History of Gibraltar
The history of Gibraltar, a small peninsula on the southern Iberian coast near the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea, spans over 2,900 years. The peninsula has evolved from a place of reverence in ancient times into "one of the most densely fortified and fought-over places in Europe", as one historian has put it. Gibraltar's location has given it an outsized significance in the history of Europe and its fortified town, established in medieval times, has hosted garrisons that sustained numerous sieges and battles over the centuries. Gibraltar was first inhabited over 50,000 years ago by Neanderthals and may have been one of their last places of habitation before they died out around 24,000 years ago. Gibraltar's recorded history began around 950 BC with the Phoenicians; the Carthaginians and Romans worshipped Hercules in shrines said to have been built on the Rock of Gibraltar, which they called Mons Calpe, the "Hollow Mountain", which they regarded as one of the twin Pillars of Hercules. Gibraltar became part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania following the collapse of the Roman Empire and came under Muslim Moorish rule in 711 AD.
It was permanently settled for the first time by the Moors and was renamed Jebel Tariq – the Mount of Tariq corrupted into Gibraltar. The Christian Crown of Castile annexed it in 1309, lost it again to the Moors in 1333 and regained it in 1462. Gibraltar became part of the unified Kingdom of Spain and remained under Spanish rule until 1704, it was captured during the War of the Spanish Succession by an Anglo-Dutch fleet in the name of Charles VI of Austria, the Habsburg contender to the Spanish throne. At the war's end, Spain ceded the territory to Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. Spain tried to regain control of Gibraltar, which Britain had declared a Crown colony, through military and economic pressure. Gibraltar was besieged and bombarded during three wars between Britain and Spain but the attacks were repulsed on each occasion. By the end of the last siege, in the late 18th century, Gibraltar had faced fourteen sieges in 500 years. In the years after Trafalgar, Gibraltar became a major base in the Peninsular War.
The colony grew during the 19th and early 20th centuries, becoming a key British possession in the Mediterranean. It was a key stopping point for vessels en route to India via the Suez Canal. A large British naval base was constructed there at great expense at the end of the 19th century and became the backbone of Gibraltar's economy. British control of Gibraltar enabled the Allies to control the entrance to the Mediterranean during the Second World War, it was attacked on several occasions by German and Vichy French forces, though without causing much damage. The Spanish dictator General Francisco Franco declined to join a Nazi plan to occupy Gibraltar but revived Spain's claim to the territory after the war; as the territorial dispute intensified, Spain closed its border with Gibraltar between 1969 and 1985 and communications links were severed. Spain's position was supported by Latin American countries but was rejected by Britain and the Gibraltarians themselves, who vigorously asserted their right to self-determination.
Discussions of Gibraltar's status have continued between Britain and Spain but have not reached any conclusion. Since 1985, Gibraltar has undergone major changes as a result of reductions in Britain's overseas defence commitments. Most British forces have left the territory, no longer seen as a place of major military importance, its economy is now based on tourism, financial services and Internet gambling. Gibraltar is self-governed, with its own parliament and government, though the UK maintains responsibility for defence and foreign policy, its economic success has made it one of the wealthiest areas of the European Union. The history of Gibraltar has been driven by its strategic position near the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea, it is a narrow peninsula at the eastern side of the Bay of Gibraltar, 6 kilometres from the city of Algeciras. Gibraltar is on the far south coast of Spain at one of the narrowest points in the Mediterranean, only 24 kilometres from the coast of Morocco in North Africa.
Its position on the bay makes it an advantageous natural anchorage for ships. As one writer has put it, "whoever controls Gibraltar controls the movement of ships into and out of the Mediterranean. In terms of military and naval power, few places have a more strategic location than Gibraltar."The territory's area measures only 6.7 square kilometres. Most of the land area is occupied by the steeply sloping Rock of Gibraltar which reaches a height of 426 metres; the town of Gibraltar lies at the base of the Rock on the west side of the peninsula. A narrow, low-lying isthmus connects the peninsula to the Spanish mainland; the North Face of the Rock is a nearly vertical cliff 396 metres high overlooking the isthmus. Gibraltar's geography has thus given it considerable natural defensive advantages, it is impossible to scale the eastern or northern sides of the Rock, which are either vertical or nearly so. To the south, the flat area around Europa Point is surrounded by cliffs which are up to 30 metres high.
