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Garfield Barwick

Sir Garfield Edward John Barwick, was an Australian judge, the seventh and longest serving Chief Justice of Australia, in office from 1964 to 1981. He had earlier been a Liberal Party politician, serving as a minister in the Menzies Government from 1958 to 1964. Barwick was born in Sydney, attended Fort Street High School before going on to study law at the University of Sydney, he was called to the bar in 1927 and became one of Australia's most prominent barristers, appearing in many high-profile cases and before the High Court. He served terms as the Law Council of Australia. Barwick entered politics only at the age of 54, winning election to the House of Representatives at the 1958 Parramatta by-election. Prime Minister Robert Menzies made him Attorney-General by the end of the year, in 1961 he was additionally made Minister for External Affairs. In 1964, Menzies nominated Barwick as his choice to replace the retiring Owen Dixon as Chief Justice. Over the next 17 years, the Barwick court would decide many significant constitutional cases, including a significant broadening of the corporations power and several cases regarding the constitutional basis of taxation.

Barwick played a small but significant role in the 1975 constitutional crisis, advising Governor-General John Kerr that it was within his powers to dismiss Prime Minister Gough Whitlam from office. He retired from the court at the age of 77, but remained a public figure until his death at the age of 94. Outside of his professional career, he served as the inaugural president of the Australian Conservation Foundation. Barwick was one of Cornish origin, he was raised in Stanmore, an inner-city suburb of Sydney, attended Fort Street High School. He graduated from the University of Sydney with a University Medal in law. A diligent student, Barwick was admitted to legal practice soon after finishing university, although he suffered in financial terms during the Great Depression, he was guarantor for a bank loan to his younger brother to operate a service station in Ashfield, but was unable to repay the bank when the loan was forfeited, was made bankrupt after he sued the oil companies for defamation.

This was held against him by many throughout his career. He practised as a barrister from 1927 in many jurisdictions, achieving considerable recognition and the reluctant respect of opponents. At the beginning of World War 2, Barwick's challenges to the National Security Act 1939, which centralised the power to the Australian government, propelled him to the front rank of the Bar, he became publicly prominent in the 1943 case over the artistic merits of William Dobell's Archibald Prize-winning portrait of the painter Joshua Smith. Barwick represented the plaintiff, although they lost, the judges commended him for the brilliance of his arguments and his name became well known from that point onwards. Having been briefed in many of Australia's defining constitutional cases, he was knighted in 1953. A famous example of his astute advocacy involved thirteen Malaysians sentenced to death who appealed to the Privy Council. Twelve retained Barwick, who duly found a technical deficiency in the arrest warrants and secured their freedom.

The last, whose counsel was not so thorough, was hanged. A member of the Liberal Party, Barwick was elected to the House of Representatives at the 1958 Parramatta by-election, beginning his parliamentary career at the late age of 54, he was re-elected in the general elections of 1958, 1961, 1963. After the 1958 election, Barwick was promoted to cabinet as Attorney-General, replacing the retiring Neil O'Sullivan. In that position, he guided through legislation amending the Matrimonial Causes Act and the Crimes Act, established a model for restrictive trade practices legislation, he gained public notice for his role in the case of an alleged Estonian war criminal, Ervin Viks, who had settled in Australia and was being pursued by the Soviet Union. Barwick refused to accept the USSR's extradition request, as there was no extradition treaty between the two countries. After the 1961 election, Barwick was additionally made Minister for External Affairs, he led the Australian delegation to the General Assembly of the United Nations for its 15th, 17th, 18th sessions.

