A fire hose is a high-pressure hose that carries water or other fire retardant to a fire to extinguish it. Outdoors, it either to a fire engine or a fire hydrant. Indoors, it can attach to a buildings standpipe or plumbing system. The usual working pressure of a firehose can vary between 8 and 20 bar while its bursting pressure can be up to 83 bar. After use, a hose is usually hung to dry, because standing water that remains in a hose for a long time can deteriorate the material. Therefore, the fire station often has a high structure to accommodate the length of a hose for such preventative maintenance. On occasion, fire hoses are used for control, including most notably by Bull Connor in the Birmingham campaign against protestors during the Civil Rights Movement in 1963. Until the mid-19th century, most fires were fought by water transported to the scene in buckets, original hand pumpers discharged their water through a small pipe or monitor attached to the top of the pump tub. It was not until the late 1860s that hoses became widely available to water more easily from the hand pumps.
These 50-foot lengths of leather were sewn together like a boot leg, even with the limitations of pressure, the attachment of the hose to the gooseneck nozzle allowed closer approaches and more accurate water application. Van der Heyden was credited with a version of a suction hose using wire to keep it rigid. In the United States, the hose was introduced in Philadelphia in 1794. This canvas hose proved insufficiently durable, and sewn leather hose was used, the sewn leather hose tended to burst, so a hose fabricated of leather fastened together with copper rivets and washers was invented by members of Philadelphias Humane Hose Company. Around 1890, unlined fire hoses made of woven linen yarns began to replace leather hoses. As the hose fibers, made of flax, became wet, they swelled up and tightened the weave, unlined hoses, because of their lack of durability, were rapidly replaced with rubber hoses in municipal fire service use. They continued to be used for use on interior lines and hose racks until the 1960s.
This rubber hose was as bulky and stiff as a leather hose and it proved more durable than unlined linen hose. Its wrapped construction resembled some hoses used today by industry, for example, modern fire hoses use a variety of natural and synthetic fabrics and elastomers in their construction
Piping and plumbing fitting
A fitting is used in pipe systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, adapt to different sizes or shapes and for other purposes, such as regulating fluid flow. Tubing is sometimes used for piping, especially that flexible enough to be supplied in coiled form. Fittings require money, time and tools to install, valves are technically fittings, but are usually discussed separately. Standard codes are followed when designing a piping system and these codes specify requirements for materials and components, fabrication, erection, examination and testing of piping. The material with which a pipe is manufactured is often the basis for choosing a pipe, brass or bronze fittings are common in copper piping and plumbing systems. Fire hazards, earthquake resistance and other factors influence the choice of fitting materials. Gaskets are mechanical seals, usually ring-shaped, which seal flange joints, gaskets vary by construction and features. Commonly used gaskets are non-metallic, spiral-wound and ring-joint, non-metallic gaskets are used with flat- or raised-face flanges.
Spiral-wound gaskets are used with raised-face flanges, and ring-joint gaskets are used with ring-type joint flanges, stress develops between an RTJ gasket and the flange groove when the gasket is bolted to a flange, leading to plastic deformation of the gasket. Piping or tubing is usually inserted into fittings to make connections, connectors are assigned a gender, abbreviated M or F. An example of this is a 3/4-inch female adapter NPT, which would have a male connection of the same size. This section discusses fittings primarily used in pressurized piping systems, though there is overlap with fittings for low-pressure or non-pressurized systems. Specialized fittings for the latter setups are discussed in the next major subsection, an elbow is installed between two lengths of pipe to allow a change of direction, usually a 90° or 45° angle,22. 5° elbows are available. The ends may be machined for butt welding, threaded, or socketed, when the ends differ in size, it is known as a reducing elbow. A 90º elbow, known as a 90 bend,90 ell or quarter bend, attaches readily to plastic, cast iron and lead, other available materials include silicone, rubber compounds, galvanized steel, and nylon.
It is primarily used to connect hoses to valves, water pumps, elbows are categorized by length. The radius of curvature of a long-radius elbow is 1.5 times the pipe diameter, short elbows, widely available, are typically used in pressurized systems, and in physically tight locations. Long elbows are used in low-pressure gravity-fed systems and other applications where low turbulence and they are available in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polyvinyl chloride, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, and copper, and are used in DWV systems and central vacuum systems
A gasket is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression. Gaskets allow for mating surfaces on machine parts where they can fill irregularities. Gaskets are commonly produced by cutting from sheet materials, gaskets for specific applications, such as high pressure steam systems, may contain asbestos. However, due to hazards associated with asbestos exposure, non-asbestos gasket materials are used when practical. A few gaskets require an application of sealant directly to the surface to function properly. Some gaskets are made entirely of metal and rely on a surface to accomplish the seal. This is typical of some ring joints or some other metal gasket systems and these joints are known as R-con and E-con compressive type joints. Gaskets are normally made from a material, a sheet such as paper, silicone, cork, neoprene, nitrile rubber, fiberglass. One of the desirable properties of an effective gasket in industrial applications for compressed fiber gasket material is the ability to withstand high compressive loads.
