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Garden of Eden

The Garden of Eden called Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God" described in the Book of Genesis and the Book of Ezekiel. Genesis 13:10 refers to the "garden of God", the "trees of the garden" are mentioned in Ezekiel 31; the Book of Zechariah and the Book of Psalms refer to trees and water, without explicitly mentioning Eden. The name derives from the Akkadian edinnu, from a Sumerian word edin meaning "plain" or "steppe" related to an Aramaic root word meaning "fruitful, well-watered". Another interpretation associates the name with a Hebrew word for "pleasure"; the Hebrew term is translated "pleasure" in Sarah's secret saying in Genesis 18:12. Like the Genesis flood narrative, the Genesis creation narrative and the account of the Tower of Babel, the story of Eden echoes the Mesopotamian myth of a king, as a primordial man, placed in a divine garden to guard the Tree of Life; the Hebrew Bible depicts Adam and Eve as walking around the Garden of Eden naked, due to their innocence. The location of Eden is described in the Book of Genesis as the source of four tributaries.

The Garden of Eden is considered to be mythological by most scholars. Among those that consider it to have been real, there have been various suggestions for its location: at the head of the Persian Gulf, in southern Mesopotamia where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers run into the sea; the second part of the Genesis creation narrative, Genesis 2:4-3:24, opens with YHWH-Elohim creating the first man, whom he placed in a garden that he planted "eastward in Eden". "And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree, pleasant to the sight, good for food. Last of all, the God made a woman from a rib of the man to be a companion for the man. In chapter three, the man and the woman were seduced by the serpent into eating the forbidden fruit, they were expelled from the garden to prevent them from eating of the tree of life, thus living forever. Cherubim were placed east of the garden, "and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way of the tree of life". Genesis 2:10–14 lists four rivers in association with the garden of Eden: Pishon, Gihon and Phirat.

It refers to the land of Cush—translated/interpreted as Ethiopia, but thought by some to equate to Cossaea, a Greek name for the land of the Kassites. These lands lie north of Elam to the east of ancient Babylon, unlike Ethiopia, does lie within the region being described. In Antiquities of the Jews, the first-century Jewish historian Josephus identifies the Pishon as what "the Greeks called Ganges" and the Geon as the Nile. According to Lars-Ivar Ringbom the paradisus terrestris is located in Takab in northeastern Iran. In Ezekiel 28:12–19 the prophet Ezekiel the "son of man" sets down God's word against the king of Tyre: the king was the "seal of perfection", adorned with precious stones from the day of his creation, placed by God in the garden of Eden on the holy mountain as a guardian cherub, but the king sinned through wickedness and violence, so he was driven out of the garden and thrown to the earth, where now he is consumed by God's fire: "All those who knew you in the nations are appalled at you, you have come to a horrible end and will be no more.".

According to Terje Stordalen, the Eden in Ezekiel appears to be located in Lebanon. "t appears that the Lebanon is an alternative placement in Phoenician myth of the Garden of Eden", there are connections between paradise, the garden of Eden and the forests of Lebanon within prophetic writings. Edward Lipinski and Peter Kyle McCarter have suggested that the Garden of the gods, the oldest Sumerian version of the Garden of Eden, relates to a mountain sanctuary in the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges; the Garden of Eden is considered to be mythological by most scholars. However, there have been suggestions for its location: at its source of the rivers, while others have looked at the head of the Persian Gulf, in southern Mesopotamia where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers run into the sea. British archaeologist David Rohl locates it in Iran, in the vicinity of Tabriz, but this suggestion has not caught on with scholarly sources; the location of Eden is described in the Book of Genesis, chapter 2, verses 10–14: ″And a river departed from Eden to water the garden, from there it divided and became four tributaries.

