Saraca asoca is a plant belonging to the Caesalpinioideae subfamily of the legume family. It is an important tree in the cultural traditions of adjacent areas, it is sometimes incorrectly known as Saraca indica. The ashoka is a rain-forest tree, its original distribution was in the central areas of the Deccan plateau, as well as the middle section of the Western Ghats in the western coastal zone of the Indian subcontinent. The ashoka is prized for its beautiful fragrant flowers, it is a handsome, erect evergreen tree, with deep green leaves growing in dense clusters. Its flowering season is around February to April; the ashoka flowers come in lush bunches. They are bright orange-yellow in color, turning red before wilting. Biologically, some of the flower's characteristics are dry and abundant; this means. As a wild tree, the ashoka is a vulnerable species, it is becoming rarer in its natural habitat, but isolated wild ashoka trees are still to be found in the foothills of the central and eastern Himalayas, in scattered locations of the northern plains of India as well as on the west coast of the subcontinent near Mumbai.
There are a few varieties of the ashoka tree. One variety is larger and spreading; the columnar varieties are common in cultivation. The ashoka tree is considered sacred throughout the Indian subcontinent in India and Sri Lanka; this tree has many folklorical and literary associations in the region. Valued as well for its handsome appearance and the color and abundance of its flowers, the ashoka tree is found in royal palace compounds and gardens as well as close to temples throughout India, it is believed. The ashoka tree is associated with the yakshi mythological beings. One of the recurring elements in Indian art found at gates of Buddhist and Hindu temples, is the sculpture of a yakshini with her foot on the trunk and her hands holding the branch of a flowering ashoka tree; as an artistic element the tree and the yakshi are subject to heavy stylization. Some authors hold that the young girl at the foot of this tree is based on an ancient tree deity related to fertility. Yakshis under the ashoka tree were important in early Buddhist monuments as a decorative element and are found in many ancient Buddhist archaeological sites.
With the passing of the centuries the yakshi under the ashoka tree became a standard decorative element of Hindu Indian sculpture and was integrated into Indian temple architecture as salabhanjika, because there is a confusion between the ashoka tree and the sal tree in the ancient literature of the Indian subcontinent. In Hinduism the ashoka is considered a sacred tree. Not counting a multitude of local traditions connected to it, the ashoka tree is worshipped in Chaitra, a month of the Hindu calendar, it is associated with Kamadeva, the Hindu god of love, who included an ashoka blossom among the five flowers in his quiver, where ashoka represent seductive hypnosis. Hence, the ashoka tree is mentioned in classical Indian religious and amorous poetry, having at least 16 different names in Sanskrit referring to the tree or its flowers. In Mahākāvya, or Indian epic poetry, the ashoka tree is mentioned in the Ramayana in reference to the Ashoka Vatika where Hanuman first meets Sita. A popular tree known as "false ashoka tree" or as "ashoka tree", Polyalthia longifolia, is cultivated to resemble the growth pattern of erect pillar-like Mediterranean cypress trees.
It is a popular park and garden plant, much used in landscaping on the Indian subcontinent, known as Devadaar or Debdaru. This tree can be distinguished by its compound leaves and different flowers. Ashoka flowers are red. Ashoka fruits look like broad beans containing multiple seeds while false ashoka fruits are small and contain only one seed. Ashoka trees are small in height; the bark of the Ashoka plant is used to prepare cosmetics. It helps to prevent the condition of scanty and difficult urination, acts as an antidote to scorpion bite, its dried flowers are advantageous for diabetic patients. Indian epics Kurincippattu Shitala The birth of Jayita. "Phylogenetic analyses and evolutionary relationships of Saraca asoca with their allied taxa based on the chloroplast matK gene". Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 24: 65–74. Doi:10.1007/s13562-013-0237-3. Ashoka a cultural and scientific evaluation
A bracelet is an article of jewellery, worn around the wrist. Bracelets may serve different uses, such as being worn as an ornament; when worn as ornaments, bracelets may have a supportive function to hold other items of decoration, such as charms. Medical and identity information are marked on some bracelets, such as allergy bracelets, hospital patient-identification tags, bracelet tags for newborn babies. Bracelets may be worn to signify a certain phenomenon, such as breast cancer awareness, or for religious/cultural purposes. If a bracelet is a single, inflexible loop, it is called a bangle; when it is worn around the ankle it is called an ankle anklet. A boot bracelet is used to decorate boots. Colloquially, handcuffs are sometimes called bracelets. Bracelets can be manufactured from metal, cloth, bead or other materials, jewelry bracelets sometimes contain jewels, wood, crystals, metal, or plastic hoops and many more materials. Although the term armlet may be technically similar, it is taken to mean an item that sits on the upper shoulder: an arm ring.
