Évora is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 56,596, in an area of 1307.08 km². It is the seat of the Évora District; the present Mayor is Carlos Pinto de Sá of the CDU coalition. The municipal holiday is 29 June. Due to its well-preserved old town centre, still enclosed by medieval walls, a large number of monuments dating from various historical periods, including a Roman Temple, Évora is a UNESCO World Heritage site, it is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.Évora is ranked number two in the Portuguese most livable cities survey of living conditions published yearly by Expresso. It was ranked first in a study concerning competitiveness of the 18 Portuguese district capitals, according to a 2006 study made by University of Minho economic researchers. Évora has a history dating back more than five millennia. It was known as Ebora by the Celtici, a tribal confederacy, south of the Lusitanians, who made the town their regional capital; the etymological origin of the name Ebora is from the ancient Celtic word ebora/ebura, plural genitive of the word eburos, name of a species of tree, so its name means "of the yew trees."
The city of York, in northern England, at the time of the Roman Empire, was called Eboracum/Eburacum, named after the ancient Celtic place name *Eborakon, so the old name of York is etymologically related to the city of Évora. Alternative hypotheses are that the name is derived from oro, aurum, as the Romans had extensive gold mining in Portugal, it may have been capital of the kingdom of Astolpas. See Ebora Liberalitas Julia for more on Roman Evora; the Romans expanded it into a walled town. Vestiges from this period still remain. Julius Caesar called it Liberalitas Julia; the city grew in importance. During his travels through Gaul and Lusitania, Pliny the Elder visited this town and mentioned it in his book Naturalis Historia as Ebora Cerealis, because of its many surrounding wheat fields. In those days, Évora became a flourishing city, its high rank among municipalities in Roman Hispania is shown by many inscriptions and coins. The monumental Corinthian temple in the centre of the town dates from the first century and was erected in honour of emperor Augustus.
In the fourth century, the town had a bishop, named Quintianus. During the barbarian invasions, Évora came under the rule of the Visigothic king Leovigild in 584; the town was raised to the status of a cathedral city. This was a time of decline and few artifacts from this period remain. In 715, the city was conquered by the Moors under Tariq ibn-Ziyad who called it Yaburah يابرة. During the Moorish rule, the town, part of the Taifa of Badajoz began to prosper again and developed into an agricultural center with a fortress and a mosque; the present character of the city is evidence of the Moorish influence. During that time, several notables hailed from Evora, including Abd al-Majid ibn Abdun Al-Yaburi عبد المجيد بن عبدون اليابري, a poet whose diwan still survives to this day. Évora was wrested from the Moors through a surprise attack by Gerald the Fearless in September 1165. The town came under the rule of the Portuguese king Afonso I in 1166, it flourished as one of the most dynamic cities in the Kingdom of Portugal during the Middle Ages in the 15th century.
The court of the first and second dynasties resided here for long periods, constructing palaces and religious buildings. Évora became the scene for a site where many important decisions were made. Thriving during the Avis Dynasty under the reign of Manuel I and John III, Évora became a major centre for the humanities and artists, such as the sculptor Nicolau Chanterene. Évora held a large part of the slave population of Portugal. Nicolas Clenard, a Flemish tutor at the Portuguese court, exclaimed in 1535 that "In Évora, it was as if I had been carried off to a city in hell: everywhere I only meet blacks." The city became the seat of an archbishopric in 1540. The university was founded by the Jesuits in 1559, it was here that great European Masters such as the Flemish humanists Nicolaus Clenardus, Johannes Vasaeus and the theologian Luis de Molina passed on their knowledge. In the 18th century, the Jesuits, who had spread intellectual and religious enlightenment since the 16th century, were expelled from Portugal, the university was closed in 1759 by the Marquis of Pombal, Évora went into decline.
The university was only reopened in 1973. The Battle of Évora was fought on 29 July 1808 during the Peninsular War. An outnumbered Portuguese-Spanish force of 2,500, assisted by poorly armed peasant militiamen, tried to stop a French-Spanish division commanded by Louis Henri Loison but it was routed. Led by the hated Loison, known as Maneta or One-Hand, the French went on to storm the town, defended by soldiers and armed townsmen. Breaking into the town, the attackers slaughtered combatants and non-combatants alike before pillaging the place; the French inflicted as many as 8,000 casualties while suffering only 290 of their own. In 1834, Évora wa
A knight is a man granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political or religious leader for service to the monarch or a Christian church in a military capacity. In Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. A knight was a vassal who served as an elite fighter, a bodyguard or a mercenary for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings; the lords trusted the knights. Knighthood in the Middle Ages was linked with horsemanship from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century; this linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry and related terms. The special prestige accorded to mounted warriors in Christendom finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, the Greek hippeis and Roman eques of classical antiquity.
