The Moskva River is a river of western Russia. It rises about 140 km west of Moscow, flows east through the Smolensk and Moscow Oblasts, passing through central Moscow. About 110 km south east of Moscow, at the city of Kolomna, it flows into the Oka River, itself a tributary of the Volga, which flows into the Caspian Sea. Moskva and Moscow are two different renderings of the same Russian word Москва; the city is named after the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested that the name of the city derives from this term, although several theories exist. To distinguish the river and the city, Russians call the river Moskva-reka instead of just Moskva; the river is 503 km long, with a vertical drop of 155 m. The area of its drainage basin is 17,600 km2; the maximum depth is 3 metres above Moscow city limits, up to 6 metres below it. It freezes in November–December and begins to thaw around late March. In Moscow, the river freezes occasionally.
The absolute water level in downtown Moscow is 120 metres above sea level. The main tributaries are the Ruza, Yauza and Severka rivers. Sources of water are estimated as 12 % rain and 27 % subterranean. Since completion of the Moscow Canal, the Moskva River has collected a share of Upper Volga water; this has enabled reliable commercial shipping, interrupted by summer droughts. The average discharge, including Volga waters, varies from 38 m3/s near Zvenigorod to 250 m3/s at the Oka inlet; the speed of the current, depending on the season, varies from 0.1 m/s to 1.5–2.0 m/s. Moscow, the capital of Russia, is situated on its banks; the river flows through the towns of Mozhaysk, Zhukovsky, Voskresensk, — at the confluence of the Moskva and Oka — Kolomna. As of 2007, there are its canals within Moscow city limits. Within the city, the river is 120–200 metres wide, the narrowest point being under the Kremlin walls. Drinking water for the city of Moscow is collected from five stations on the Moskva River and from the Upper Volga reservoirs.
Canals, built within Moscow city limits, have created a number of islands. Some of them have names in Russian, some have none. Major, permanent islands are: Serebryany Bor. Separated from the mainland in the 1930s. Tatarskaya Poyma known as Mnyovniki. Separated from the mainland in the 1930s Balchug Island known as Bolotny Ostrov, lying just opposite the Kremlin; the island was formed by the construction of the Vodootvodny Canal in the 1780s, has no official name in Russian. Moscow residents informally call it "Bolotny Ostrov" while members of Moscow's English-speaking community refer to it as Balchug. One uninhabited island north of Nagatino. Three uninhabited islands east of Nagatino, connected by the Pererva lock system. There is a fleet of river ice-breaker cruisers which ply routes from moorings at the Hotel Ukraine and Gorky Park to the Novospassky Monastery and back. Duration of trips ranges from 1.5 to 3 hours. "Moskva". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
Michael of Russia
Michael I became the first Russian Tsar of the House of Romanov after the zemskiy sobor of 1613 elected him to rule the Tsardom of Russia. He was the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov and of Xenia, he was a 1st cousin one generation removed of Feodor I through his great-aunt Anastasia Romanovna thus making him a great-nephew of hers. And through marriage, a great-nephew in-law with Tsar Ivan IV of Russia, his accession marked the end of the Time of Troubles. During his reign, Russia conquered most of Siberia with the help of the Cossacks and the Stroganov family. Russia had extended to the Pacific Ocean by the end of Michael's reign. Michael's grandfather, was brother to the first Russian Tsaritsa Anastasia and a central advisor to Ivan the Terrible; as a young boy and his mother had been exiled to Beloozero in 1600. This was a result of the elected Tsar Boris Godunov, in 1598, falsely accusing his father, Feodor, of treason; this may have been because Feodor had married Ksenia Shestova against Boris' wishes.