The origin of the term'bracelet' is from the Greek'brachile' meaning'of the arm', via the Old French'bracel'. A bracelet is a small brace or bracer; the history of Egyptian bracelets is as old as 5000 BCE. Starting with materials like bones and woods to serve religious and spiritual interests. From the National Geographic Society, the Scarab Bracelet is one of the most recognized symbols of ancient Egypt; the scarab represented regeneration. Carved scarabs were wrapped into the linen bandages of mummies. Myth told of the scarab god, pushing the sun across the sky. In 2008, Russian archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of Novosibirsk, working at the site of Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of Siberia, uncovered a small bone fragment from the fifth finger of a juvenile hominin, dubbed the "X woman" or the Denisova hominin. Artifacts, including a bracelet, excavated in the cave at the same level were carbon dated to around 40,000 BP. In Bulgaria there is a tradition called Martenitsa, which sometimes involves tying a red and white string around the wrist to please Baba Marta in order for spring to come sooner.
In Greece a similar tradition, weaving a bracelet from red and white string on the first day of March and wearing it till the end of summer, is called "Martis" and is considered to help protect the wearer's skin from the strong Greek sun. In some parts of India, the number and type of bangles worn by a woman denotes her marital statusIn Sikhism an iron bracelet is one of the mandatory articles known as the Five Ks. In Latin America, Azabache Bracelets are worn to protect against evil eye; the evil eye is believed to result of excessive envious looks by others. Having newborn babies wear an azabache, is believed to protect them from the evil eye. Taken in the plural, bracelets is used as slang for handcuffs. Alternative health bracelets, such as ionized bracelets, karma bracelets, magnetic bracelets, Power Balance hologram bracelets, etc. are not distinguished by their design but rather the beneficial function claimed for them by their manufacturers and distributors. Karma bracelets are made from wood beads and may contain various charms, are associated with bringing good luck and good karma to those who choose to wear it.
No claims of effectiveness made by manufacturers have been substantiated by independent sources. Rigid bracelets from metal, wood, or plastic, are referred to as bangles or bangle bracelets, they can be textured or set with stones. In India, glass bangles are common. Made from ordinary glass, about 3 to 6 millimetres in width, they are worn in groups so that arm movement causes them to make a gracious sound rather like the clinking of wind chimes. In India, it is common that young children will wear thin gold bangles on their hands and ankles. Made from loose beads with a center hole and connected by a piece of string or elastic band through the holes. A charm bracelet carries personal charms: decorative pendants or trinkets which are signifiers of important things in the wearer's life. In recent history, Italian charm bracelets have become trendy. While traditional charms dangle, Italian charms feature individual pieces soldered flat onto the surface of the link. Bracelets made from linking various or similar components or jewelry findings.
Link bracelets can be made of a variety of materials including gemstones. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, "slap bracelets" – flat, felt-covered metal strips that curved around one's wrist when hit against it—were a popular fad. Adorned with neon colors and vivid graphics, these bracelets could be found at inexpensive retailers. A rumor emerged that "slap bracelets" caused bleeding and puncture wounds and thus fell out of style; the use of colored silicone rubber as a material for producing sports bracelets was popularized by Nike and Lance Armstrong through the Yellow Livestrong wristband starting in May 2003. Their success has led to the silicone bracelet becoming a high cost tool for various awareness and charity campaigns; this can be likened to the use of awareness ribbons for similar purposes. These bracelets are known as "baller id bands", "baller bands" or "wristbands", they can be referred to as rubber wristbands, silicone wristbands or gel wristbands. During the 1987 U. S. Open, Chris Evert's diamond line bracelet fell off onto the court.