The western side is the only practicable area for a landing, but here the steep slopes on which the town is built work to the advantage of a defender. These factors have given it an enormous military significance over the centuries. Gibraltar's appearance in prehistory was different. Whereas today it is surrounded by sea, th
Cathedral of St. Mary the Crowned
The Cathedral of Saint Mary the Crowned is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Gibraltar. It is the primary centre of Catholic worship in the Diocese of Gibraltar; the original building of the current cathedral was built during the Spanish period. Just after the reconquest of the city to the Moors, the main mosque was decreed to be stripped of its Islamic past and consecrated as the parish church. However, under the rule of the Catholic Monarchs, the old building was demolished and a new church was erected, in Gothic style; the cathedral's small courtyard is the remnant of the larger Moorish court of the mosque. The Catholic Monarchs' coat of arms was placed in the courtyard; the cathedral extended to the opposite side of. The church of St. Mary the Crowned was the only Catholic church or institution, not ransacked by the troops that took over the city in 1704, it was protected by its staunch pastor, Juan Romero, his curate, his bell-ringer. Thus, it is the only place where Catholic worship has been taken place uninterruptedly from the definite Christian re-conquest of the town.
Due to the building being damaged during the 1779–1783 Great Siege, in 1790 the Governor of Gibraltar Sir Robert Boyd offered to rebuild the cathedral in return for part of the land on which the building stood in order to re-route Main Street. The route was re-modelled in 1801; the reconstruction took place in 1810 and the opportunity was taken to widen Main Street. The clock tower was added in 1820 and in 1931 restoration work was carried out on the cathedral and the current west façade erected to replace the poorer one built in 1810. In 1881 the Church of St Mary's was the site of nearly fifty arrests as the Governor of Gibraltar sent police and reassigned soldiers to support Bishop Canilla as he attempted to enter his own church. A self-appointed "Committee of Elders" had said that they intended to take possession of the church and install their own "chief priest" against the will of the Governor and the Catholic church. Camilla was sent to his church on 2 March 1881 with police protection to install him in his church.
When the new force came to the church they found it was occupied by 200 men and the police had to make four dozen arrests to establish order. Not only did Camilla now have possession of his church but he was the owner as the governor arranged for the title deeds to be given to the new titular Bishop; until the 19th century, anyone who died in Gibraltar had the right to be buried under the cathedral floor. Bishops are buried in a crypt beneath the statue of Our Lady of Europe. In 1943, Władysław Sikorski's coffin lay in state here, after his plane crashed into the sea just off Gibraltar. San Roque, Cádiz Cathedral information and photos of interior Illustrated article
University of Granada
The University of Granada is a public university located in the city of Granada and founded in 1531 by Emperor Charles V. With 80,000 students, it is the fourth largest university in Spain. Apart from the city of Granada, UGR has campuses in Northern Africa. In the academic year 2012/2013 2,000 European students were enrolled in UGR through the Erasmus Programme, making it the most popular European destination; the university's Center for Modern Languages receives over 10,000 international students each year. In 2014, UGR was voted the best Spanish university by international students. In 1526 a college was founded in Granada by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V for the teaching of logic, philosophy and canon law. On 14 July 1531, the establishment of a studium generale with the faculties of theology and canon law was granted by a papal bull by Clement VII, marking the birth hour of the university; the university has an important heritage thanks to its policy of using buildings of historical and cultural value such as the former madrasah and the former Royal Hospital of Granada.
Furthermore, the university has major new facilities committed to innovation, such as the Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud. According to several rankings, the University of Granada ranks among top ten best Spanish universities and holds first place in Translation and Interpreting studies, it is considered the national leader in Computer Science Engineering. UGR plays a major role in scientific output, placing high in national ranks and being one of the best world universities in computing and mathematics studies. UGR is composed of 5 Schools, 22 Faculties and 116 Departments responsible for teaching and researching into specific subject areas, they are spread over five different campuses in the city of Granada, plus two more campuses located in the cities of Ceuta and Melilla, Spanish territories in Northern Africa. School of Building Engineering School of Architecture School of Civil Engineering School of Information Technology and Telecommunications Faculty of Fine Arts Faculty of Sciences Faculty of Sport Sciences Faculty of Economics and Business Faculty of Education Faculty of Political Science and Sociology Faculty of Health Sciences Faculty of Labour Studies Faculty of Communication and Documentation Faculty of Law Faculty of Pharmacy Faculty of Philosophy and Humanities Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Dentistry Faculty of Psychology Faculty of Social Work Faculty of Translation and Interpreting Faculty of Health Sciences Faculty of Education and Humanities Faculty of Social Sciences Faculty of Education and Technology Faculty of NursingThe University of Granada offers a wide range of postgraduate programmes, made up of studies adapted to the European model.
