Stanton under Bardon
Stanton-under-Bardon is a village and civil parish about 4 miles southeast of Coalville, England. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 634. Most of the houses are red brick, many on Main Street are terraced and have long, thin gardens; the village is near Junction 22 of the M1 motorway. The village is near Markfield, with which it shares a local newspaper, the Markfield and Stanton Under Bardon Herald; the village has two churches and a primary school. Bardon Quarry is nearby. Stanton under Bardon derives from the Old English words stᾱn for "stone" and tῡn for a village or estate; the Domesday Book of 1086 records Stanton under Bardon under the Guthlaxon hundred of Suffolk. It records the village as having had three geld units; these were average statistics for the time in comparison to surrounding villages such as Barlestone and Osbaston. Geld units refer to the total tax assessed on each property, it is noted that there were 13 villagers and five smallholders, which were required to pay £1 to the Lord as rent in 1086 to Lord Geoffrey of la Guerche.
In the early 1870s the Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Stanton under Bardon as a township-chapelry in Thornton parish, Leicester. Post town, under Leicester. Acres, 1,400. Real property, £1, 952. Pop. 312. Houses, 64; the manor belongs to Earl Grey. The living is annexed to Thornton. There is a Wesleyan chapel. In 1881 a high proportion of the local population worked with various minerals, suggesting that stone was key to the areas foundations and the possible cause for the naming of the village. Anglicans from Stanton under Bardon worshipped at Thorton, 2 miles away, until Stanton's own Church of England parish church of St Mary and All Saints church was completed and consecrated in 1909, it was planned to have a south aisle and a west end, but has never been completed, the three-bay arcade intended for the south aisle is blocked with red brick. The church seats 120 people; the 2011 Census recorded the population of Stanton under Bardon at 634 people split in terms of sex. There was a dramatic population rise in early 1900s.
Between 2001 and 2011 there has been a shift in religious views, portrayed by the pie charts. It shows that the Christian population is reducing in Stanton under Bardon and diversifying towards other religions and to atheism. Census showed that "traditional households" are declining in Stanton under Bardon as households are increasing in cohabiting unmarried couples and single parent households; the education rates for Stanton under Bardon have improved since 2001. Census depicted that the percentage of over 16s with no qualification had lowered by 6.3% over 10 years. In the same time period, the number of 16-75 years olds with level 3 qualifications for examples Alevels increased by 5% and the number of residents with level 4 has increased by 7.2%. Stanton under Bardon shows rates of high employment in specific areas, suggesting that they specialise in certain occupations. Agriculture and industry in materials, excelled as popular employment in the 1880s in the village. Stanton under Bardon is near Cliffe Hill Quarry and Bardon Hill Quarry explaining the popularity in industry materials based employment.
2011 occupation statistics illustrate a change from primary sectors to tertiary and quaternary sectors. There were 336 residents in employment, professional occupations and process and machine operatives each made 13.9% of Stanton under Bardon's employment figures. Followed by associate professional and technical occupations and skilled trade occupations both contributing 13.6% to the total employment of the area. Cliffe Hill Quarry in Stanton under Bardon has been producing granite since the 1860s and has employed many local residents. By 1891, the Cliffe Hill Quarry was produced around 10,000 tonnes of granite annually; the Cliffe Hill Granite Company Ltd was formed as a result of the mining success in 1894. Cliffe Hill Granite Company was acquired by Tarmac Roadstone in 1965 and by 1980 the planning for the New Cliffe Hill Quarry was undertaken; the former Cliffe Hill Quarry closed in 1989. Tarmac Roadstone Products LTD has invested £33,000,000 into developing the quarry into one of the largest quarries in Europe.
However in 2006, mining at the New Cliffe Hill Quarry ceased. Cliffe Hill Mineral Railway Stanton Under Bardon Parish Council
Brooke Priory was a minor house of Augustinian monks in Brooke, Rutland. It was a cell of Kenilworth, it was founded by Hugh de Ferrers before 1153. It was dedicated to St Mary the Virgin; the house was built close to the River Gwash. It was only a small priory, only intended to support three canons; the priory struggled financially, had a rapid succession of priors who felt unable to deal with the priory's poverty. Many saw being sent to Brooke as something of a punishment. In 1298 the Bishop of Lincoln wrote to the Prior of Kenilworth urging him to take action about Brooke; the priory had become "so dilapidated and decayed that it was a scandal to the neighbourhood, the revenues were so mismanaged that if something was not done soon the canons and their servants would have to beg their bread". The final prior, Roger Harwell, was in a dispute with his superiors at Kenilworth, he tried to get himself a large pension for his retirement but the Abbot of Kenilworth felt unable to provide it. When, in 1535, King Henry VIII began his Dissolution of the Monasteries, Prior Harwell lied to the royal commissioners and told them Brooke Priory was independent.