She said "I dropped my tennis bra
A rope is a group of yarns, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than constructed cord and twine. Rope may be constructed of any long, fibrous material, but is constructed of certain natural or synthetic fibres. Synthetic fibre ropes are stronger than their natural fibre counterparts, they have a higher tensile strength, they are more resistant to rotting than ropes created from natural fibers, can be made to float on water, but synthetic rope possess certain disadvantages, including slipperiness, some can be damaged more by UV light. Common natural fibres for rope are manila hemp, linen, coir, jute and sisal. Synthetic fibres in use for rope-making include polypropylene, polyesters, polyethylene and acrylics; some ropes are constructed of mixtures of several fibres or use co-polymer fibres. Wire rope is made of steel or other metal alloys. Ropes have been constructed of other fibrous materials such as silk and hair, but such ropes are not available.
Rayon is a regenerated fibre used to make decorative rope. The twist of the strands in a twisted or braided rope serves not only to keep a rope together, but enables the rope to more evenly distribute tension among the individual strands. Without any twist in the rope, the shortest strand would always be supporting a much higher proportion of the total load; the long history of rope means. In systems that use the "inch", large ropes over 1 inch diameter such as are used on ships are measured by their circumference in inches. In metric systems of measurement, nominal diameter is given in millimetres; the current preferred international standard for rope sizes is to give the mass per unit length, in kilograms per metre. However sources otherwise using metric units may still give a "rope number" for large ropes, the circumference in inches. Rope is of paramount importance in fields as diverse as construction, exploration, sports and communications, has been used since prehistoric times. To fasten rope, many types of knots have been invented for countless uses.
Pulleys redirect the pulling force to another direction, can create mechanical advantage so that multiple strands of rope share a load and multiply the force applied to the end. Winches and capstans are machines designed to pull ropes; the modern sport of rock climbing uses so-called "dynamic" rope, which stretches under load in an elastic manner to absorb the energy required to arrest a person in free fall without generating forces high enough to injure them. Such ropes use a kernmantle construction, as described below. "Static" ropes, used for example in caving and rescue applications, are designed for minimal stretch. The UIAA, in concert with the CEN, oversees testing. Any rope bearing a GUIANA or CE certification tag is suitable for climbing. Despite the hundreds of thousands of falls climbers suffer every year, there are few recorded instances of a climbing rope breaking in a fall. Climbing ropes, however, do cut when under load. Keeping them away from sharp rock edges is imperative. Rock climbing ropes come with either a designation for double or twin use.
A single rope is the most common and it is intended to be used by itself, as a single strand. Single ropes range in thickness from 9 mm to 11 mm. Smaller ropes wear out faster. Double ropes are thinner ropes 9 mm and under, are intended for use as a pair; these ropes offer a greater margin or security against cutting, since it is unlikely that both ropes will be cut, but they complicate belaying and leading. Double ropes are reserved for ice and mixed climbing, where there is need for two ropes to rappel or abseil, they are popular among traditional climbers, in the UK, due to the ability to clip each rope into alternating pieces of protection. Twin ropes are not to be confused with doubles; when using twin ropes, both ropes are clipped into the same piece of protection, treating the two as a single strand. This would be favourable in a situation; however new lighter-weight ropes with greater safety have replaced this type of rope. The butterfly coil is a method of carrying a rope used by climbers where the rope remains attached to the climber and ready to be uncoiled at short notice.