Michael was unanimously elected Tsar of Russia by a national assembly on 21 February 1613, but the delegates of the council did not discover the young Tsar and his mother at the Ipatiev Monastery near Kostroma until 24 March. He had been chosen after several other options had been removed, including royalty of Poland and Sweden. Martha protested and stating that her son was too young and tender for so difficult an office, in such a troublesome time. Michael's election and accession to the throne form the basis of the Ivan Susanin legend, which Russian composer Mikhail Glinka dramatized in his opera A Life for the Tsar. In so dilapidated a condition was the capital at this time that Michael had to wait for several weeks at the Troitsa monastery, 75 miles off, before decent accommodation could be provided for him at Moscow, he was crowned on 22 July 1613. The first task of the new tsar was to clear the land of the countries occupying it. Sweden and Poland were dealt with by the peace of Stolbovo and the Truce of Deulino.
The most important result of the Truce of Deulino was the return from exile of the tsar's father, who henceforth took over the government till his death in October 1633, Michael occupying quite a subordinate position. Michael's reign saw the greatest territorial expansion in Russian history. During his reign, the conquest of Siberia continued accomplished by the Cossacks and financed by the Stroganov merchant family. Tsar Michael suffered from a progressive leg injury, which resulted in his not being able to walk towards the end of his life, he was a gentle and pious prince who gave little trouble to anyone and effaced himself behind his counsellors. Sometimes they were honest and capable men like his father, he was married twice. He was married off to Princess Maria Vladimirovna Dolgorukova in 1624, but she became ill, died in early 1625, only four months after the marriage. In 1626, he married Eudoxia Streshneva, who bore him 10 children, of whom four reached adulthood: the future Tsar Alexis and the Tsarevnas Irina and Tatiana.
Michael's failure to wed his elder daughter Irina with Count Valdemar Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, a morganatic son of King Christian IV of Denmark, in consequence of the refusal of the latter to accept Orthodoxy, so afflicted him as to contribute to bringing about his death. Tsar Michael fell ill in April 1645, with scurvy and depression, his doctors prescribed purgatives which did not improve his condition, after fainting in church on 12 July, he died on 23 July 1645. The two government offices that were most important politically were Posolsky Prikaz and Razryadny Prikaz; those offices could be pivotal in struggles between Boyar factions, so they were traditionally headed not by Boyars but by dyak. The first head of the Posolsky Prikaz under Michael was Pyotr Tretyakov until his death in 1618; the next one, Ivan Gramotin had a reputation of a Poloniphile. In the mid-1620s Filaret began preparations for war with Poland; the same fate was shared by Efim Telepnev in 1630 and Fedor Likhachov in 1631 – they too tried to soothe Filaret's belligerent approach.
Ivan Gryazev, appointed in 1632, was promoted from second ranks of bureaucracy to fulfill Filaret's orders. After the deaths of Filaret and Gryazev the post was once again assumed by Gramotin in 1634, after his retirement in 1635, by Likhachov, with a general course of pacification; the Razryadny Prikaz was first headed by Sydavny Vasilyev. In 1623 Fedor Likhachov was made head of Prikaz till his shift to Posolsky Prikaz, in 1630 Razryad was given to Ivan Gavrenev, an outstanding administrator who took up this post for 30 years. Three other strategic offices were Streletsky Prikaz, Trea
Valery Pavlovich Chkalov was a Soviet and Russian aircraft test pilot and a Hero of the Soviet Union. Chkalov was born in 1904 in the upper Volga region, the town of Vasilyevo, which lies near Nizhny Novgorod, he was the son of a ship boiler-maker at the Vasselyevo Ship Yard on the River Volga. His mother died. Chkalov studied in the technical school in Cherepovets but returned to his home town to work as an apprentice in the shipyard alongside his father, he got a job as a stoker on a river dredger: the Bayan. He saw his first plane in 1919 and decided to join the Red Army's air force, joining first at age 16 as a mechanic, he trained as a pilot at the Yegoryevsk Training School and graduated in 1924 joining a fighter squadron. Chkalov married Olga Orekhova, a schoolteacher from Leningrad, in 1927. In the early 1930s he became a test pilot, his feats included doing 250 loop-the-loops in 45 minutes. From 1935 he led the stunt section of the Russian air force, used in public displays; this included the 1st of May celebrations over Red Square at which point he met Stalin for the first time.