He surrendered the priory for dissolution of his own accord, securing himself in the process an annual pension of £10. At dissolution the priory was described as "for the most ruinous", is recorded as having a small annual income of £46 18s. 9½d. Prior Harwell's actions caused problems for the Abbot of Kenilworth who, on receipt of a 1,000 mark bond, had promised to lease Brooke to a friend of Thomas Cromwell; the abbot wrote to Cromwell, begging him to either release him from the bond. Brooke was never returned, the following year, it was granted to Anthony Cope. After the dissolution the name Brooke survived as a parish name; the priory's land was sold in 1549 to Andrew Noel who built Brooke House, of which only the dovecote and octagon lodge now survives. From a Derby merchant family, Noel used this estate to climb to power. Within 5 years he was sitting in Parliament; the family went on to become Earls of Gainsborough. No trace of the buildings survive, but there are earthworks and crop marks associated with fishpools or outbuildings.
Some of these may date from the English Civil War or the formal gardens of the succeeding Brooke House, itself now gone. Some fragments of the original buildings are thought to have been used in the present sixteenth century house, called "Brooke Priory"; the Brooke Reliquary is a small casket. It is believed to have held a saint's relics; the reliquary was discovered in c.1805, after years of being concealed on the site of Brooke Priory, when building work was carried out in the cellar of Priory House. The reliquary is decorated with Limoges enamel work in shades of blue, red and green with images of Christ with two apostles or saints; the robes on the saints are engraved on copper plates which were gilded, but this has worn away. It is now on display in Rutland County Museum in Oakham; the brevity of most of these appointments may be explained by remarks of John Streetche, who wrote that being sent to the small impoverished house was something of a punishment. "Brooke". Monastic sites from the air.
Cambridge University Press. Pp. 216, 217. Retrieved 26 May 2013. Aerial photograph Gurney, J. Summary report on estate and family papers 12th–20th century. Historical Manuscripts Commission. Retrieved 31 May 2013. Account of the Noel family
A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice. The order is composed of laypeople and, in some orders, clergy. Religious orders exist in many of the world's religions. In Buddhist societies, a religious order is one of the number of monastic orders of monks and nuns, many of which follow under a different school of teaching, such as Thailand's Dhammayuttika order - a monastic order founded by King Mongkut. A well-known Chinese Buddhist order is the ancient Shaolin order in Ch'an Buddhism and in modern times the Order of Hsu Yun. A Catholic religious institute is a society whose members pronounce vows that are accepted by a superior in the name of the Church and who live a life of brothers or sisters in common. Catholic religious orders and congregations are the two historical categories of Catholic religious institutes.
Religious institutes are distinct from secular institutes, another kind of institute of consecrated life, from lay ecclesial movements. In the Catholic Church, members of religious institutes, unless they are deacons or priests in Holy Orders, are not clergy, but belong to the laity. While the state of consecrated life is neither clerical nor lay, institutes themselves are classified as one or the other, a clerical institute being one that "by reason of the purpose or design intended by the founder or by virtue of legitimate tradition, is under the direction of clerics, assumes the exercise of sacred orders, is recognized as such by the authority of the Church". Well-known Roman Catholic religious institutes, not all of which were classified as "orders" rather than "congregations", include Augustinians, Carmelites, Franciscans, Piarists, Oblates of Mary Immaculate and the Congregation of Holy Cross. Several religious orders evolved during the Crusades to incorporate a military mission thus became "religious military orders", such as the Knights of the Order of Saint John.
It is typical of non-monastic religious institutes to have a motherhouse or generalate that has jurisdiction over any number of dependent religious communities, for its members to be moved by their superior general to any other of its communities, as the needs of the institute at any one time demand. In accordance with the concept of independent communities in the Rule of St Benedict, the Benedictines have autonomous abbeys. Hence they can not move -- abbess -- to another abbey. An "independent house" may make a new foundation which remains a "dependent house" until it is granted independence by Rome and itself becomes an abbey; the autonomy of each house does not prevent them being affiliated into congregations – whether national or based on some other joint characteristic – and these, in turn, form the supra-national Benedictine Confederation. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, there is only one type of monasticism; the profession of monastics is considered by monks to be a Sacred Mystery. The Rite of Tonsure is printed in the Euchologion, the same book as the other Sacred Mysteries and services performed according to need.