Another method of carrying a rope is the alpine coil. Rope is an aerial acrobatics circus skill, where a performer makes artistic figures on a vertical suspended rope. Tricks performed on the rope are, for example, drops and hangs, they must be strong. See Corde lisse; the use of ropes for hunting, fastening, carrying and climbing dates back to prehistoric times. It is that the earliest "ropes" were occurring lengths of plant fibre, such as vines, followed soon by the first attempts at twisting and braiding these strands together to form the first proper ropes in the modern sense of the word. Impressions of cordage found on fired
Bellis is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family. The group is native to the Mediterranean and northern Africa. One species has been introduced into others into other parts of the world; the genus includes the familiar common daisy Bellis perennis. Bellis species are perennials, grow from 5–20 cm tall, they have simple erect stems, most species have basal leaves. They have radiate flower heads. Bellis is one of the flowers mentioned by Ophelia in Shakespeare's play Hamlet, it is in this context connected with innocence. Accepted species Flora Europaea: Bellis
Nerium oleander is a shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocynaceae, toxic in all its parts. It is the only species classified in the genus Nerium, it is most known as nerium or oleander, from its superficial resemblance to the unrelated olive Olea. It is so cultivated that no precise region of origin has been identified, though southwest Asia has been suggested; the ancient city of Volubilis in Morocco may have taken its name from the Berber name alili or oualilt for the flower. Oleander is one of the most poisonous grown garden plants; the origins of the taxonomic name Nerium oleander, first assigned by Linnaeus in 1753, are disputed. The genus name Nerium is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek name for the plant Nerion, in turn derived from the Greek for water,'neros', because of the natural habitat of the oleander along rivers and streams; the word Oleander appears as far back as the first century AD, when the Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides cited it as one of the terms used by the Romans for the plant.
Merriam-Webster believes the word is a Medieval Latin corruption of Late Latin names for the plant: arodandrum or lorandrum, or more plausibly rhododendron, with the addition of Olea because of the superficial resemblance to the olive tree. Another theory posited is that Oleander is the Latinized form of a Greek compound noun:'οllyo', which means'I kill', the Greek noun for man,'aner', genitive'andros'; this is because of the Oleander's toxicity to humans. The etymological association of oleander with the bay laurel has continued into the modern day: in France the plant is known as "Laurier Rose", while the Spanish term, "Adelfa", is the descendant of the original Ancient Greek name for both the bay laurel and the oleander, which subsequently passed into Arabic usage and thence to Spain. Oleander grows to 2 -- 6 m tall, with erect stems; the leaves are in pairs or whorls of three and leathery, dark-green, narrow lanceolate, 5–21 cm long and 1–3.5 cm broad, with an entire margin filled with minute reticulate venation web typical of eudicots.
Leaves are light green and glossy when young, before maturing to a dull dark green/greenish gray. The flowers grow in clusters at the end of each branch, they are but not always, sweet-scented. The fruit is a long narrow pair of follicles 5–23 cm long, which splits open at maturity to release numerous downy seeds. Nerium oleander is either native or naturalized to a broad area from Mauritania and Portugal eastward through the Mediterranean region and the Sahara, to the Arabian peninsula, southern Asia, as far east as Yunnan in southern parts of China, it occurs around stream beds in river valleys, where it can alternatively tolerate long seasons of drought and inundation from winter rains. Nerium oleander is planted in many subtropical and tropical areas of the world. On the East Coast of the US, it grows as far north as Virginia Beach, while in California and Texas miles of oleander shrubs are planted on median strips. There are estimated to be 25 million oleanders planted along highways and roadsides throughout the State of California.
Because of its durability, oleander was planted prolifically on Galveston Island in Texas after the disastrous Hurricane of 1900. They are so prolific that Galveston is known as the'Oleander City'. Beyond the traditional Mediterranean and subtropical range of oleander, the plant can be cultivated in mild oceanic climates with the appropriate precautions, it is grown without protection in southern England and can reach great sizes in London and to a lesser extent in Paris due to the urban heat island effect. This is the case with North American cities in the Pacific Northwest like Portland and Vancouver. Plants may suffer damage or die back in such marginal climates during severe winter cold, but will rebound from the roots; some invertebrates are known to be unaffected by oleander toxins, feed on the plants. Caterpillars of the polka-dot wasp moth feed on oleanders and survive by eating only the pulp surrounding the leaf-veins, avoiding the fibers. Larvae of the common crow butterfly and oleander hawk-moth feed on oleanders, they retain or modify toxins, making them unpalatable to potential predators such as birds, but not to other invertebrates such as spiders and wasps.
