Gare Montparnasse

The Gare Montparnasse Paris-Montparnasse, is one of the six large Paris railway termini, is located in the 14th and 15th arrondissements of Paris. The station opened in 1840, was rebuilt in 1852 and was relocated in 1969 to a new station just south of the original location — where subsequently the prominent Montparnasse Tower was constructed; the original station is noted for the Montparnasse derailment, where a steam train crashed through the station in 1895, an event captured in known photographs — and reproduced in full scale in several locations. The station serves intercity TGV trains to the west and south-west of France including Tours, Bordeaux and Nantes, suburban and regional services on the Transilien Paris – Montparnasse routes. There is a metro station. Gare Montparnasse is the only mainline terminus in Paris not directly connected to the RER system, although the Montparnasse main line is connected to the RER at Versailles-Chantiers and the LGV Atlantique at Massy Palaiseau; the station opened in 1840 as Gare de l'Ouest being renamed.

A second station was built between 1848 and 1852. On 25 August 1944, the German military governor of Paris, General von Choltitz, surrendered his garrison to the French General Philippe Leclerc at the old station, after disobeying Adolf Hitler's direct order to destroy the city. During the 1960s, a newer station integrated into a complex of office buildings was built. In 1969, the old station was torn down and the Tour Montparnasse built on its site. An extension was built in 1990 to host the TGV Atlantique; the Gare Montparnasse became famous for the derailment on 22 October 1895, of the Granville–Paris Express, which overran the buffer stop. The engine careered across 30 metres of the station concourse, crashed through a 60-centimetre thick wall, shot across a terrace and smashed out of the station, plummeting onto the Place de Rennes 10 metres below, where it stood on its nose. Two of the 131 passengers sustained injuries, along with two conductors; the only fatality was a woman on the street below, Marie-Augustine Aguilard, temporarily taking over her husband's work duty while he went out to get the newspapers.

She was killed by falling masonry. The railway company paid for her funeral and provided a pension to look after her two children; the accident was caused by a faulty Westinghouse brake and the engine driver, trying to make up lost time. A conductor was given the engine driver a 50-franc fine. Replicas of the train crash are recreated outside the Mundo a Vapor museum chain buildings in Brazil, in the southernmost state, Rio Grande do Sul, in the city of Canela. From Paris Montparnasse train services depart to major French cities such as: Le Mans, Saint-Brieuc, Saint-Malo, Lorient, Angers, Saint-Nazaire, Poitiers, La Rochelle, Angoulême, Toulouse and Granville; the station is served by suburban trains heading to the west and south-west of Paris. High speed services Paris – Bordeaux – Dax – LourdesTarbes High speed services Paris – Bordeaux – Dax – BayonneBiarritzHendayeIrun High speed services Paris – Bordeaux – Agen – Toulouse High speed services Paris – Bordeaux – Arcachon High speed services Paris – Tours – Poitiers – Angoulême – Bordeaux High speed services Paris – Poitiers – La Rochelle High speed services Paris – Tours High speed services Paris – Le Mans – Rennes – St BrieucBrest High speed services Paris – Le Mans – Vannes – Lorient – Quimper High speed services Paris – Rennes – St Malo High speed services Paris – Le Mans – Rennes High speed services Paris – Nantes – St-Nazaire – Le Croisic High speed services Paris – Le Mans – Angers – Nantes Discount High Speed Services Paris - Poitiers - Saint-Pierre-des-Corps- Angoulême - Bordeaux Discount High Speed Services Paris - Le Mans Discount High Speed Services Paris - Le Mans - Laval - Rennes Intercity services Paris – DreuxArgentan – Granville Regional Services Paris to Granville with numerous stops Regional services Paris – VersaillesRambouilletChartres – Le Mans Regional services Paris – Versailles – St-Quentin-en-Yvelines – Rambouillet Regional services Paris – Versailles – Plaisir – Dreux Regional services Paris – Versailles – Plaisir – Mantes-la-Jolie Regional services Paris – Versailles – Plaisir Adjacent metro station: Montparnasse – BienvenüeNearby station: Pasteur Transportation in France List of stations of the Paris RER List of stations of the Paris Métro Gare d'Austerlitz Gare de l'Est Gare de Lyon Gare du Nord Gare Saint-Lazare Gare Montparnasse at Transilien, the official website of SNCF Gare Montparnasse at "Gares & Connexions", the official website of SNCF Gare Montparnasse – current photographs and of the years 1900.