For some time, Barwick was seen as a successor to Robert Menzies as Liberal leader and prime minister. When the news broke that he was entering parliament, Frank Browne confidently wrote: For Harold Holt, it means no leadership. For the New South Wales Cabinet aspirants it means no Cabinet. All in all, to the Liberal Federal politicians, the entry of Sir Garfield Barwick means what the acquisition of a Derby winner means to the other stallions in the stud. Prosperity in the stud, but the first step towards the boiling down of the other stallions. However, Barwick struggled to adapt to the thrust of political life. There were reports that he was reduced to tears by a vitriolic debate over what would become the Crimes Act 1959, which he confirmed had been accurate. In retirement, Menzies said that he "didn't understand parliament he was a disappointing politician". An opinion poll in 1960 found that only three percent of the general public supported him as Menzies' replacement, he had little support from other Liberal MPs, speculation about his leadership prospects w

Eryx (genus)

Eryx is a genus of nonvenomous boas known as Old World sand boas. They are found in southeastern Europe, northern Africa, the Middle East, southwestern Asia. Nine species are recognized; the genus Eryx has the following characters. The head is not distinct from the neck; the dorsal surface of the head is covered with small scales. The rostral is large; the eyes range from small to small, the pupils are vertical. The anterior maxillary teeth and anterior mandibular teeth are longer than the posterior ones; the body is cylindrical. The dorsal scales are keeled; the tail is short, either not prehensile or only prehensile. The subcaudals are undivided. Species of snakes of the genus Eryx are found in southeastern Europe, northern Africa, the Middle East, southwestern Asia. In addition to the species listed below, the genus Eryx included three species which are now placed in the genus Gongylophis: Gongylophis colubrinus, Gongylophis conicus, Gongylophis muelleri. Nota bene: In the list below, a taxon author in parentheses indicates that the species was described in a genus other than Eryx.

*) Not including the nominate subspecies. T) Type species. A new species, E. borrii, found in Somalia, was described by Nistri. The specific name, borrii, is in honor of Italian zoologist Marco Borri. List of erycine species and subspecies Erycinae by common name Erycinae by taxonomic synonyms Daudin FM. Histoire Naturelle, Génerale et Particulière des Reptiles. S. Sonnini, membre de plusieurs Sociétés savantes. Tome septième. Paris: F. Dufart. 436 pp... Eryx at the Reptile Database. Accessed 7 July 2008

Green Fields of America

The Green Fields of America is an ensemble which performs and promotes Irish traditional music in the United States. "The Green Fields of America" was formed in 1978 in Philadelphia and still led by musician and folklorist Mick Moloney. The band was created to tour some of Irish America's finest musicians and dancers. "The Green Fields of America" was the first group on either side of the Atlantic to bring together Irish vocal and dance traditions on the concert and festival stage. Featuring Irish stepdance they introduced their sound to general American audiences; the critically acclaimed album The Green Fields of America Live in Concert in 1989 subtitled "Irish Music and Dance in America" credited Mick Moloney, Robbie O'Connell, Jimmy Keane and Eileen Ivers, Séamus Egan, Donny Golden and Eileen Golden. Many had their performing starts with The Green Fields are Egan, Golden, Marie Reilly, Jean Butler and Michael Flatley. Playing such venues as Carnegie Hall, Wolf Trap, The Smithsonian Institution, The Festival of American Folklife, the Milwaukee Irish Fest, The National Folk Festival, the Five members of the band at the time – Liz Carroll, Jack Coen, Michael Flatley, Donny Golden and Mick Moloney – have all received National Heritage Awards.

Radio Telefís Éireann, Ireland’s national broadcaster, commemorated the twentieth-anniversary of the group on St. Patrick's Day, 1999. A nationally televised documentary on their history and cultural contributions was presented. Among the musicians joining Mick Moloney for the performance at Re-Imagining Ireland, were singer-songwriter Robbie O'Connell, Jerry O'Sullivan, the dancers Donny Golden and Sinead Lawlor. Old-time fiddler, guitarist and singer Bruce Molsky and singer-composer Tommy Sands were guest appearances; the current membership in the group consists of Moloney, O'Connell, long-time associate Billy McComiskey, Athena Tergis, Liz Hanley, Brendan Dolan and Niall O'Leary. The Green Fields of America Live in Concert • Green Linnet CSIF 1096 The Greenfields of America • The Greenfields of America • Compass 2009The musicians who have been members of the Green Fields of America include: Tim Britton, Denis Cahill, Liz Carroll, Karan Casey, Fr. Charlie Coen, Jack Coen, Brendan Dolan, John Doyle, Jimmy Eagan, Seamus Egan, Siobhan Egan, Frank Harte, Ivan Goff, Winifred Horan, Eileen Ivers, James Keane, Jimmy Keane, Tina Lech, Donna Long, Dana Lyn, Joanie Madden, Billy McComiskey, Sean McGlynn, Zan McLeod, Mick Moloney, Michelle Mulcahy, Brendan Mulvihill, Andy O’Brien, Robbie O’Connell, Eugene O’Donnell, Kieran O’Hare, Eamon O’Leary, Jerry O’Sullivan, Bill Ochs, Al Purcell, Mike Rafferty, Tommy Sands, Liz Hanley, Brenda Castles and Athena Tergis.