Chkalov achieved several milestones in Aviation. In 1936 and 1937, he participated in several ultra long flights, including a 63-hour flight from Moscow, Soviet Union to Vancouver, United States via the North Pole in a Tupolev ANT-25 airplane, a non-stop distance of 8,811 kilometres; the flight pioneered the polar air route from Europe to the American Pacific Coast. He was planning the world's first non-stop flight around the planet. Chkalov died on 15 December 1938 while piloting a prototype of the Polikarpov I-180 fighter, which crashed during her maiden test flight; the series of events leading up to the crash is not clear. Neither the aircraft's two chief designers, Nikolai Nikolaevich Polikarpov and Dmitri Lyudvigovich Tomashevich, approved the flight, no one had signed a form releasing the prototype from the factory. In any case, Chkalov made a low altitude circuit around the airfield. For the second circuit, Chkalov flew farther away, climbing to over 2,000 m though the flight plan forbade exceeding 600 m.
Chkalov miscalculated his landing approach and came in short of the airfield, but when he attempted to correct his approach the engine cut out. Chkalov struck an overhead powerline, he was thrown from the cockpit, sustaining severe injuries, died two hours later. His ashes are interred in the Kremlin Wall; the official government investigation concluded that the engine cut out because it became too cold in the absence of the cowl flaps. Others thus flooded the engine; as a result of the crash and several other officials, including Arms Industry Department director S. Belyakin, who urged the first flight, were arrested. Years fellow test pilot Mikhail Gromov blamed the designers for flawed engine cooling and Chkalov himself for deviating from the flight plan. Chkalov's son claimed that a plan to assassinate his father had been in the works in the months preceding his death, but the circumstances of the crash make foul play unlikely. Despite the opinion of some, after Chkalov's death Polikarpov's reputation with Stalin was left intact, Polikarpov continued to design aircraft.
The village of Vasilyevo where Chkalov was born is now the town of Chkalovsk. The city of Orenburg bore the name Chkalov from 1938 to 1957. There was a Chkalov Street in Moscow, now renamed Zemlyanoy Val. Nizhny Novgorod has a staircase down to the Volga named after him with a statue of him at the top of it. In 1975, at Vancouver Washington, a monument to Chkalov's 1937 polar flight was dedicated at Pearson Field and a street was named Chkalov Drive. A Chapayev class cruiser was named Chkalov but was renamed Komsomolets in 1958; the metro rail systems of Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod each have a Chkalovskaya station. Yekaterinburg Metro opened one in 2012 as well. Pearson Field site of 1937 landing Pearson Air Museum Chkalovsk, places named after Chkalov Chkalov Island Baĭdukov, G. Over the North Pole. Id. Russian Lindbergh: The Life of Valery Chkalov. Newspaper clippings about Valery Chkalov in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle
Kudrinskaya Square Building
The Kudrinskaya Square Building is a building in Moscow, one of seven Stalinist skyscrapers, designed by Mikhail Posokhin and Ashot Mndoyants. The skyscraper is 160 metres tall, it is topped by a 30-metre spire. Lateral towers are lower than the central one; the skyscraper was laid down in 1950 and completed in 1954. It was the last of the Seven Sisters to be completed, its apartments were intended for the political elite of the former USSR. Building data at emporis.com Media related to Kudrinskaya Square Building at Wikimedia Commons
Boris Fyodorovich Godunov ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605. After the end of his reign Russia descended into the Time of Troubles. Boris Godunov was the most noted member of an ancient, now extinct, Russian family of Tatar origin, which came from the Horde to Kostroma in the early 14th century; this legend is written in the annals dating from early 17th century. He was descended from the Tatar Prince Chet, who went from the Golden Horde to Russia and founded the Ipatiev Monastery in Kostroma. Boris was the son of his wife Stepanida Ivanovna, his older brother Vasily died young and without issue. Godunov's career began at the court of Ivan the Terrible, he is mentioned in 1570 for taking part in the Serpeisk campaign as an archer of the guard. The following year he became an oprichnik – a member of Ivan's personal guard and secret police. In 1570/1571, Godunov strengthened his position at court by his marriage to Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya, the daughter of Malyuta Skuratov-Belskiy, head of the oprichniks.