The flowers require insect visits to set seed, seem to be pollinated through a deception mechanism. The showy corolla acts as a potent advertisement to attract pollinators from a distance, but the flowers are nectarless and offer no reward to their visitors, they therefore receive few visits, as typical of many rewardless flower species. Fears of honey contamination with toxic oleander nectar are therefore unsubstantiated. Oleander is a vigorous grower in warm subtropical regions, where it is extensively used as an ornamental plant in parks, along roadsides and in private gardens, it is most grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk. Hardy versions like white and pink oleander will tolerate occasional light frost down to −10 °C, though the leaves may be damaged; the toxicity of oleander renders it deer-resistant and its large size makes for a good windbreak – as
For the wreath used in heraldry, see torse. A wreath is an assortment of flowers, fruits, twigs, or various materials, constructed to form a ring. In English-speaking countries, wreaths are used as household ornaments, most as an Advent and Christmas decoration, they are used in ceremonial events in many cultures around the globe. They can be worn as a garland around the neck. Wreaths have much symbolism associated with them, they are made from evergreens and symbolize strength, as evergreens last throughout the harshest winters. Bay laurel may be used; the word wreath comes from Old English writha, band. Wreaths were a design used in ancient times in southern Europe; the most well-known are pieces of Etruscan civilization jewelry, made of gold or other precious metals. Symbols from Greek myths appear in the designs, embossed in precious metal at the ends of the wreath. Ancient Roman writers referred to Etruscan corona sutilis, which were wreaths with their leaves sewn onto a background; these wreaths resemble a diadem, with thin metal leaves being attached to an ornamental band.
Wreaths appear stamped into Etruscan medallions. The plants shown making the wreaths in Etruscan jewelry include ivy, olive leaves, laurel and vines. Wreaths were worn as crowns by Etruscan rulers; the Etruscan symbolism continued to be used in Ancient Rome. Roman magistrates wore golden wreaths as crowns, as a symbolic testament to their lineage back to Rome's early Etruscan rulers. Roman magistrates used several other prominent Etruscan symbols in addition to a golden wreath crown: fasces, a curule chair, a purple toga, an ivory rod. In the Greco-Roman world, wreaths were used as an adornment that could represent a person’s occupation, their achievements and status; the wreath, used was the laurel wreath. The use of this wreath comes from the Greek myth involving Apollo, Zeus’ son and the god of life and light, who fell in love with the nymph Daphne; when he pursued her she asked the river god Peneus to help her. Peneus turned her into a laurel tree. From that day, Apollo wore a wreath of laurel on his head.
Laurel wreaths became associated with what Apollo embodied. Laurel wreaths were used to crown victorious athletes at the original Olympic Games and are still worn in Italy by university students who just graduated. Other types of plants used to make wreath crowns had symbolic meaning. For example, oak leaves symbolized wisdom, were associated with Zeus, who according to Greek mythology made his decisions while resting in an oak grove; the Twelve Tables, dating to 450 BC, refer to funeral wreaths as a long-standing tradition. Olive wreath was the prize for the winner at the ancient Olympic Games. Harvest wreaths, a common household decoration today, are a custom with ancient roots in Europe; the creation of harvest wreaths in Europe can be traced back to ancient times, is associated with animistic spiritual beliefs. In Ancient Greece, the harvest wreath was a sacred amulet, using wheat or other harvested plants, woven together with red and white wool thread; the harvest wreath would be hung by the door year-round.
Harvest wreaths were an important symbol to the community in Ancient Greece, not to the farmer and his family. The festivals devoted to Dionysus, the Oschophoria and Anthesteria, included a ritual procession called the eiresîonê. A harvest wreath was carried to Pyanopsia and Thargelia by young boys, who would sing during the journey; the laurel or olive wreath would be hung at the door, offerings were made to Helios and the Hours. It was hoped. In Poland, the harvest wreath is a central symbol of the Harvest Dozynki. Wreaths are made of different shapes and sizes, using harvested grain plants and nuts; the wreath is brought to a church for a blessing by a priest. The tradition includes a procession to the family home from the church, with a girl or young woman leading the procession and carrying the wreath; the procession is followed with a feast. Ukraine and other Eastern Europe cultures have similar rituals that began as part of pre-Christian culture. In Christianity, wreaths are used to observe the Advent season, in preparation for Christmastide and Epiphanytide, as well as to celebrate the latter two liturgical seasons.
