapers. Steel girders replaced timber beams, increasing the span of internal bays in the warehouse.2. The saw-tooth roof brought natural light to the top story of the warehouse, it transformed the shape of the warehouse, from the traditional peaked hip or gable to an flat roof form, hidden behind a parapet. Warehouse buildings now became horizontal. Inside the top floor, the vertical glazed pane of each saw-tooth enabled natural lighting over displayed goods, improving buyer inspection.3.
Hoists and cranes
Torsion coefficient links here. A torsion spring is a spring that works by twisting; when it is twisted, it exerts a force in the opposite direction, proportional to the amount it is twisted. There are various types. For example, clocks use a spiral wound torsion spring sometimes called a "clock spring" or colloquially called a mainspring; those types of torsion springs are used for attic stairs and other devices that need near constant torque for large angles or multiple revolutions. A torsion bar is a straight bar of metal or rubber, subjected to twisting about its axis by torque applied at its ends. A more delicate form used in sensitive instruments, called a torsion fiber consists of a fiber of silk, glass, or quartz under tension, twisted about its axis; the other type, a helical torsion spring, is a metal rod or wire in the shape of a helix, subjected to twisting about the axis of the coil by sideways forces applied to its ends, twisting the coil tighter. This terminology can be confusing because in a helical torsion spring the forces acting on the wire are bending stresses, not torsional stresses.
As long as they are not twisted beyond their elastic limit, torsion springs obey an angular form of Hooke's law: τ = − κ θ where τ is the torque exerted by the spring in newton-meters, θ is the angle of twist from its equilibrium position in radians. Κ is a constant with units of newton-meters / radian, variously called the spring's torsion coefficient, torsion elastic modulus, rate, or just spring constant, equal to the change in torque required to twist the spring through an angle of 1 radian. It is analogous to the spring constant of a linear spring; the negative sign indicates. The energy U, in joules, stored in a torsion spring is: U = 1 2 κ θ 2 Some familiar examples of uses are the strong, helical torsion springs that operate clothespins and traditional spring-loaded-bar type mousetraps. Other uses are in the large, coiled torsion springs used to counterbalance the weight of garage doors, a similar system is used to assist in opening the trunk cover on some sedans. Small, coiled torsion springs are used to operate pop-up doors found on small consumer goods like digital cameras and compact disc players.
Other more specific uses: A torsion bar suspension is a thick, steel torsion-bar spring attached to the body of a vehicle at one end and to a lever arm which attaches to the axle of the wheel at the other. It absorbs road shocks as the wheel goes over bumps and rough road surfaces, cushioning the ride for the passengers. Torsion-bar suspensions are used in many modern trucks, as well as military vehicles; the sway bar used in many vehicle suspension systems uses the torsion spring principle. The torsion pendulum used in torsion pendulum clocks is a wheel-shaped weight suspended from its center by a wire torsion spring; the weight rotates about the axis of the spring, twisting it, instead of swinging like an ordinary pendulum. The force of the spring reverses the direction of rotation, so the wheel oscillates back and forth, driven at the top by the clock's gears. Torsion springs consisting of twisted ropes or sinew, were used to store potential energy to power several types of ancient weapons.
The balance spring or hairspring in mechanical watches is a fine, spiral-shaped torsion spring that pushes the balance wheel back toward its center position as it rotates back and forth. The balance wheel and spring function to the torsion pendulum above in keeping time for the watch; the D'Arsonval movement used in mechanical pointer-type meters to measure electric current is a type of torsion balance. A coil of wire attached to the pointer twists in a magnetic field against the resistance of a torsion spring. Hooke's law ensures. A DMD or digital micromirror device chip is at the heart of many video projectors, it uses hundreds of thousands of tiny mirrors on tiny torsion springs fabricated on a silicon surface to reflect light onto the screen, forming the image. The torsion balance called torsion pendulum, is a scientific apparatus for measuring weak forces credited to Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, who invented it in 1777, but independently invented by John Michell sometime before 1783, its most well-known uses were by Coulomb to measure the electrostatic force between charges to establish Coulomb's Law, by Henry Cavendish in 1798 in the Cavendish experiment to measure the gravitational force between two masses to calculate the density of the Earth, leading to a value for the gravitational constant.