See also: Active Lutheran orders Martin Luther had concerns with the spiritual value of monastic life at the time of the Reformation. After the foundation of the Lutheran Churches, some monasteries in Lutheran lands and convents adopted the Lutheran Christian faith. Other examples of Lutheran religious orders include the "Order of Lutheran Franciscans" in the United States. A Lutheran religious order following the Rule of St. Benedict, "The Congregation of the Servants of Christ," was established at St. Augustine's House in Oxford, Michigan, in 1958 when some other men joined Father Arthur Kreinheder in observing the monastic life and offices of prayer; this order has strong ties in Germany. In 2011, an Augustinian religious order, the Priestly Society of St. Augustine was established by the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church, its headquarters is at Christ Lutheran Church ALCC. Kent Island, Fr. Jens Bargmann, Ph. D. is the Grand Prior. Religious orders in England were dissolved by King Henry VIII upon the separation of the English church from Roman primacy.
For three hundred years, there were no formal religious orders in Anglicanism, although some informal communities – such as that founded by Nicholas Ferrar at Little Gidding – sprang into being. With the advent of the Oxford Movement in the Church of England and worldwide Anglicanism in the middle of the 19th century, several orders appeared. In 1841, the first order for women was established; the first order for men was founded 25 years later. Anglican religious voluntarily commit themselves for life, or a term of years, to holding their possessions in common or in trust. There are presently thirteen active religious orders for men, fifty-three for women, eight mixed gender; the Methodist Church of Great Britain, its ancestors, have established a number of orders of Deaconesses
Ibstock is a village and civil parish about 2.5 miles south of Coalville in North West Leicestershire, England. The population of the civil parish was 5,760 at the 2001 census increasing to 6,201 at the 2011 census; the village is on the A447 road Between Hinckley. The toponym Ibstock could be a derivative of Ibestoche meaning the farmstead or hamlet of Ibba, an Old English personal name found in other toponyms; the Domesday Book of 1086 records Ibstock as a hamlet with six ploughlands. The parish along with a grange held by the Cistercian Garendon Abbey, has a long early association with the Burtons of Bourton-on-Dunsmore in Warwickshire. Early in the 17th century Sir William Stafford of Blatherwick in Northamptonshire owned the manor of Ibstock; the Church of England parish church of Saint Denys was built in the early 14th century. It is a Decorated Gothic building with recessed spire; the nave has two aisles. The rectory has a porch with four Tuscan columns. William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury, supporter of the divine right of kings and author of the Laudian reforms held the living here 1617–26.
At the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642, John Lufton Rector of Ibstock, was accused in the House of Commons of interrupting the execution of the militia ordinance. His living was sequestrated by the County Committee in August 1646; the parish of Ibstock included the dependent chapelries of Donington le Heath and Hugglescote but the increase of population led to the establishment of a separate ecclesiastical parish in the 19th century. Ralph Josselin, the noted clerical diarist and incumbent of a parish in Essex stayed in Ibstock during the English Civil War. On 17 September 1645 he marched from Leicester with the parliamentary army and quartered at Ibstock, noting that it had been "Laud's living, now Dr Lovedyn a great Cavailier" and that although his diet was "very good" his lodgings were "indifferent". Josselin was alarmed to discover on his return the next day that a man had been killed just outside his lodgings near where he had stood a while before "not knowing of the pardue in the ditch".
In 1774 the township was enclosed and in 1792 a free school for fifty poor children of the parish was founded. The 1801 Census gives a total population of 763, in 152 families, two-thirds engaged in agriculture, the rest in trade and manufacturing. By 1811 the population had increased to 836. Ibstock is a former coal mining community and has historical and current manufacturing plants that produce tiles, bricks and shoes, light engineering. In the 19th century a branch of the Ashby and Nuneaton Joint Railway was built through the area and Heather & Ibstock railway station was opened to serve the village. Passenger services ended in 1931, with the line through to Coalville East closing in 1964, prior to the publication of the Reshaping of British Railways report; the station master's house on Station Road survives. Elizabeth Ridgeway - serial killer - lived here Jack "Red" Beattie – ice hockey player in the National Hockey League, Boston Bruins, Detroit Red Wings, New York Americans Andrew Betts – Great Britain basketball player Felix Buxton – musician, Basement Jaxx Stephen Graham – actor and Gangs of New York William Laud – Archbishop of Canterbury and adviser to Charles I Spencer Madan – Bishop of Bristol, Bishop of Peterborough Dorian West – Rugby footballer, Rugby World Cup winner Bernard Newman – Author Horace Greasley – British prisoner of war who gained fame for escaping from his POW camp over 200 times, returning back into captivity each time.