Most industrial gasket applications involve bolts exerting compression well into the 14 MPa range or higher, generally speaking, there are several truisms that allow for better gasket performance. One of the tried and tested is, The more compressive load exerted on the gasket. There are several ways to measure a gasket materials ability to withstand compressive loading, the hot compression test is probably the most accepted of these tests. Most manufacturers of materials will provide or publish the results of these tests. This can lead to a crude and cheap gasket, in previous times the material was compressed asbestos, but in modern times a fibrous material such as graphite is used. These gaskets can fill various different chemical requirements based on the inertness of the material used, non-asbestos gasket sheet is durable, of multiple materials, and thick in nature. Material examples are mineral, carbon or nitrile synthetic rubber, applications using sheet gaskets involve acids, corrosive chemicals, steam or mild caustics.
Flexibility and good recovery prevent breakage during installation of a sheet gasket, the idea behind solid material is to use metals which cannot be punched out of sheets but are still cheap to produce. These gaskets generally have a higher level of quality control than sheet gaskets
A hose coupling is a connector on the end of a hose to connect it with another hose or with a tap or a hose appliance, such as an irrigation sprinkler. It is usually made of steel, stainless steel, the Air King universal air hose coupling, known as a Chicago style fitting, is malleable iron or brass quarter turn sexless coupling usually found on large pneumatic tools like jackhammers. The fitting is considered universal, because a common head is used on all sizes ranging from 0.25 to 1 inch. This coupling is used by Spanish firefighters and it is a sexless coupling with three engaging lugs. A cam and groove is a quick connect fluid transfer hose coupling that consists of a male adapter, the adapter has a groove on the outside that is engaged by the cam arms on the outside of the coupler to effect a seal against the gasket inside the coupler. They are commonly used for petroleum or chemical applications, an expansion ring fire hose coupling is commonly used on lay-flat fire hose. It has the advantage of providing no flow restriction, as the ring is expanded to match the inner diameter of the hose.
It is installed with special machinery using a drawbar expander, in the United States, it is most commonly supplied with NST threads. This is kind of symmetrical half coupling for water and air use, the most popular standard is NF E 29-573. Operation of this kind of coupling is pushed two couplings and rotate close into a seal form and it is popular in France area and European market with brass and stainless steel. See Hozelock plastic click-on connectors, a sexless coupling used on fire hoses in Russia. A boss ground joint coupling valve hose coupling, primarily used for compressed air or steam and it consists of a stem, wing nut and spud. It seals as a soft copper seat located in the spud is drawn against the stem by tightening the wing nut. The Guillemin symmetrical clutch, called Guillemin coupling, is used in France and in Belgium to couple hoses and resembles a DSP coupling. It can be fastened by hand, but it is possible to use a tricoise wrench. It has quarter-turn closing and is sexless and it may be fabricated from aluminum, stainless steel, brass or polypropylene.
The standard for this kind of coupling is EN14420-8/NF E 29-572, mulconroy/Holedall swaged hose coupling is commonly found on larger diameter hoses used in higher pressure applications or where the hose is exposed to higher end pull, e. g. They are installed with special hydraulic ram machinery and special dies, holedall IX internally expanded hose coupling is used in higher pressure applications, or where the hose is exposed to higher end pull, or where a full flow is required
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed through a die of the desired cross-section and it forms parts with an excellent surface finish. Drawing is a process, which uses the tensile strength of the material to pull it through the die. This limits the amount of change which can be performed in one step, so it is limited to simpler shapes, Drawing is the main way to produce wire. Metal bars and tubes are often drawn. Extrusion may be continuous or semi-continuous, the extrusion process can be done with the material hot or cold. Commonly extruded materials include metals, ceramics, play dough, the products of extrusion are generally called extrudates. Hollow cavities within extruded material cannot be produced using a simple flat extrusion die, the die assumes the shape of a block with depth, beginning first with a shape profile that supports the center section. The die shape internally changes along its length into the final shape, the material flows around the supports and fuses together to create the desired closed shape.