The UGR began admitting international students in 1992 with the founding of the School for Languages. As of 2009-2010, there were some 5,000 international students, including Erasmus programme exchange students from the European Union; the CLM has agreements with 20 universities and study abroad organizations in the U. S. and in Canada in order to bring North Americans to the UGR, including the American Institute For Foreign Study, Arcadia University, International Studies Abroad and the University of Delaware. Francisco de Paula Martínez de la Rosa, Spanish statesman and dramatist. Julián Sanz del Río, philosopher and educator, he brought Kraussism to Spain. Pedro Antonio de Alarcón y Ariza, novelist and politician. Nicolás Salmerón y Alonso, President of the First Spanish Republic Manuel Gómez-Moreno Martínez and historian. Francisco Javier Simonet y Baca, orientalist and historian. Federico Olóriz Aguilera, doctor and criminologist. Angel Ganivet, Spanish writer precursor to the Generation of'98 and ambassador in Helsinki.
Fernando de los Ríos Urruti, prominent politician during Second Spanish Republic Niceto Alcalá-Zamora, President of the Second Spanish Republic Melchor Almagro San Martín, writer and politician. Francisco Villaespesa Martín, modernist poet. Alejandro Sawa and writer. Blas Infante, father of Andalusian nationalism Melchor Fernández Almagro, literary critic, historian and politician. Federico García Lorca, man of letters from the Spanish Generation of'27 José Fernández Montesinos, literary critic, University professor. Américo Castro and intellectual historian, literary critic, University professor. Frederick Forsyth, British author. Juan Francisco Casas, Spanish artist. José de Salamanca, Marquis of Salamanca, Spanish businessman and politician. Joaquín Sabina, Famous poet and composer Juan Carlos Rodríguez Gómez, literary theorist, literary critic, University professor. Antonio Carvajal Milena and University professor. Luis Lloréns Torres, Puerto Rican poet Antonio Muñoz Molina and former director of Instituto Cervantes of New York City Pablo Heras-Casado, Spanish conductor.
Andrés Neuman, Spanish-Argentine writer, journalist. List of early modern universities in Europe Official site of the University of Granada Center of Modern Languages Site English language magazine for the region
Royal Gibraltar Post Office
The Royal Gibraltar Post Office is the postal services in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. It is a department within the Government of Gibraltar; the Gibraltar Post Office has been running for over 150 years, as in 1857 the Overland Post Office merged with the Packet Agency. The first stamps went on sale in September and a year a new building was completed and opened at 104 Main Street; this remains the main post office in Gibraltar today. In 1886 the local colonial authorities took over control of the Gibraltar Post Office and were able to issue their own stamps, they overprinted Bermuda stamps but by December they had their own design. However, they still sold Spanish stamps if required and between 1889 and 1898 the post office sold Gibraltar stamps valued in pesetas as this was the currency in circulation. For the first fifty years, the Gibraltar Post Office had responsibility for the post office not only in Gibraltar but for the British postal service in Morocco; this ended in 1907.
In 2005 the Gibraltar Post Office was granted the title of "Royal" by Her Majesty the Queen. Gibraltar is the only Commonwealth or British Overseas Territory post office outside the United Kingdom that bears this title. Gibraltar has traditional red pillar boxes and the tops are frequently painted black; the Post Office continues to provide some traditional services and was still using benefit books after they were abandoned in the United Kingdom, while there is a special philatelic counter to sell the commemorative stamps. Despite the small size of the territory, delays in the sorting and delivery of local items of mail have resulted in letters taking up to a week to be delivered; the Royal Gibraltar Post Office provides the following services: Letter post Parcel post Airmail Express mail services Poste restante Post office boxes Registration services British postal ordersBanking facilities are provided through the Gibraltar Savings Bank, part of the Gibraltar Government services. The Royal Gibraltar Post Office has a number of offices around Gibraltar: Main Office - A Victorian building which sits in Main Street.