Joseph James – Author Above the Waterline Apex Publishing A witty & entertaining account of a life in Plumbing & Heating Jon-Paul Kaiser – world-renowned vinyl toy designer and illustrator Ken Burditt - Footballer, Norwich City Curtis, John. A Topographical History of the County of Leicester. Ashby-de-la-Zouch: W. Hextall. Pp. 80–81. Hoskins, W. G.. A.. A History of the County of Leicestershire, Volume 2. Victoria County History. Pp. 5–7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Lewis, Samuel, ed.. A Topographical Dictionary of England. London: Samuel Lewis. Pp. 600–603. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Leicestershire and Rutland; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. P. 125. Ibstock Historical Society www.ibstocklives.wix.com/home Ibstock Community College Ibstock does Climate Change Ibstock United FC
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, KG, was an English courtier and patron of the arts. He was a favourite and also a lover of King James I of England. Despite a patchy political and military record, Buckingham remained at the height of royal favour for the first three years of the reign of King Charles I, until a disgruntled army officer assassinated him. George Villiers was born in Brooksby, Leicestershire, on 28 August 1592, the son of the minor gentleman Sir George Villiers, his mother Mary, daughter of Anthony Beaumont of Glenfield, widowed early, educated her son for a courtier's life. She sent him to travel in France with John Eliot. Villiers took to the training set by his mother: he could dance and fence well, spoke a little French, overall became an excellent student. Godfrey Goodman declared Villiers "the handsomest-bodied man in all of England. In August 1614 at age twenty-one, Villiers caught the eye of James I at a hunt in Apethorpe. Opponents of the king's favourite Robert Carr saw an opportunity to displace the Earl of Somerset and began promoting Villiers.
Money was raised to purchase Villiers a new wardrobe, intense lobbying secured his appointment as Royal Cup-bearer, a position that allowed him to make conversation with the king. Villiers began to appear as a dancer in masques from 1615, in which he could exhibit his grace of movement and beauty of body, a recognised avenue to royal favour since the time of Elizabeth I. Under the king's patronage Villiers advanced through the ranks of the nobility, his court appointments grew in importance. In 1615 he was knighted as a Gentleman of the Bedchamber. In 1616, when he was made the King's Master of Horse, he was elevated to the peerage as Baron Whaddon, Viscount Villiers, made a Knight of the Garter; the next year he was made Earl and in 1618 promoted Marquess of Buckingham finally in 1623 Duke of Buckingham. Villiers' new rank allowed him to dance side by side with the royal heir Charles I, with whom his friendship developed through his tutoring of the prince in dance. Villiers was appointed Lord Admiral of the Fleet in 1619, in 1623 the former dukedom of Buckingham was recreated for him when he was negotiating abroad on the king's behalf.
Since reductions in the peerage had taken place during the Tudor period, Buckingham was now the highest-ranking subject outside the royal family as the only duke in England. Villiers was the last in a succession of handsome young favourites on whom the king lavished affection and patronage, although the personal relationship between the two has been much debated. James's nickname for Buckingham was "Steenie", after St. Stephen, said to have had "the face of an angel". Speaking to the Privy Council in 1617, James tried to clarify the situation in the face of rumours: You may be sure that I love the Earl of Buckingham more than anyone else, more than you who are here assembled. I wish to speak in my own behalf and not to have it thought to be a defect, for Jesus Christ did the same, therefore I cannot be blamed. Christ had John, I have George. Historian David M. Bergeron claims "Buckingham became James's last and greatest lover" citing flowery letters that followed 17th century styles of masculinity.