The name of the first is Pishon, the circumnavigator of the land of Havilah where there is gold. And the gold of this land is good, and the name of the second river is Gihon, the circumnavigator of the land of Cush. And the name of the third is Chidekel, that which goes to the east of Ashur; the garden of the Hesperides in Greek mythology was somewhat similar to the Christian concept of the Garden of Eden, by the 16th century a larger intellectual association was made in the Cranach painting. In this painting, only the action that takes place there identifies the setting as distinct

Noise (economic)

Economic noise, or noise, describes a theory of pricing developed by Fischer Black. Black describes noise as the opposite of information: hype, inaccurate ideas, inaccurate data, his theory states that noise is everywhere in the economy and we can tell the difference between it and information. Noise has two broad implications, it allows speculative trading to occur. It is indicative of market inefficiency. Loudon and Della Bitta refer to noise as “a type of disruption in the communication process” and go further stating that "each state of the communication process is susceptible to message distortion.". Therefore, we can say that noise is a disruption within the communication process and can be found in all forms within the communication process; some examples of noise could be distortion of a television advertisement or interference of a radio broadcast. This therefore would mean that your reception of the information could be misunderstood as your reception of the information has been interfered with, meaning you may not receive the message in the way the sender is implying.

Another, more example of noise is whilst an ad break is occurring on television, the reception of the ad has been interrupted by your mobile phone, meaning you do not and receive and decode the information the advertisement is trying to deliver. What must be considered when looking at the idea of noise is the understanding that the more the sender and receiver have in common, the less it will be for noise to have an effect on the encoding of the message. For example, if the receiver did not understand a symbol or the symbol had a different meaning to the receiver it did to the sender, this would mean the receiver could encode the message in a different way to how the sender had intended. Environmental or External Noise. “This consists of sounds and visual distractions that are present in the environment where the viewing takes place.” An example of this is using a mobile phone whilst watching a television advertisement, as the mobile is within the external environment and could have an impact, as a distraction, on how the receiver decodes the message.

Clutter is another type of noise. Russel and Lane define clutter as “"non-program material carried during or between shows including commercials, public service announcements, program promotional spots”. Therefore, if the television advertisement had been shown after a public service announcement, the receiver could be distracted, thinking about what was discussed within the announcement, as opposed to being focused on the television advertisement. Internal Noise is the third type of noise to be considered. MacInnis and Jaworski and MacInnis, et al. imply that the decoding of a message within an advertisement could be affected by the internal noise of the receiver. Internal noise being concerns; the relationship between internal noise and the decoding of messages as a receiver does not yet have evidence through market research.. Continuing on from this, it is clear that if the audience of an advertisement was focused on a thought or concern in their mind, they would not decode the message within the advertisement in the same way.

People trade speculatively because they disagree about the future, making different predictions about the fate of companies and commodity prices, among other economic variables. These disagreements stem from the fact that everyone interprets information or data differently and subjectively, but because of the complex nature of the world's markets, not all market data is "information." Much of the daily price fluctuation is due to random change rather than meaningful trends, creating the problem of discerning real information from noise. This problem is. In real life, trades occur as a kind of bet on what is noise and what is information; this trade takes place between what Black calls information traders and noise traders, where the former operates based on accurate information and the latter trades based on noise. There is no way of parsing the noise and information from a data stream or signal, so the so-called noise traders tend to think that they, in fact, trade on information that others in the market reject as noise.

Thus, methods of parsing noise and information from a signal are becoming important in the market-place as strategies used by high-tech alternative investment firms, such as some hedge funds. A particular type of trader Black makes. Like the above-mentioned traders, entrepreneurs have theories about what will happen and what is happening. In this case, they have theories as to what people want; when they are correct, there is a little boom. But the world has noise and entrepreneurs make mistakes, they make. Thus, they don't work as the economy is harmed; when this happens on a massive scale, there is a bust. Critics argue. Black argues. No matter

Bob Jones Jr.