In the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations. The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature the literary cycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne and his men-at-arms, the paladins, the Matter of Britain, relating to the legend of King Arthur and his Round Table. Today, a number of orders of knighthood continue to exist in Christian Churches, as well as in several Christian countries and their former territories, such as the Roman Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre and Order of Malta, the Protestant Order of Saint John, as well as the English Order of the Garter, the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav; each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is granted by a head of state, monarch, or prelate to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement, as in the British honours system for service to the Church or country.
The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht; this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight; the meaning of cniht changed over time from its original meaning of "boy" to "household retainer". Ælfric's homily of St. Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a cniht. While cnihtas might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-Saxon wills cnihtas are left either money or lands. In his will, King Æthelstan leaves his cniht, eight hides of land. A rādcniht, "riding-servant", was a servant on horseback. A narrowing of the generic meaning "servant" to "military follower of a king or other superior" is visible by 1100; the specific military sense of a knight as a mounted warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years' War.
The verb "to knight" appears around 1300. An Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire; this class is translated as "knight". In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier: Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, Romanian cavaler; the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider: German Ritter, Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, "to ride", in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-. In ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris; some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, some armies, such as those of the Ostrogoths, were cavalry.
However, it was the Franks who fielded armies composed of large masses of infantry, with an infantry elite, the comitatus, which rode to battle on horseback rather than marching on foot. When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours in 732, the Frankish forces were still infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight. In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin; the first knights appeared during the reign of Charlemagne in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Age progressed, the Franks were on the attack, larger numbers of warriors took to their horses to ride with the Emperor in his wide-ranging campaigns of conquest. At about this time the Franks remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted in
The Lord's Prayer called the Our Father, is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Pray in this way... When you pray, say... Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him,'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, the Lucan version one year "very in Judea". The first three of the seven petitions in Matthew address God; the Matthew account alone includes the "Your will be done" and the "Rescue us from the evil one" petitions. Both original Greek texts contain the adjective epiousios, which does not appear in any other classical or Koine Greek literature. Protestants conclude the prayer with a doxology, a addendum appearing in some manuscripts of Matthew.
Initial words on the topic from the Catechism of the Catholic Church teach that it "is the summary of the whole gospel". The prayer is used by most Christian churches in their worship. Although theological differences and various modes of worship divide Christians, according to Fuller Seminary professor Clayton Schmit, "there is a sense of solidarity in knowing that Christians around the globe are praying together... and these words always unite us."In biblical criticism, the prayer's absence in the Gospel of Mark together with its occurrence in Matthew and Luke has caused scholars who accept the two-source hypothesis to conclude that it is a logion original to Q. There are several different English translations of the Lord's Prayer from Greek or Latin, beginning around AD 650 with the Northumbrian translation. Of those in current liturgical use, the three best-known are: The translation in the 1662 Anglican Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England The modernized form used in the 1928 version of the Prayer Book of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America and in the English vernacular translation of the Catholic Mass The 1988 translation of the ecumenical English Language Liturgical Consultation The square brackets in three of the texts below indicate the doxology added at the end of the prayer by Protestants and, in a different form, by the Byzantine Rite, among whom the prayer proper is recited by the cantors and congregation in unison, the doxology by the priest as the conclusion of the prayer.
The Anglican Book of Common Prayer adds it in some services but not in all. Older English translations of the Bible, based on late Byzantine Greek manuscripts, included it, but it is excluded in critical editions of the New Testament, such as that of the United Bible Societies, it is absent in the oldest manuscripts and is not considered to be part of the original text of Matthew 6:9–13. The Catholic Church has never attached it to the Lord's Prayer, but has included it in the Roman Rite Mass as revised in 1969, not as part of the Our Father but separated from it by a prayer called the embolism spoken or sung by the priest that elaborates on the final petition, "Deliver us from evil." For more information on this doxology, see Doxology, below. When Reformers set out to translate the King James Bible, they assumed that a Greek manuscript they possessed was ancient and therefore adopted the phrase "For thine is the kingdom, the power, the glory forever" into the Lord’s Prayer. Scholarship demonstrated that the manuscript was a late addition based on Eastern liturgical tradition.
Other English translations are used. Though Matthew 6:12 uses the term debts, the older English versions of the Lord's Prayer uses the term trespasses, while ecumenical versions use the term sins; the latter choice may be due to Luke 11:4, which uses the word sins, while the former may be due to Matthew 6:14, where Jesus speaks of trespasses. As early as the third century, Origen of Alexandria used the word trespasses in the prayer. Although the Latin form, traditionally used in Western Europe has debita, most English-speaking Christians use trespasses; the Presbyterian Church, the Established Presbyterian Church of Scotland as well as the Congregational denomination follow the version found in Matthew 6 in the Authorized Version, which in the prayer uses the words "debts" and "debtors". All these versions are based on the text in Matthew, rather than Luke, of the prayer given by Jesus: Subheadings use 1662 Book of Common Prayer "Our Father, which art in heaven" "Our" indicates that the prayer is that of a group of people who consider themselves children of God and who call God their "Father".