Other scholars say there was no physical sodomy, note that the king's many enemies never accused him of sodomy. In a letter to Buckingham in 1623, the King ended with the salutation, "God bless you, my sweet child and wife, grant that ye may be a comfort to your dear father and husband". Buckingham reciprocated the King's affections, writing back to James: "I so love your person, adore all your other parts, which are more than one man had", "I desire only to live in the world for your sake" and "I will live and die a lover of you". Restoration of Apethorpe Palace in 2004–8 revealed a unknown passage linking his bedchamber with that of James. Buckingham himself provides ambiguous evidence, writing to James many years that he had pondered: "whether you loved me now…better than at the time which I shall never forget at Farnham, where the bed's head could not be found between the master and his dog". Speculation about the close relationship between king and favourite was not confined to the kingdom, moreover.
It was carried back to France by the poet Théophile de Viau, resident in England in 1621 and had addressed to Buckingham the flattering ode Au marquis du Boukinquan. On his return, he went on to justify his own masculine preferences by a witty appeal both to Classical mythology and to the contemporary gossip: Apollo with his songs Debauched young Hyacinth... And that learned English king, Didn’t he fuck Buckingham? Until James I died in 1625, Buckingham was the king's constant companion and closest advisor, enjoying control of all royal patronage. Buckingham used his influence to prodigiously enrich his relatives and advance their social positions, which soured public opinion towards him. In his rise to power, Buckingham became connected with jurist Francis Bacon. Bacon wrote letters of advice to the young favourite and drafted the patent of nobility when Buckingham ascended to the peerage. With Buckingham's support, Bacon was appointed Lord Chancellor in 1618. In gratitude, Bacon honoured Buckingham's many requests for favours from the court for friends and allies.
Following an investigation by Parliament into royal grants of monopoly, financial peculation and corrupt officials, Bacon was convicted of corruption and forced into retirement. Neither Buckingham nor the King attempted to intervene on Bacon's behalf. Many of Bu
Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux, O. Cist was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order. "... He was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d'Absinthe, about 15 kilometres southeast of Bar-sur-Aube. According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée, which evolved into Clairvaux. There Bernard would preach an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary." In the year 1128, Bernard attended the Council of Troyes, at which he traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar, which soon became the ideal of Christian nobility. On the death of Pope Honorius II on 13 February 1130, a schism broke out in the Church. King Louis VI of France convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes in 1130, Bernard was chosen to judge between the rivals for pope. By the end of 1131, the kingdoms of France, Germany, Portugal and Aragon supported Innocent.
Bernard set out to convince these other regions to rally behind Innocent. In 1139, Bernard assisted at the Second Council of the Lateran, he subsequently denounced the teachings of Peter Abelard to the pope, who called a council at Sens in 1141 to settle the matter. Bernard soon saw one of his disciples elected Pope Eugene III. Having helped end the schism within the church, Bernard was now called upon to combat heresy. In June 1145, Bernard traveled in southern France and his preaching there helped strengthen support against heresy, he preached at the Council of Vézelay to recruit for the Second Crusade. After the Christian defeat at the Siege of Edessa, the pope commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade; the last years of Bernard's life were saddened by the failure of the crusaders, the entire responsibility for, thrown upon him. Bernard died after 40 years as a monk, he was the first Cistercian placed on the calendar of saints, was canonized by Pope Alexander III on 18 January 1174. In 1830 Pope Pius VIII bestowed upon Bernard the title "Doctor of the Church".
Bernard's parents were Tescelin de Fontaine, lord of Fontaine-lès-Dijon, Alèthe de Montbard, both members of the highest nobility of Burgundy. Bernard was the third of seven children. At the age of nine years, he was sent to a school at Châtillon-sur-Seine run by the secular canons of Saint-Vorles. Bernard devoted himself for some time to poetry, his success in his studies won the admiration of his teachers. He wanted to excel in literature, he had a special devotion to the Virgin Mary, he would write several works about the Queen of Heaven. Bernard would expand upon Anselm of Canterbury's role in transmuting the sacramentally ritual Christianity of the Early Middle Ages into a new, more held faith, with the life of Christ as a model and a new emphasis on the Virgin Mary. In opposition to the rational approach to divine understanding that the scholastics adopted, Bernard would preach an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary, he is cited for saying that St. Mary Magdalene was the Apostle to the Apostles.