The latest and youngest member of the Green Fields is fifteen-year-old fiddler Haley Richardson. The dancers who have appeared with the band include: Kieran Barrett, Kevin Broesler, Jean Butler, Cara Butler, Melanie Deegan, Darrah Carr, Heather Donovan and Katherine Dwyer, Michael Flatley, Steve Gallagher, Donny Golden, Eileen Golden, Deirdre Goulding, Ciara Greene, Katie Grennan, Liam Harney, Deirdre Harten, John Jennings, Kieran Jordan, Sinead Lawler, Tara McHugh, Sheila McGrory, Chloe Mullarkey, Tim O’Hare, Niall O'Leary,Joe and Catherine Dwyer, Mairead Powell, Pat Roche, Sheila Ryan, Michael Smith, John Timm, Regan Wick, Linnane Wick

Aquatic plant

Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments. They are referred to as hydrophytes or macrophytes. A macrophyte is an aquatic plant that grows in or near water and is either emergent, submergent, or floating. In lakes and rivers macrophytes provide cover for fish and substrate for aquatic invertebrates, produce oxygen, act as food for some fish and wildlife. Macrophytes are the basis of the food web for many organisms. Macrophytes have a strong effect on soil light levels. Aquatic plants slow down the flow of other sediments. Macrophytes are different from algae because macrophytes are big enough to see with a naked eye, but microscopic algae cannot be seen with the naked eye. Seaweeds do not have a root system. Aquatic plants require special adaptations for living submerged at the water's surface; the most common adaptation is aerenchyma, but floating leaves and finely dissected leaves are common. Aquatic plants can only grow in water or in soil, permanently saturated with water.

They are therefore a common component of wetlands. One of the largest aquatic plants in the world is the Amazon water lily. Many small aquatic animals use plants like duckweed for a home, or for protection from predators, but areas with more vegetation are to have more predators; some other familiar examples of aquatic plants might include floating heart, water lily and water hyacinth. The principal factor controlling the distribution of aquatic plants is the depth and duration of flooding. However, other factors may control their distribution and growth form, including nutrients, disturbance from waves and salinity. A few aquatic plants are able to survive in brackish and salt water. Aquatic plants have adapted to live in either saltwater. Aquatic vascular plants have originated on multiple occasions in different plant families; the only angiosperms capable of growing submerged in seawater are the seagrasses. Examples are found in genera such as Zostera. An aquatic origin of angiosperms is supported by the evidence that several of the earliest known fossil angiosperms were aquatic.

Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms, with at least 50 independent origins, although they comprise less than 2% of the angiosperm species. Archefructus represents one of the oldest, most complete angiosperm fossils, around 125 million years old; these plants require special adaptations for floating at the surface. Although most aquatic plants can reproduce by flowering and setting seeds, many have evolved to have extensive asexual reproduction by means of rhizomes and fragments in general. Based on growth form, macrophytes can be classified as: Emergent Submerged Rooted: rooted to the substrate Unrooted: free-floating in the water column Attached: attached to substrate but not by roots Floating-leaved Free-floating An emergent plant is one which grows in water but pierces the surface so that it is in air. Collectively, such plants are emergent vegetation; this habit may have developed because the leaves can photosynthesis more efficiently above the shade of cloudy water and competition from submerged plants but the main aerial feature is the flower and the related reproductive process.