In 1580, the Tsar chose Boris Godunov's sister Irina Godunova to be the wife of his second son and eventual heir, the fourteen-year-old Feodor Ivanovich. On this occasion, Godunov was promoted to the rank of Boyar. On 15 November 1581, Godunov was present when the Tsar murdered his own eldest son, the crown prince Ivan. Godunov received blows from the Tsar's sceptre; the elder Ivan repented, Godunov rushed to get help for the Tsarevich, who died four days later. Three years on his deathbed, Ivan IV appointed a council consisting of Godunov, Feodor Nikitich Romanov, Vasili Shuiski and others to guide his son and successor of Russia Feodor I, feeble both in mind and body: "he took refuge from the dangers of the palace in devotion to religion. Since the Orthodox Church recognized legitimate only his first three marriages, any offspring thereof, Dmitri had no claim to the throne. Still, taking no chances, shortly after Ivan's death the Council had both Dmitri and his mother Maria Nagaya moved to Uglich, some 120 miles north of Moscow.
Dmitri died there in 1591 at the age of ten in suspicious circumstances. As Dmitri's death was announced by the church bell, the people of Uglich rose up in protest against what they suspected was an assassination commissioned by Boris Godunov. Troops were sent and the rebellion was swiftly quelled. Boris Godunov ordered the Uglich bell clapper – "tongue" – to be removed, the bell to be flogged in public and sent to exile in Siberia along with the townspeople who had not been executed. An official commission headed by Vasili Shuiski was sent to determine the cause of death; the official verdict was. Ivan's widow claimed. Godunov's guilt was never established and shortly thereafter Dmitri's mother was forced to take the veil. Dmitry Ivanovich was laid to rest and promptly, forgotten. At the coronation of Feodor Ivanovich as Tsar Feodor I on 31 May 1584, Boris received honors and riches as a member of the regency council, in which he held the second place during the life of the Tsar's uncle Nikita Romanovich.
When Nikita died in 1586, Boris had no serious rival for the regency. A conspiracy of other boyars and of Dionysius II, Metropolitan of Moscow, sought to break Boris's power by divorcing the Tsar from Godunov's childless sister; the attempt proved unsuccessful, the conspirators were banished or sent to monasteries. After that, Godunov remained supreme in Russia and he corresponded with foreign princes as their equal, his policy was pacific and always prudent. In 1595, he recovered from Sweden some towns lost during the former reign. Five years he had defeated a Tatar raid upon Moscow, for which he received the title of Konyushy, an obsolete dignity higher than that of Boyar, he supported an anti-Turkish faction in the Crimea and gave the Khan subsidies in his war against the sultan. Godunov encouraged English merchants to trade with Russia by exempting them from duties, he built towns and fortresses along the north-eastern and south-eastern borders of Russia to keep the Tatar and Finnic tribes in order.
These included Samara, Saratov and Tsaritsyn, as well as other lesser towns. He colonized Siberia including Tobolsk. During his rule, the Russian Orthodox Church received its patriarchate, placing it on an equal footing with the ancient Eastern churches and freeing it from the influence of the Patriarch of Constantinople; this pleased the Tsar. In Godunov's most important domestic reform, a 1597 decree forbade peasants to transfer from one landowner to another, thus binding them to the soil; this ordinance aimed to secure revenue, but it led to the institution of serfdom in its most oppressive form. On the death of the childless Feodor on 7 January 1598, as well as the rumored assassination of Feodor's much younger brother Dimitry ordered by Boris himself to guarantee his seat on the throne, self-preservation as much as ambition led Boris to seize the throne. H
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans are a Turkic ethnic group, who are indigenous people of Crimea and formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries from Cumans that appeared in Crimea in the 10th century, with strong contributions from all the peoples who inhabited Crimea. Since 2014 Crimean Tatars have been recognized as an indigenous people of Ukraine. Crimean Tatars are listed among the indigenous peoples of Russia. Crimean Tatars constituted the majority of Crimea's population from the time of its ethnogenesis until the mid-19th century, the relative largest ethnic population until the end of the 19th century. After the retaking of Crimea from Axis forces, in May 1944, the USSR State Defense Committee ordered the removal of all of the Tatar population from Crimea, including the families of Crimean Tatars serving in the Soviet Army – in trains and boxcars to Central Asia to Uzbekistan. Starting in 1967, some were allowed to return to Crimea, in 1989 the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union condemned the removal of Crimean Tatars from their motherland as inhumane and lawless.