"In heaven" indicates that the Father, addressed is
Garcilaso de la Vega (poet)
Garcilaso de la Vega, KOS was a Spanish soldier and poet. Although not the first or the only one to do so, he was the most influential poet to introduce Italian Renaissance verse forms, poetic techniques, themes to Spain, he was well known in poetic circles during his lifetime, his poetry has continued to be popular without interruption until the present. His poetry was published posthumously by Juan Boscán in 1543, it has been the subject of several annotated editions, the first and most famous of which appeared in 1574. Garcilaso was born in the Spanish city of Toledo between 1498 and 1503. Clavería Boscán affirms he was born between 1487 and 1492, another sources affirms he was born in 1501, his father, Pedro Suárez de Figueroa, was a nobleman in the royal court of the Catholic Monarchs. His mother's name was Sancha de Guzmán. Garcilaso was the second son. However, he spent his younger years receiving an extensive education, mastered five languages, learned how to play the zither and the harp.
When his father died in 1509, Garcilaso received a sizeable inheritance from his father. After his schooling, he joined the military in hopes of joining the royal guard, he was named "contino" of Charles V in 1520, he was made a member of the Order of Santiago in 1523. There were a few women in the life of this poet, his first lover was Guiomar Carrillo. He had another suspected lover named Isabel Freire, a lady-in-waiting of Isabel of Portugal, but this is today regarded as mythical. In 1525, Garcilaso married Elena de Zúñiga, who served as a lady-in-waiting for the King's favorite sister, Leonor, their marriage took place in Garcilaso's hometown of Toledo in one of the family's estates. He had six children: Lorenzo, an illegitimate child with Guiomar Carrillo, Garcilaso, Íñigo de Zúñiga, Pedro de Guzmán, Francisco. Garcilaso's military career meant that he took part in the numerous battles and campaigns conducted by Charles V across Europe, his duties took him to Italy, Germany and France. In 1532 for a short period he was exiled to a Danube island where he was the guest of the Count György Cseszneky, royal court judge of Győr.
In France, he would fight his last battle. The King desired to take control of Marseille and control of the Mediterranean Sea, but this goal was never realized. Garcilaso de la Vega died on 14 October 1536 in Nice, after suffering 25 days from an injury sustained in a battle at Le Muy, his body was first buried in the Church of St. Dominic in Nice, but two years his wife had his body moved to the Church of San Pedro Martir in Toledo. Garcilaso de la Vega is best known for his tragic love poetry that contrasts the playful poetry of his predecessors, he seemed to progress through three distinct episodes of his life. During his Spanish period, he wrote the majority of his eight-syllable poems. Influenced by many Italian Renaissance poets, Garcilaso adapted the eleven-syllable line to the Spanish language in his sonetos written in the 1520s, during his Petrarchan period. Increasing the number of syllables in the verse from eight to eleven allowed for greater flexibility. In addition to the sonetos, Garcilaso helped to introduce several other types of stanzas to the Spanish language.
These include the estancia, formed by eleven- and seven-syllable lines. Throughout his life, Garcilaso de la Vega wrote various poems in each of these types, his works include: forty Sonetos, five Canciones, eight Coplas, three Églogas, two Elegías, the Epístola a Boscán. Allusions to classical myths and Greco-Latin figures, great musicality, rhythm and an absence of religion characterize his poetry, it can be said. His works have influenced the majority of subsequent Spanish poets, including other major authors of the period like Jorge de Montemor, Luis de León, John of the Cross, Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Luis de Góngora and Francisco Quevedo. For example:: Más a las veces son mejor oídos el puro ingenio y lengua casi muda, testigos limpios de ánimo inocente, que la curiosidad del elocuente, he was good at transmitting the sense of life into writing, in many poems including his «dolorido sentir»: No me podrán quitar el dolorido sentir, si ya del todo primero no me quitan el sentido.