These wreaths, as with other Advent and Christmas decorations, are set up on the first Sunday of Advent, a custom, sometimes done liturgically, through a hanging of the greens ceremony. The Advent wreath was first used by Lutherans in Germany in the 16th century, in 1839, Lutheran priest Johann Hinrich Wichern used a wreath made from a cart wheel to educate children about the meaning and purpose of Christmas, as well as to help them count its approach, thus giving rise to the modern version of the Advent wreath. For every Sunday of Advent, starting with the fourth Sunday before Christmas, he would put a white candle in the wreath and for every day in between he would use a red candle; the use of the Advent wreath has since spread from the Lutheran Church to many Christian denominations, some of these traditions, such as the Catholic Church and Moravian Church, have introduced unique variations to it. All of the Advent wreaths, have four candles, many of them have a white candle in the centre, the Christ candle, lit on Christmas Day.
Advent and Christmas wreaths are con
A game is a structured form of play undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, carried out for remuneration, from art, more an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, many games are considered to be work or art. Games are sometimes played purely sometimes for achievement or reward as well, they can be played alone, in online. The players may have an audience of non-players, such as when people are entertained by watching a chess championship. On the other hand, players in a game may constitute their own audience as they take their turn to play. Part of the entertainment for children playing a game is deciding, part of their audience and, a player. Key components of games are goals, rules and interaction. Games involve mental or physical stimulation, both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational, or psychological role.
Attested as early as 2600 BC, games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal Game of Ur, Mancala are some of the oldest known games. Ludwig Wittgenstein was the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein argued that the elements of games, such as play and competition, all fail to adequately define what games are. From this, Wittgenstein concluded that people apply the term game to a range of disparate human activities that bear to one another only what one might call family resemblances; as the following game definitions show, this conclusion was not a final one and today many philosophers, like Thomas Hurka, think that Wittgenstein was wrong and that Bernard Suits' definition is a good answer to the problem. French sociologist Roger Caillois, in his book Les jeux et les hommes, defined a game as an activity that must have the following characteristics: fun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted character separate: it is circumscribed in time and place uncertain: the outcome of the activity is unforeseeable non-productive: participation does not accomplish anything useful governed by rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality Computer game designer Chris Crawford, founder of The Journal of Computer Game Design, has attempted to define the term game using a series of dichotomies: Creative expression is art if made for its own beauty, entertainment if made for money.
A piece of entertainment is a plaything. Movies and books are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment. If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy. If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge. If a challenge has no "active agent against whom you compete", it is a puzzle. If the player can only outperform the opponent, but not attack them to interfere with their performance, the conflict is a competition. However, if attacks are allowed the conflict qualifies as a game. Crawford's definition may thus be rendered as: an interactive, goal-oriented activity made for money, with active agents to play against, in which players can interfere with each other. "A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome." "A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal." According to this definition, some "games" that do not involve choices, such as Chutes and Ladders, Candy Land, War are not technically games any more than a slot machine is.
"A game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context." "At its most elementary level we can define game as an exercise of voluntary control systems in which there is an opposition between forces, confined by a procedure and rules in order to produce a disequilibrial outcome." "A game is a form of play with goals and structure." "to play a game is to engage in activity directed toward bringing about a specific state of affairs, using only means permitted by specific rules, where the means permitted by the rules are more limited in scope than they would be in the absence of the rules, where the sole reason for accepting such limitation is to make possible such activity." "When you strip away the genre differences and the technological complexities, all games share four defining traits: a goal, rules, a feedback system, voluntary participation." Games can be characterized by "what the player does". This is referred to as gameplay.
Major key elements identified in this context are tools and rules that define the overall context of game. Games are classified by the com