The emergent habit permits pollination by flying insects. There are many species of emergent plants, among them, the reed, Cyperus papyrus, Typha species, flowering rush and wild rice species; some species, such as purple loosestrife, may grow in water as emergent plants but they are capable of flourishing in fens or in damp ground. Submerged macrophytes grow under water with roots attached to the substrate or without any root system. Helophytes are plants that grows in a marsh submerged in water, so that it regrows from buds below the water surface. Fringing stands of tall vegetation by water basins and rivers may include helophytes. Examples include stands of Equisetum fluviatile, Glyceria maxima, Hippuris vulgaris, Carex, Sparganium, yellow flag and Phragmites australis. Floating-leaved macrophytes have root systems attached to the substrate or bottom of the body of water and with leaves that float on the water surface. Common floating leaved macrophytes are pondweeds. Free-floating macrophytes are aquatic plants that are found suspended on water surface with their root not attached to substrate, sediment, or bottom of the water body.

They are blown by air and provide breeding ground for mosquitoes. Example include Pistia spp called water lettuce, water cabbage or Nile cabbage; the many possible classifications of aquatic plants are based upon morphology. One example has six groups as follows: Amphiphytes: plants that are adapted to live either submerged or on land Elodeids: stem plants that complete their entire lifecycle submerged, or with only their flowers above the waterline Isoetids: rosette plants that complete their entire lifecycle submerged Helophytes: plants rooted in the bottom, but with leaves above the waterline Nymphaeids: plants rooted in the b

St George's Church, Edworth

St George's Church, Edworth, is a redundant Anglican church in the village of Edworth, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building, is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust. Edworth is about 3 miles southeast to the east of the A1 road; the church dates from about 1200, during the Middle Ages belonged to St Neots Priory. In about 1320 the aisles were added, the chancel was rebuilt; the tower dates from the middle of the 14th century, the porches were added during the part of the 15th century. The chancel was shortened in the 19th century; the church was declared redundant on 1 June 1974, was vested in the Churches Conservation Trust on 9 June 1976. St George's is constructed in a mixture of cobblestones and limestone with ashlar dressings, has rendering applied to parts of the walls; the roofs are slated. Its plan consists of a two-bay nave with a clerestory and south aisles and south porches, a chancel, a west tower; the tower dates from the 14th century.

It is with angle buttresses and an embattled parapet. On the west side, the lower stage contains a single-light window; the bell openings in the upper stage have two lights. The three-light east window in the chancel was inserted in the 19th century and is in 15th-century style. In both the north and south walls of the chancel are three-light 15th-century windows, in addition there is a blocked 14th-century south doorway. In the nave, on both sides to the west of the porch, is a 15th-century three-light window; the clerestory has three two-light square-headed windows on each side. Both doorways date from the 14th century. In the north aisle are two-light windows in the north walls; the south aisle has a 14th-century two-light east window. In its south wall is a small single-light window; the porches both date from the 15th century, are similar in style with shallow gables. In the south porch is a two-light west window. Inside the church are two-bay arcades on each side that extend only along the eastern part of the nave.

At the northeast corner of the nave is a rood staircase. The octagonal font has carved panels; the north aisle contains an unusual piscina standing on a pillar dating from the 12th century. On the wall of the north aisle is a fragment of a 14th-century wall painting. In the chancel are 15th-century pews with poppyheads and with finials carved with lions and bears; the windows in the south windows of the chancel and clerestory contain fragments of medieval stained glass. There is a ring of three bells; the oldest bell was cast by John Kebyll. The others were cast in 1615 by Newcombe, in 1623 by William Haulsey. List of churches preserved by the Churches Conservation Trust in the East of England Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi: Details of stained glass