Satellite image from Google Maps Mundo a Vapor Museum The Brazilian museum which contains the 1895 derailment accident replica

Phase IV

Phase IV is a 1974 science-fiction horror film. The only feature-length film directed by graphic designer and filmmaker Saul Bass, it stars Michael Murphy, Nigel Davenport and Lynne Frederick; the interiors of the film were shot at Pinewood Studios in England and the exterior locations were shot in Kenya, though the film is set in the Arizona desert in the United States. It was produced by Paramount Pictures; the film was a box office disappointment and as a result, this was the only feature film directed by Bass. It has since gained a cult following due to TV airings beginning in 1975 and being shown on Mystery Science Theater 3000 during the KTMA era. A novelization of the script, written by Barry N. Malzberg, was published as Phase IV in November 1973. After a spectacular but mysterious cosmic event, ants undergo rapid evolution and develop a cross-species hive mind and build strange towers and geometrically perfect designs in the desert. Except for one family, the local human population flees the strangely acting ants.

Scientists James Lesko and Ernest Hubbs set up a computerized lab in a sealed dome located in an area of significant ant activity in Arizona. The ant colony and the scientific team fight each other, though the ants are the more effective aggressors; the narrative uses the scientific team as the main protagonists, but there are ant protagonists going about their duties in the colony. The ants immunize themselves to the humans' chemical weapons and soon infiltrate their lab. Teams of ants penetrate the computers of the lab and short them out. After Lesko decodes an ant message, Kendra Eldrige, becomes convinced that her actions have enraged the ants. Seeking to save the two scientists, she abandons the lab and sacrifices herself. Hubbs and Lesko begin to have different plans for dealing with the ants. While Lesko thinks he can communicate with the ants by means of messages written in mathematics, Hubbs plans to wipe out a hill he believes to be the ants' central hive. Delirious from a venomous ant sting, Hubbs can get his boots on but is determined to attack the hive and kill the ant queen.

Instead, Hubbs falls into a trap – a deep pit that the ants fill with earth. Helpless to save Hubbs and convinced that the ants will soon move into desert areas where their growth will exceed man's ability to control them, Lesko chooses to follow Hubbs's plan, he sets out to the hive with a canister of poison. Descending into the hive, Lesko hunts for the queen but instead finds Kendra reaching out from under the sand; the two embrace and Lesko realizes that far from destroying the human race, the ants' plan is to adapt the human race and make them a part of the ants' world. In voice-over, Lesko states that he does not know what plans the ants have, but he is awaiting instruction. Nigel Davenport as Dr. Ernest D. Hubbs Michael Murphy as James R. Lesko Lynne Frederick as Kendra Eldridge Alan Gifford as Mr. Eldridge Robert Henderson as Clete Helen Horton as Mildred Eldridge David Healy as Radio Announcer Ken Middleham, the wildlife photographer who shot the insect sequences for Phase IV shot the insect sequences for the documentary The Hellstrom Chronicle.

Both feature extensive use of close-up photography of insects. During production, Saul Bass was concerned with 20 year old Lynne Frederick’s voluptuous and developed figure since she was playing a 16 year old. Frederick was forced to wear a specially designed and painful iron clad corset to bind her breasts throughout production. Bass attempted to persuade Frederick to restrict her diet to chicken broth and black coffee. According to the book Future Tense, "Bass filmed a spectacular, surreal montage lasting four minutes, showing what life would be like on the'new' Earth, but this was cut by the distributor." The montage was intended to suggest that the two surviving characters were altered by the ants' creation of the next step in evolution for humanity and insects. Shots from the original montage sequence appear in the theatrical trailer, prepared before cuts were made to the film. In early 2012, a faded print of the original ending sequence was found in the Saul Bass Collection at the Academy Film Archive in a preview version of the film, shown to test audiences in 1973.