Bernard was only nineteen years of age. During his youth, he did not escape trying temptations and around this time he thought of retiring from the world and living a life of solitude and prayer. In 1098 Saint Robert of Molesme had founded Cîteaux Abbey, near Dijon, with the purpose of restoring the Rule of St Benedict in all its rigour. Returning to Molesme, he left the government of the new abbey to Saint Alberic of Cîteaux, who died in the year 1109. After the death of his mother, Bernard sought admission into the Cistercian order. At the age of 22, while Bernard was at prayer in a church, he felt the calling of God to enter the monastery of Cîteaux. In 1113 Saint Stephen Harding had just succeeded Saint Alberic as third Abbot of Cîteaux when Bernard and thirty other young noblemen of Burgundy sought admission into the monastery. Bernard's testimony was so irresistible that 30 of his friends and relatives followed him into the monastic life; the little community of reformed Benedictines at Cîteaux, which would have so profound an influence on Western monasticism, grew rapidly.
Three years Bernard was sent with a band of twelve monks to found a new house at Vallée d'Absinthe, in the Diocese of Langres. This Bernard named Claire Vallée, or Clairvaux, on 25 June 1115, the names of Bernard and Clairvaux would soon become inseparable. During the absence of the Bishop of Langres, Bernard was blessed as abbot by William of Champeaux, Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne. From that moment a strong friendship sprang up between the abbot and the bishop, professor of theology at Notre Dame of Paris, the founder of the Abbey of St. Victor, Paris; the beginnings of Clairvaux Abbey were trying and painful. The regime was so austere that Bernard became ill, only the influence of his friend William of Champeaux and the authority of the general chapter could make him mitigate the austerities; the monastery, made rapid progress. Disciples put themselves under the direction of Bernard; the reputation of his holiness soon attracted 130 new monks, including his own father. His father and all his brothers entered Clairvaux to pursue religious life, leaving only Humbeline, his sister, in the secular world.
She, with the consent of her husband, soon took the veil in the Benedictine nunnery of Jully-les-No
Katherine Villiers, Duchess of Buckingham
Katherine Villiers, Duchess of Buckingham, Marchioness of Antrim, 18th Baroness de Ros of Helmsley was an English aristocrat. The daughter and heir of Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland, she was known as the richest woman in Britain outside of the royal family, she married first George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, the favourite, lover, of King James I of England. Lady Katherine Manners was the only daughter of Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland, by his first wife, Frances Knyvet, widow of Sir William Bevill of Killigarth or Kilkhampton and third daughter and coheir of Sir Henry Knyvet of Charlton, Wiltshire, by Elizabeth Stumpe, the daughter of Sir James Stumpe of Bromham, Wiltshire. Katherine Manners was selected by the formidably ambitious Mary Villiers, Countess of Buckingham, to marry her son, George Villiers. However, Manners was a strict Roman Catholic, the King refused to allow Villiers to marry her. In addition to this, the Earl of Rutland refused to accept the Countess of Buckingham’s demands for his daughter’s dowry.
Manners converted to Protestantism, to satisfy the Villiers family, which caused her father to call off the marriage. Invited to visit the Countess of Buckingham, Katherine was forced to spend the night due to an attack of illness. Believing his daughter’s honor to be compromised, the Earl of Rutland refused to receive her back, demanded that George Villiers marry her immediately. At this Villiers refused to marry her, but did a few weeks on 16 May 1620; the Duchess of Buckingham was one of the few women of rank of the time whose gentleness and womanly tenderness and purity of life, were conspicuous in the midst of the universal corruption and immorality of the Court. No scandal was breathed against her name, the worst, said of her was that by her influence she at one time nearly persuaded her husband to become a Roman Catholic, she herself having returned to her own faith soon after her marriage, she was the mother of Mary Villiers, Duchess of Richmond and of George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham.
Katherine's first husband, was murdered in 1628 by John Felton. Upon the death of her father in 1632, without male heirs, she succeeded suo jure to the ancient barony of de Ros. In 1635 she married Randal McDonnell, Earl of Antrim, went to live at Dunluce Castle, County Antrim, Ireland. Following the Catholic uprising in Ulster in 1641 the MacDonnell family moved south to Wexford Waterford, where Katherine died in 1649, she was buried outside the walls of Waterford and it is speculated that she may have been a victim of the plaque. Her possessions passed to her son and a memorial was erected in Westminster Abbey. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XI. London: St. Catherine Press. Pp. 261–2. Loomie, A. J.. "Manners, sixth earl of Rutland". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/17953. N. M. S.. "Bevill, Sir William, of Killygarth, Cornwall". In Hasler, P. W; the History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1558-1603. Boydell and Brewer.
Retrieved 29 August 2013