P. O. Boxes Unit - Irish Town Mail Operations Centre and Parcel Post - 45 North Mole RoadThe North District Post Office in Glacis Road and the South District Post Office in Scud Hill were closed in late 2014 for refurbishment, but in February 2016 had still not reopened. In September of that year, the Government stated that there were no plans to reopen either Post Office. Postage stamps and postal history of Gibraltar Postal Orders of Gibraltar Postal addresses in Gibraltar Official website
Dracaena is a genus of about 120 species of trees and succulent shrubs. In the APG IV classification system, it is placed in subfamily Nolinoideae, it has formerly been separated into the family Dracaenaceae or placed in the Agavaceae. The majority of the species are native to Africa, with a few in southern Asia through to northern Australia with two species in tropical Central America; the segregate genus Pleomele is now included in Dracaena. The genus Sansevieria is related, has been synonymized under Dracaena in the Kubitzki system. Species of Dracaena have a secondary thickening meristem in their trunk, quite different from the thickening meristem found in dicotyledonous plants and is termed Dracaenoid thickening by some authors; this characteristic is shared with members of the Agavoideae and Xanthorrhoeoideae among other members of the Asparagales. D. americana, D. arborea, D. cinnabari, D. draco, D. ombet, D. tamaranae are known as dragon trees and grow in arid semi-desert areas. They are tree-sized with stiff, broad-based leaves.
The remaining species are known collectively as shrubby dracaenas. They are smaller and shrub-like, with slender stems and flexible strap-shaped leaves, grow as understorey plants in rainforests. Many species of Dracaena are kept as houseplants due to tolerance of lower light and sparse watering. There are around 110 species of Dracaena, including: Dracaena afromontana – Afromontane dragon tree Dracaena americana – Central America dragon tree Dracaena aletriformis Bos) Dracaena arborea – tree dracaena Dracaena aubryana Brongn. Ex E. Morren Dracaena aurea H. Mann Dracaena bicolor Hook. Dracaena braunii Engl. Dracaena bushii Dracaena camerooniana Baker Dracaena cincta Dracaena cinnabari Balf.f. – Socotra dragon tree Dracaena concinna Kunth Dracaena draco L. – Canary Islands dragon tree Dracaena ellenbeckiana - Kedong Dracaena Dracaena elliptica Dracaena fragrans Ker Gawl. – striped dracaena, compact dracaena, corn plant, cornstalk dracaena Dracaena goldieana W. Bull Dracaena hookeriana Dracaena kaweesakii Wilkin & Suksathan Dracaena mannii Dracaena marmorata Dracaena ombet – Gabal Elba dragon tree Dracaena phrynioides Dracaena reflexa Lam.
– Pleomele dracaena or "Song of India" D. reflexa var. marginata – red-edged dracaena or Madagascar dragon tree Dracaena sanderiana Engl. – ribbon dracaena, marketed as "lucky bamboo" Dracaena serrulata Baker – Yemen dragon tree Dracaena surculosa Lindl. – spotted or gold dust dracaena. D. godseffiana Dracaena tamaranae – Gran Canaria dragon tree Dracaena umbraculifera Jacq. Asparagus asparagoides. Cordyline fruticosa A. Chev. Cordyline indivisa Steud. Cordyline obtecta Baker Cordyline stricta Endl. Dianella ensifolia DC. Liriope graminifolia Baker Lomandra filiformis Britten Some shrubby species, such as D. fragrans, D. surculosa, D. marginata, D. sanderiana, are popular as houseplants. Many of these are toxic to pets, though not humans, according to the ASPCA among others. Rooted stem cuttings of D. sanderiana are marketed in the U. S. A. and the UK as "lucky bamboo", although only superficially resembling true bamboos. A occurring bright red resin, dragon's blood, is collected from D. draco and, in ancient times, from D. cinnabari.
Modern dragon's blood is however more to be from the unrelated Daemonorops rattan palms.. It has a social functions in marking graves, sacred sites and farm plots in many African societies Media related to Dracaena at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Dracaena at Wikispecies Socotra botany. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh
The Caleta Hotel known as Caleta Palace Hotel, is a four star hotel in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It is located at Catalan Bay on the east coast of the territory overlooking the Mediterranean sea, it owes its name to La Caleta, the traditional name given from the Spanish period to Catalan Bay and the fishing village located in its shore, as it is the area where the hotel now stands. The Caleta Hotel provides wide selection of guest suites, it operates two rosette rated Italian restaurant named Nunos. The hotel has received Gibraltar's Leading Hotel Award on four occasions, from 2009 to 2012, at the World Travel Awards; the Caleta Palace Hotel is in Gibraltar, the British Overseas Territory at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula. It is at a small bay and fishing village, on the eastern side of The Rock. Catalan Bay overlooks the Mediterranean sea; the hotel was built in the early 1960s and received funds from the Government of Gibraltar in 1972 under its Hotel Development Aid Programme to increase the total beds capacity of hotel by over 100.