In June 2012, this excerpt was screened to the public in Los Angeles at the Cinefamily cinematheque following a showing of the theatrical version. The Academy Film Archive was able to find the original film elements for the montage, a set of separation masters, in Paramount Studio's archives; the archive staff recombined the separations, color-timed them for presentation, had them digitally scanned. This recovered montage ending, along with a brand new 35mm print of the theatrical version, premiered at the Alamo Drafthouse in Austin, Texas, as a part of a full day of films by Saul Bass in December 2012, before being shown at select art-house theaters in other cities; the novelization of Mayo Simon's screenplay, written by Barry N. Malzberg, gives a hint of the final version by Bass, as it uses the uncut version of Simon's script; the film was released on VHS by the studio that made the movie. A DVD was released by Legend Films in 2008, a Blu-ray was released by Olive Films in 2015. All of these releases are barebones versions and do not include any special features, such as the original theatrical trailer or the scenes cut from the original version of the film.

The long-rumored alternate ending of the film has remained out of distribution until discovered and restored by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences’ Academy Film Archive. Now available on iTunes Extras in celebration of the 45th Anniversary

Angoon bombardment

The Angoon Bombardment was the destruction in October 1882 of the Tlingit village of Angoon, Alaska by US Naval forces under the command Commander Edgar C. Merriman and the USRC Thomas Corwin under the command of Michael A. Healy; the Tlingit villagers had taken white hostages and property and demanded two hundred blankets in compensation from the North West Trading Company following the accidental death of a Tlingit shaman who died in a whaling bomb accident while working on the whaler. The hostages were released upon the arrival of the naval expedition to Angoon. Following the Alaska Purchase, the United States Army came to Alaska to serve as the civil administering entity of the Department of Alaska. Administration of the department was transferred to the United States Navy in 1879; the U. S. authorities used common law. Americans characterized the Tlingit legal framework as based on "revenge". In 1869, two major conflicts took place between the army and Tlingit groups following retribution killings by the Tlingit against whites: In the February 1869 Kake War, three deserted villages and two forts were destroyed near present-day Kake, Alaska by the USS Saginaw.

Prior to the conflict, two white trappers were killed by the Kake in retribution for the death of two Kake departing Sitka village in canoe. Sitka was the site of a standoff between the Army and Tlingit due to the army demanding the surrender of chief Colchika, involved in an altercation in Fort Sitka. In the December 1869 Wrangell Bombardment the Stikine village of Old Wrangell was bombarded by the United States Army; the army issued an ultimatum to the villagers, demanding they deliver a Stikine named Scutd-doo to justice following the retribution murder of Leon Smith by Scutd-doo. Scutd-doo's son, had earlier been killed by soldiers following an altercation in which he bit off the finger of the wife of the quartermaster of Fort Wrangell. Following a two-day bombardment of the village and return musket fire by Stikine skirmishers, Scutd-doo was handed over to the army, court-martialed, in the first application of the death penalty in Alaska under US rule, was hung before the garrison and Stikine villagers.

In 1878, the North West Trading Company established a trading post and fish processing plan at Killisnoo, near Angoon, Alaska. On 22 October 1882, a Tlingit shaman by the name of Til'tlein working aboard a whaling ship in the bay died as a result of an accidental explosion of a whaling bomb; the Tlingit demanded two hundred blankets in compensation for the death of the shaman. In Tlingit law, compensation was required for accidental deaths. To ensure payment, the Tlingit took two whites and two boats hostage at the plant in Killisnoo and discontinued working; the superintendent of the whaling station at Killisnoo, J. M. Vanderbilt, managed to escape on the company tug Favorite to Sitka, arriving on 23 October, request assistance from Commander Edgar C. Merriman, who commanded the largest ship in Alaskan waters, the USS Adams; as the USS Adams was thought to be too large to navigate in the shallow waters of the bay, Merriman tendered the company tug Favorite and the USRC Thomas Corwin under the command of Michael A. Healy, upon which he placed a company of marines, a Gatling gun, a howitzer.

Merriman's force arrived at Angoon on 25 October, the Tlingit released the white hostages and captured property. Merriman, demanded four hundred blankets in tribute from the Tlingit to be delivered by noon the next day; the villagers were only able to collect 81 blankets for the tribute payment. Merriman proceeded to destroy the houses of the village, forty canoes, food stores. While most of the inhabitants survived after fleeing the village, six children died of smoke inhalation. An unknown number of Tlingit died during the winter due to the loss of shelter. In 1884, the First Organic Act placed Alaska under civilian control. In 1973, the Indian Claims Commission awarded the Angoon clans $90,000 in compensation for clan property destroyed in 1882 value; the Angoon Tlingit continue to press for an apology by the navy. Governor of Alaska Jay Hammond declared the 100th anniversary as "Tlingit Remembrance Day"