We see the shift in traditional belief of Heaven as influenced by the Renaissance, called "neo-Platonism," which tried to lift love to a spiritual, idealistic plane, as compared to the traditional Catholic view of Heaven.: Contigo mano a mano busquemos otros prados y otros ríos, otros valles floridos y sombríos, donde descanse, y siempre pueda verte ante los ojos míos, sin miedo y sobresalto de perderte. He has enjoyed a revival of influence among 21st century pastoral poets such as Seamus Heaney, Dennis Nurkse, Giannina Braschi. Garcilaso is mentioned in multiple works by Miguel de Cervantes. In the second volume of Don Quixote, the protagonist quotes one of the poet's sonnets. In El licenciado Vidriera, Tomás Rodaja carries a volume of Garcilaso on his journey across Europe; the title of Pedro Salinas's sequence
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
An epigram is a brief, interesting and sometimes surprising or satirical statement. The word is derived from the Greek: ἐπίγραμμα epigramma "inscription" from ἐπιγράφειν epigraphein "to write on, to inscribe", the literary device has been employed for over two millennia; the presence of wit or sarcasm tends to distinguish non-poetic epigrams from aphorisms and adages, which may lack them. The Greek tradition of epigrams began as poems inscribed on votive offerings at sanctuaries – including statues of athletes – and on funerary monuments, for example "Go tell it to the Spartans, passersby...". These original epigrams did the same job, but in verse. Epigram became a literary genre in the Hellenistic period developing out of scholarly collections of inscriptional epigrams. Though modern epigrams are thought of as short, Greek literary epigram was not always as short as examples, the divide between "epigram" and "elegy" is sometimes indistinct. In the classical period, the clear distinction between them was that epigrams were inscribed and meant to be read, while elegies were recited and meant to be heard.
Some elegies could be quite short. All the same, the origin of epigram in inscription exerted a residual pressure to keep things concise when they were recited in Hellenistic times. Many of the characteristic types of literary epigram look back to inscriptional contexts funerary epigram, which in the Hellenistic era becomes a literary exercise. Many "sympotic" epigrams combine sympotic and funerary elements – they tell their readers to drink and live for today because life is short. Any theme found in classical elegies could be and were adapted for literary epigrams. Hellenistic epigrams are thought of as having a "point" – that is, the poem ends in a punchline or satirical twist. By no means do all Greek epigrams behave this way. Since their collections helped form knowledge of the genre in Rome and later throughout Europe, Epigram came to be associated with'point,' because the European epigram tradition takes the Latin poet Martial as its principal model. Greek epigram was much more diverse, as the Milan Papyrus now indicates.
A major source for Greek literary epigram is the Greek Anthology, a compilation from the 10th century AD based on older collections, including those of Meleager and Philippus. It contains epigrams ranging from the Hellenistic period through the Imperial period and Late Antiquity into the compiler's own Byzantine era – a thousand years of short elegiac texts on every topic under the sun; the Anthology includes one book of Christian epigrams as well as one book of erotic and amorous homosexual epigrams called the Μοῦσα Παιδικἠ. Roman epigrams owe much to their Greek contemporaries. Roman epigrams, were more satirical than Greek ones, at times used obscene language for effect. Latin epigrams could be composed as inscriptions or graffiti, such as this one from Pompeii, which exists in several versions and seems from its inexact meter to have been composed by a less educated person, its content makes it clear how popular such poems were: Admiror, O paries, te non cecidisse ruinis qui tot scriptorum taedia sustineas.
I'm astonished, that you haven't collapsed into ruins, since you're holding up the weary verse of so many poets. However, in the literary world, epigrams were most gifts to patrons or entertaining verse to be published, not inscriptions. Many Roman writers seem to have composed epigrams, including Domitius Marsus, whose collection Cicuta was named after the poisonous plant Cicuta for its biting wit, Lucan, more famous for his epic Pharsalia. Authors whose epigrams survive include Catullus, who wrote both invectives and love epigrams – his poem 85 is one of the latter. Odi et amo. Quare id faciam fortasse requires. Nescio, sed fieri sentio, et excrucior. I hate and I love. Maybe you'd like to know why I do? I don't know, but I feel it happening, I am tormented. Martial, however, is considered to be the master of the Latin epigram, his technique relies on the satirical poem with a joke in the last line, thus drawing him closer to the modern idea of epigram as a genre. Here he defines his genre against a critic: Disce quod ignoras: Marsi doctique Pedonis saepe duplex unum pagina tractat opus.
Non sunt longa quibus nihil est quod demere possis, sed tu, disticha longa facis. Learn what you don't know: one work of Marsus or learned Pedo stretches out over a doublesided page. A work isn't long if you can't take anything out of it, but you, write a couplet too long. Poets known for their epigrams whose work has been lost include Cornificia. In early English literature the short couplet poem was dominated by the poetic epigram and proverb in the translations of the Bible and the Greek and Roman poets. Since 1600, two successive lines of verse that rhyme with each other, known as a couplet featured as a part of the longer sonnet form, most notably in William Shakespeare's sonnets. Sonnet 76 is an excellent example; the two line poetic form as a closed cou
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no