Today, Crimean Tatars constitute 12% of the population of Crimea. There remains a large diaspora of Crimean Tatars in Uzbekistan. In the latest Ukrainian census, in 2001, 248,200 Ukrainian citizens identified themselves as Crimean Tatars with 98% of them living in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. An additional 1,800 citizens live in the city of Sevastopol on the Crimean peninsula, but outside the border of the autonomous republic. About 150,000 remain in exile in Central Asia in Uzbekistan; the official number of Crimean Tatars in Turkey is 150,000 with some Crimean Tatar activists estimating a figure as high as 6 million. The activists reached this number by taking one million Tatar immigrants to Turkey as a starting point and multiplying this number by the birth rate in the span of the last hundred years. Crimean Tatars in Turkey live in Eskişehir Province, descendants of those who emigrated in the late 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries. In the Dobruja region straddling Romania and Bulgaria, there are more than 27,000 Crimean Tatars: 24,000 on the Romanian side, 3,000 on the Bulgarian side.
The Crimean Tatars are subdivided into three sub-ethnic groups: the Tats who used to inhabit the mountainous Crimea before 1944 predominantly are Tatarized Greeks and other people, as Tats in Crimea were called Hellenic Urum people who were deported by the Imperial Russia to the area around Mariupol. The Ortayulak. Historians suggest that inhabitants of the mountainous parts of Crimea lying to the central and southern parts, those of the Southern coast of Crimea were the direct descendants of the Pontic Greeks, Scythians and Kipchaks along with the Cumans while the latest inhabitants of the northern steppe represent the descendants of the Nogai Horde of the Black Sea nominally subjects of the Crimean Khan, it is assumed that the Tatarization process that took place in the 16th century brought a sense of cultural unity through the blending of the Greeks, Armenians and Ottoman Turks of the southern coast, Goths of the central mountains, Turkic-speaking Kipchaks and Cumans of the steppe and forming of the Crimean Tatar ethnic group.
However, the Cuman language is considered the direct ancestor of the current language of the Crimean Tatars with possible incorporations of the other languages like Crimean Gothic. Another theory suggests Crimean Tatars trace their origins to the waves of ancient people, Greeks, Goths and Armenians; when the Golden Horde invaded Crimea in the 1230s, they mixed with populations which had settled in Eastern Europe, including Crimea since the seventh century: Tatars, but Mongols and other Turkic groups, as well as the ancient. The Mongol conquest of the Kipchaks led to a merged society with the Mongol ruling class over a Kipchak speaking population which came to be known as Tatar and which absorbed other ethnicities on the Crimean peninsula like Armenians, Italians and Goths to form the modern day Crimean Tatar people- up to the Soviet deportation, the Crimean Tatars could still differentiate among themselves between Tatar Kipchak Nogays and the "Tat" descendants of Tatarized Goths and other Turkified peoples.
Goths and Greeks were assumed to be some of the ancestors of the Tatars on the coast of Crimea, while there were "mixed hill Tatars" and "Asiatic" steppe Tatars. Italians and Greeks mixed with the coastal Crimean Tatars. Today, Crimean Tatars are considered as the indigenous peoples of the Crimean peninsula. Crimea has experienced many conquering races in its history; the Turkic Kipchaks had followed the Goths, Huns and Scythians in Crimea. The Mongols who invaded the Russian principalities under Batu Khan, conducted the Kipchaks of south Ukrainain plains into their forces in 1240s; this amalgam of Mongols and Kipchkaks which converted to Islam became known a