The extrusion process in metals may increase the strength of the material. In 1797, Joseph Bramah patented the first extrusion process for making out of soft metals. It involved preheating the metal and forcing it through a die via a hand-driven plunger, in 1820 Thomas Burr implemented that process for lead pipe, with a hydraulic press. At that time the process was called squirting, in 1894, Alexander Dick expanded the extrusion process to copper and brass alloys. The process begins by heating the stock material and it is loaded into the container in the press. A dummy block is placed behind it where the ram presses on the material to push it out of the die, afterward the extrusion is stretched in order to straighten it. If better properties are required it may be treated or cold worked. The extrusion ratio is defined as the starting cross-sectional area divided by the area of the final extrusion. One of the advantages of the extrusion process is that this ratio can be very large while still producing quality parts
A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often these cells adhere to a surface. These adherent cells are embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance. Biofilm extracellular polymeric substance, which is referred to as slime, is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, when a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated. Formation of a biofilm begins with the attachment of free-floating microorganisms to a surface, if the colonists are not immediately separated from the surface, they can anchor themselves more permanently using cell adhesion structures such as pili. Some species are not able to attach to a surface on their own but are able to anchor themselves to the matrix or directly to earlier colonists.
It is during this colonization that the cells are able to communicate via quorum sensing using products such as N-acyl homoserine lactone, some bacteria are unable to form biofilms as successfully due to their limited motility. Non-motile bacteria cannot recognize the surface or aggregate together as easily as motile bacteria, once colonization has begun, the biofilm grows through a combination of cell division and recruitment. Polysaccharide matrices typically enclose bacterial biofilms, the final stage of biofilm formation is known as dispersion, and is the stage in which the biofilm is established and may only change in shape and size. The development of a biofilm may allow for an aggregate cell colony to be resistant to antibiotics. Cell-cell communication or quorum sensing has shown to be involved in the formation of biofilm in several bacterial species. There are five stages of development, Initial attachment. Dispersal of cells from the colony is an essential stage of the biofilm life cycle.
Dispersal enables biofilms to spread and colonize new surfaces, enzymes that degrade the biofilm extracellular matrix, such as dispersin B and deoxyribonuclease, may play a role in biofilm dispersal. Biofilm matrix degrading enzymes may be useful as anti-biofilm agents, recent evidence has shown that a fatty acid messenger, cis-2-decenoic acid, is capable of inducing dispersion and inhibiting growth of biofilm colonies. Secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, this compound induces cyclo heteromorphic cells in species of bacteria. Nitric oxide has shown to trigger the dispersal of biofilms of several bacteria species at sub-toxic concentrations
NSF International is a product testing and certification organization based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. NSF International was founded in 1944 from the University of Michigans School of Public Health as the National Sanitation Foundation to standardize sanitation, to date, NSF has developed more than 80 public health and safety American National Standards. As NSF expanded services beyond sanitation and into new international markets, NSF International is an accredited, independent third-party certification body that tests and certifies products to verify they meet these public health and safety standards. Products that meet these standards bear the NSF mark, NSF International has been collaborating with the World Health Organization since 1997 in water quality and safety, food safety and indoor environments. NSF operates more than 165,000 square feet of laboratory space and its 1, 200-plus staff includes microbiologists, chemists, food safety specialists and public health professionals. The NSF Food Safety Division provides accredited services across all supply chain sectors, from agriculture, processing and dairy, to seafood, retail, NSF Food Safety certifies foodservice equipment, nonfood compounds and bottled water/beverages.
Many food codes in the U. S. require food equipment used in commercial establishments that is certified to NSF commercial food equipment standards, in 1990, the U. S. EPA replaced its own drinking water product advisory program with these NSF standards. Today, most plumbing codes require certification to NSF standards for pipes, recently introduced programs include HACCP for Building Water Systems. It supplies pharmaceutical secondary reference standards, traceable to United States Pharmacopeia, NSF wrote the only accredited American National Standard that verifies the health and safety of dietary supplements and tests and certifies products to this standard. Additionally, NSF offers ISO13485 registration for medical devices and CE marking, NSF Education and Training provides training and education for professionals in the food safety, health sciences, consumer product and management systems certification industries. NSF maintains laboratories in North America, South America, Europe, nSFs laboratories are accredited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Standards Council of Canada.