Robert Reynolds Jones Jr. was the second president and chancellor of Bob Jones University. Born in Montgomery, Jones was the son of Bob Jones Sr. the university's founder. He served as president from 1947 to 1971 and as chancellor until his death. Educated by tutors and at Starke University School in Montgomery, Jones was a voracious reader who tackled everything from Tom Swift and Tarzan to Walter Scott and Foxe's Book of Martyrs; when he was ten years old, his father gave him 50 missionary biographies for Christmas, which the boy finished by February. After graduating from Bob Jones College in 1931, when he was nineteen, Jones earned a master's degree in history at the University of Pittsburgh and did further graduate work at the University of Chicago Divinity School and Northwestern University. Jones was called "Dr. Bob Jr." during his lifetime, although he disliked the "Jr." and his doctorates were honorary, the first conferred by Asbury College in 1934, when he was only twenty-three. As a young man Jones studied at Stratford-upon-Avon.

He considered turning professional and received an offer from Hollywood—thereby causing some anxious moments for his evangelist father. Jones Jr. did create a one-man show he called "Curtain Calls", in which he portrayed seven or eight Shakespearean characters accompanied by classical music, scheduling performances four weeks a year from 1933 to 1945. Jones believed. Administration per se seems to have held little interest for him. Jones seems to have directed the school more autocratically after 1953, when the assistant of Bob Jones Sr. Theodore Mercer, was fired for trying to lead a faculty rebellion against the Joneses. Both Jones's position and his intellectual gifts made him a natural leader of separatist fundamentalism. Although he participated in the founding of the National Association of Evangelicals in 1942 and was elected vice president in 1950, Jones left the organization in the following year because of its interest in cultivating a more moderate—to Jones, "compromising"—stance with those who denied biblical orthodoxy.

By 1959, Jones had formally broken with Billy Graham, who had accepted the sponsorship of liberal Protestants and Roman Catholics for his 1957 New York City crusade. Jones criticized other fundamentalists who were insufficiently separatistic, such as evangelist John R. Rice and Jerry Falwell, whose Moral Majority had embraced Catholics and Mormons. Meanwhile, Jones became a close friend of militant anti-Catholic Ulster Protestant leader Ian Paisley. In 1982, when U. S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig refused to grant a travel visa for Paisley to speak at the University's annual Bible Conference, Jones used strong language from the imprecatory Psalms to denounce Haig, urging God to "destroy him utterly." The flap was reported in the media, Jones was "swamped with vituperative mail" until Haig made a serious blunder less than three months and was forced to leave office ending his political career. For thirteen years Jones edited Faith for the Family, an issues-oriented fundamentalist periodical that he originated and eventually discontinued because of its cost.

He wrote poetry in traditional forms, including Prologue, a blank-verse drama on the life of John Huss, as well as several hymn texts that are known to a wider fundamentalist community beyond the BJU campus. Jones was an early connoisseur of European art, he began collecting after World War II on a shoe-string budget authorized by the University Board of Directors. Jones first concentrated on the Italian Baroque, a style out of favor and inexpensive in the years following the war. Fifty years after the opening of the gallery, the BJU collection included more than 400 European paintings from the 14th to through the 19th centuries, period furniture, a notable collection of Russian icons, a hodge-podge of Holy Land antiquities; the Bob Jones University Museum & Gallery, which will indefinitely reflect the personal taste of its creator, is strong in Baroque paintings and includes notable works by Rubens, Veronese, Gerard David, Mattia Preti, van Dyck, Doré. The museum is the largest collection of religious art in the Western Hemisphere and remained Jones' hobby for the remainder of his life.

Jones could be a demanding superior with strong, hyperbolically expressed, views about matters political and religious. But he could display a childlike humility on his many visits to foreign missionaries. Intimates found him witty and impish. Although Jones enjoyed playing villains in Shakespeare plays and religious films—he founded the BJU cinema department in 1950—he genuinely enjoyed a life of ideas and the fine arts. A curator at the North Carolina Museum of Art was genuinely surprised when Jones failed to reflect his preconception as "a kind of backwoods evangelical" who would "thump the Bible" at him. "There was a gentleness and a kinship there," he recalled. "And if he knew you thought differently than he did, OK. They had three children, including Bob Jones III, who succeeded him as president of BJU. Bob Jones Jr. published two religious novels, several books of sermons, an autobiography. Jones died of cancer in 1997 at the age of 86.