Valledupar is a city and municipality in northeastern Colombia. It is the capital of Cesar Department, its name, Valle de Upar, was established in honor of the Amerindian cacique. The city lies between the mountains of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía del Perijá to the borders of the Guatapurí and Cesar rivers. Valledupar is an important agricultural, cattle raising, coal mining and agro-industrial center for the region between the Departments of Cesar and southern municipalities of La Guajira Department known as the Padilla Province. Valledupar is notable as the cradle of vallenato music, representative of the Colombian culture; the city hosts the Vallenato Legend Festival. During the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s, the city suffered during the Colombian Armed Conflict, with numerous kidnappings, thousands of people forced out and failure to control crime. Valledupar has one of Colombia's most modern maximum security prisons; the municipality of Valledupar is located southeast of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 10 degrees, 29 minutes, of north latitude and 73 degrees 15 minutes longitude to the west of the Greenwich Meridian.

Valledupar's average temperature is 28 °C. Because of its high altitude but proximity to the equator, this municipality possesses a variety of environments, from warm heat to perpetual snow; the most important heights are the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta's peaks. Many rivers descend from its snowy lagoons; the Municipality of Valledupar is bordered on the north with the municipalities of Riohacha and San Juan del Cesar in the department of La Guajira. To the south are the municipalities of El Paso and Los Robles La Paz in the department of Cesar; the municipality has an area of about 4,977.96 km², from which 72,660 km² pertain to the Arhuacos Indian Reserve, 399.52 km² to the Kogui and Wiwa Indian Reserve, 425.60 km² to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Park. The municipality is home to numerous endemic species living in the ecosystem of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Serrania del Perijá mountains, one of the most biodiverse places in the World; the most discovered species of bees was found in rural areas of Valledupar and named Stelis vallenata in tribute to the local Vallenato music.

The city's symbolic bird is the Turpial. Other notable birds that inhabit the region are the parrots that flock the fruit trees year round. During the colonial period, Spaniards introduced invasive European fauna into the region, such as dogs, rats, cattle, mules, goats y gallineta africana, among others. Spaniards introduced numerous species of flora from all over the World into the region, most notably mango trees, which have become the most popular tree in the city and municipality. However, the symbolic trees of the city are two types of Yellow Tabebuia, colloquially called "Cañaguate" and Puy; these trees cover the region with their notorious yellow blossom flowers during the dry season. The entities in charge of protecting and controlling the fauna and flora in the region are the Colombian Ministry of Environment, the local descentralized agency Corpocesar, under the Governor of the Cesar Department and Environmental Police of the Colombian National Police. Other non-profit organizations collaborate with these entities.

Climate in the municipality of Valledupar is determined by altitude. Half of the region is mountainous and the rest is plains in between the mountain ranges of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serrania del Perijá. Throughout the year, the region has two dry seasons and two rainy seasons affected by El Niño and La Niña phenomena; the peaks of the mountainous region gets snow during the rainy season and much cooler days and depending on the weather, the entire regions gets hit by hailstorms and thunderstorms. The regions is affected by the annual Caribbean hurricane season; the levels of rivers and bodies of water increase in the rainy season, vegetation grows green and bushy. During the dry season, vegetations dries and turns yellow, while bodies of water decrease in volume. In 2013, Valledupar was classified in average as the hottest place in Colombia, according to the Colombian Meteorological Institute, IDEAM; the Spanish named the Valle de Upar after a legendary local Amerindian cacique, leader of the indigenous Chimila.

The region was first explored by Pedro de Badillo. It was conquered in 1532 by the German Ambrosius Ehinger, governor of Venezuela, who invaded the area belonging to the government of Santa Marta; the city was founded in 1550 by Captain Hernando de Santana, who named it. The Catholic Church referred to the city as Ciudad de los Santos Reyes de Valle de Upar because it was founded on the 6th day of January, the day the three kings visited the infant Jesus; the name was modified to Valle Dupar and to Valledupar. Since the colonization period, the region has been a center for imports from the Caribbean area and distribution to the inland. Spaniards traveled through the area and established extensive farming rearing imported European cattle and agriculture. Much of the population of the Chimila Nation died from epidemics of new infectious diseases carried by the Europeans.