NSF is accredited by the American National Standards Institute to develop American National Standards, NSF standards are developed and revised by the committee ballot system, similar to that used by American National Standards Institute and ASTM. Any updates to standards related to testing requirements are vetted through lab testing, and balloting ensures majority rule
Drinking water, known as potable water or improved drinking water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation, without risk of health problems. Globally, in 2015, 91% of people had access to suitable for drinking. Nearly 4.2 billion had access to tap water while another 2.4 billion had access to wells or public taps,1.8 billion people still use an unsafe drinking water source which may be contaminated by feces. This can result in infectious diarrhea such as cholera and typhoid among others, the amount of drinking water required is variable. It depends on activity, health issues. It is estimated that the average American drinks about one litre of water a day with 95% drinking less than three litres per day, for those working in a hot climate, up to 16 liters a day may be required. Water makes up about 60% of weight in men and 55% of weight in women, infants are about 70% to 80% water while the elderly are around 45%. Typically in developed countries, tap water meets drinking water quality standards, other typical uses include washing and irrigation.
Greywater may be used for toilets or irrigation and its use for irrigation however may be associated with risks. Water may be due to levels of toxins or suspended solids. Reduction of waterborne diseases and development of water resources is a major public health goal in developing countries. Bottled water is sold for consumption in most parts of the world. The word potable came into English from the Late Latin potabilis, the amount of drinking water required is variable. It depends on activity, age and environmental conditions. It is estimated that the average American drinks about one litre of water a day with 95% drinking less than three litres per day, for those working in a hot climate, up to 16 litres per day may be required. Some health authorities have suggested that at least eight glasses of eight fl oz each are required by an adult per day, the British Dietetic Association recommends 1.8 litres. However, various reviews of the evidence performed in 2002 and 2008 could not find any scientific evidence recommending eight glasses of water per day.
An individuals thirst provides a guide for how much water they require rather than a specific
A hose is a flexible hollow tube designed to carry fluids from one location to another. Hoses are sometimes called pipes, or more generally tubing, the shape of a hose is usually cylindrical. Hose design is based on a combination of application and performance, common factors are size, pressure rating, length, straight hose or coilhose, and chemical compatibility. Hoses are made one or a combination of many different materials. Applications mostly use nylon, polyethylene, PVC, or synthetic or natural rubbers, based on the environment, in recent years, hoses can be manufactured from special grades of polyethylene. Other hose materials include PTFE, stainless steel and other metals, to achieve a better pressure resistance, hoses can be reinforced with fibers or steel cord. Commonly used reinforcement methods are braiding, spiraling and wrapping of fabric plies, the reinforcement increases the pressure resistance but the stiffness. To obtain flexibility, corrugations or bellows are used, circumferential or helical reinforcement rings are applied to maintain these corrugated or bellowed structures under internal pressure.
Hoses can be used in water or other liquid environments or to convey air or other gases, hoses are used to carry fluids through air or fluid environments, and they are typically used with clamps, spigots and nozzles to control fluid flow. Specific applications include the following, A garden hose is used to water plants in a garden or lawn, a Tough Hose is used to water crops in agriculture for drip irrigation A fire hose is used by firefighters to convey water to the site of a fire. Air hoses are used in diving to carry air from a surface compressor or from air tanks. Industrial uses for operating machinery and worktable tooling such as pneumatic screw drivers, staplers. Hoses have been used in air brake systems ever since the technology was invented by George Westinghouse in 1868 and they can be used to take out vibration, and thermal or settlement movement. Automotive hoses are used in automobiles to move fluids around for use in cooling, hoses are used to convey pressure or vacuum signals to control circuits or gauges, as well as conveying vacuum to heating, brake, and/or locking systems.
In chemistry and medicine, hoses are used to move liquid chemicals or gases around, in the oil industry high pressure hoses are used to move liquids under high pressures. Typical uses are for kill and choke lines, cement lines and these are often connected to either the choke manifold, cement manifold or standpipe manifold. In some cases, a hose has been used as a weapon with which to beat somebody. This is the origin of the term Rubber-hose cryptanalysis, Hose coupling, for joining one or more hoses or to equipment Cut-off factor Faucet Pipe Tubing
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and he is often rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U. S. Presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County and he attended the elite educational institutions of Groton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, and he entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt was presidential candidate James M. Coxs running mate and he was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform governor, promoting the enactment of programs to combat the depression besetting the United States at the time.
In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated incumbent Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency, Roosevelt took office while in the United States was in the midst of the worst economic crisis in its history. Energized by his victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to support the unemployed and farmers, and to labor union growth while more closely regulating business. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, the economy improved rapidly from 1933–37, but relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, when the war began and unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC. However, they kept most of the regulations on business, along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security.
His goal was to make America the Arsenal of Democracy, which would supply munitions to the Allies, in March 1941, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. He supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, as an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and initiate the development of the worlds first atomic bomb. His work influenced the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelts physical health declined during the war years, and he died 11 weeks into his fourth term. One of the oldest Dutch families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution, Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the organization while he was president