In April 2012, Caprice Bourret and Emmanuel Ray stayed at the hotel during Fashion Week Gibraltar. Bourret presented the Spring Summer 2012 bikini collection from her By Caprice swimwear range, while Ray inaugurated and presented at the country's first Fashion Week; the hotel has a wide selection of guest rooms and suites. Nunos Italian Restaurant has received two rosettes by The Automobile Association. Two rosettes are awarded to those "excellent restaurants that aim for and achieve higher standards and better consistency"; the Caleta Hotel earned the Gibraltar's Leading Hotel Award consecutively from 2009 to 2012. The award is presented at the World Travel Awards, an annual award ceremony which acknowledges and rewards across all sectors of the tourism industry; the award was won by The Rock Hotel from 2004 to 2008. The hotel has a spa, outdoor grill, business centre and café, it provides free Wi-Fi service to its customers throughout the premises of the hotel. Official website
Lithography is a method of printing based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a metal plate with a smooth surface, it was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print artwork onto paper or other suitable material. Lithography used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate; the stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, etching the portions of the stone that were not protected by the grease-based image. When the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water; the ink would be transferred to a blank paper sheet, producing a printed page. This traditional technique is still used in some fine art printmaking applications. In modern lithography, the image is made of a polymer coating applied to a flexible plastic or metal plate; the image can be printed directly from the plate, or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a flexible sheet for printing and publication.
As a printing technology, lithography is different from intaglio printing, wherein a plate is either engraved, etched, or stippled to score cavities to contain the printing ink. Today, most types of high-volume books and magazines when illustrated in colour, are printed with offset lithography, which has become the most common form of printing technology since the 1960s; the related term "photolithography" refers to when photographic images are used in lithographic printing, whether these images are printed directly from a stone or from a metal plate, as in offset printing. "Photolithography" is used synonymously with "offset printing". The technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication and mass production of integrated circuits in the microelectronics industry. Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the positive part of an image is a water-repelling substance, while the negative image would be water-retaining.
Thus, when the plate is introduced to a compatible printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image and the water will clean the negative image. This allows a flat print plate to be used, enabling much longer and more detailed print runs than the older physical methods of printing. Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a smooth piece of limestone was used. After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution of gum arabic in water was applied, the gum sticking only to the non-oily surface. During printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite. Lithography works because of the mutual repulsion of water; the image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible. A wide range of oil-based media is available, but the durability of the image on the stone depends on the lipid content of the material being used, its ability to withstand water and acid.
After the drawing of the image, an aqueous solution of gum arabic, weakly acidified with nitric acid HNO3 is applied to the stone. The function of this solution is to create a hydrophilic layer of calcium nitrate salt, Ca2, gum arabic on all non-image surfaces; the gum solution penetrates into the pores of the stone surrounding the original image with a hydrophilic layer that will not accept the printing ink. Using lithographic turpentine, the printer removes any excess of the greasy drawing material, but a hydrophobic molecular film of it remains bonded to the surface of the stone, rejecting the gum arabic and water, but ready to accept the oily ink; when printing, the stone is kept wet with water. The water is attracted to the layer of gum and salt created by the acid wash. Printing ink based on drying oils such as linseed oil and varnish loaded with pigment is rolled over the surface; the water repels the greasy ink but the hydrophobic areas left by the original drawing material accept it.
When the hydrophobic image is loaded with ink, the stone and paper are run through a press that applies pressure over the surface, transferring the ink to the paper and off the stone. Senefelder had experimented during the early 19th century with multicolor lithography. Multi-color printing was introduced by a new process developed by Godefroy Engelmann in 1837 known as chromolithography. A separate stone was used for each color, a print went through the press separately for each stone; the main challenge was to keep the images aligned. This method lent itself to images consisting of large areas of flat color, resulted in the characteristic poster designs of this period. "Lithography, or printing from soft stone took the place of engraving in the production of English