The torsion balance consists of a bar suspended from its middle by a thin fiber. The fiber acts as a weak torsion spring. If an unknown force is applied at right angles to the ends of the bar, the bar will rotate, twisting the fiber, until it reaches an equilibrium where the twisting force or torque of the fiber balances the applied force; the magnitude of the force is proportional to the angle of the bar. The sensitivity of the instrument comes from the weak spring constant of the fiber, so a weak force causes a
A residential garage is a walled, roofed structure for storing a vehicle or vehicles that may be part of or attached to a home, or a separate outbuilding or shed. Residential garages have space for one or two cars, although three-car garages are used; when a garage is attached to a house, the garage has an entry door into the house. Garages have a wide door which can be raised to permit the entry and exit of a vehicle, closed to secure the vehicle. A garage protects a vehicle from precipitation, and, if it is equipped with a locking garage door, it protects the vehicle from theft and vandalism. Garages are used for a variety of projects including painting and assembling of projects; some garages have an electrical mechanism to automatically open or close the garage door when the homeowner presses a button on a small remote control. Some garages have enough space with cars inside, for the storage of items such as bicycles or a lawnmower. Garages that are attached to a house may be built with the same external materials and roofing as the house.
Garages that are not connected to the home may use a different style of construction from the house. In the Southern and rural United States garages not attached to the home and made from a timber frame with sheet metal coverings are known as "pole barns", but serve the same purpose as what is called a garage elsewhere. In some places, the term is used synonymously with "carport", though that term describes a structure that, while roofed, is not enclosed. A carport protects the vehicle to some degree from inclement weather, but it does not protect the vehicle from theft or vandalism; the word garage, introduced to English in 1902, originates from the French word garer, meaning shelter. By 1908 the architect Charles Harrison Townsend was commenting in The Builder magazine that. In northern climates, temperatures inside an uninsulated attached residential garage can decrease to freezing levels during the winter. Temperatures inside an uninsulated attached garage in temperate climates can reach uncomfortable levels during summer months.
Extreme temperatures can be a source of energy waste and discomfort in adjoining living areas, due to heat transfer between the garage and those areas. Homes with an attached garage experience this "interface" problem. Insulating the outside of the building against the elements without extending the insulation to the wall separating the garage from the house, and/or the other garage walls and roof, can be a costly mistake. Australian homes have a two, one and a half or double car garage, with some newer houses having a triple garage, with one double door and one single door. Prior to the 1970s most of them were detached from the house set further back with the driveway leading up past the side of the house, common with old fibreboard houses, but not uncommon with earlier brick houses; the most common doors on these garages were either 2 wooden barn style doors with a standard sized access door on the side of the garage, or the B&D Rolla Door, described below. The most common garage door to date in Australia is the B&D Rolla Door, having been around since 1956 and still in heavy use today.
They are a corrugated flexible but strong sheet steel door, sliding up tracks and rolling around a drum mounted above the door opening on the inside of the garage. These come in manual and remote controlled electric, with conversion kits available. Locking is provided by a key lock in the centre of the door moving two square sliding lock bars in and out of holes in the door tracks and unlocking it, or by the solenoid lock in the automatic motor. Newer homes feature more American styled tilting panel lift doors which slide up onto a track on the ceiling via a motor and chain drive. Since the late 1970s most if not all garages are attached, throughout the 80's it became more common to have an access door into the home from the garage where design permitted, whereas it is commonplace now. Most older unit blocks in Australia have garages on the ground floor accessible through a common hallway and access doors, all leading into a common driveway. Newer ones now have underground parking. Australia has strict guidelines in place when building a home and the garage size must conform to the Australian Standards.
The minimum size for a single garage is 3.0 m x 5.4 m and a double is 5.4 m x 5.4 m. However, to comfortably fit two cars in a double garage it is typical to have a size of 6.0 m x 6.0 m. British homes featuring a garage have a single or double garage either built into the main building, detached within the grounds, or in a communal area. Traditionally, garage doors were wooden, opening either as two leaves or sliding horizontally. Newer garages are fitted with metal up-and-over doors. In new homes, such doors are electrically operated. A small British single garage is 8 by 16 feet, a medium single garage is 9 by 18 feet, a large single garage is 10 by 20 feet. Family sedans have become bigger than they were in the past, so the larger size has become a preferred option. A typical large family car like the Ford Mondeo is about 15 by 6 feet, meaning that with the larger size garage, it is necessary to park to one side to be able to open the driver's door wide enough to enter or
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. In the body-centered cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the center and eight atoms at the vertices of each cubic unit cell, it is the interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In pure iron, the crystal structure has little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms; the carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.
Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel, slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, tensile strength of the resulting steel; the increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility. Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and crucible steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began; this was followed by the Siemens–Martin process and the Gilchrist–Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common manmade materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations; the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją or stakhlijan, related to stahlaz or stahliją. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, so on. Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy called pig iron. While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, chromium, boron, vanadium, tungsten and niobium. Additional elements, most considered undesirable, are important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make high-carbon steels, but such are not common. Cast iron is not malleable when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron, which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag. Iron is found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon, lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C, copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C, the combination, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C. In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C. Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases beyond 800 °C, it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iro