Distributism is an economic ideology asserting that the world's productive assets should be owned rather than concentrated. It was developed in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries based upon the principles of Catholic social teaching the teachings of Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical Rerum novarum and Pope Pius XI in Quadragesimo anno, it views both capitalism and socialism as flawed and exploitative, it favors economic mechanisms such as small-scale cooperatives and family businesses, large-scale anti-trust regulations. Some Christian Democratic political parties have advocated distributism in their economic policies. According to distributists, property ownership is a fundamental right, the means of production should be spread as as possible, rather than being centralized under the control of the state, a few individuals, or corporations. Distributism, advocates a society marked by widespread property ownership. Co-operative economist Race Mathews argues that such a system is key to bringing about a just social order.
Distributism has been described in opposition to both socialism and capitalism, which distributists see as flawed and exploitative. Further, some distributists argue that socialism is the logical conclusion of capitalism, as capitalism's concentrated powers capture the state, resulting in a form of socialism. Thomas Storck argues: "Both socialism and capitalism are products of the European Enlightenment and are thus modernizing and anti-traditional forces. In contrast, distributism seeks to subordinate economic activity to human life as a whole, to our spiritual life, our intellectual life, our family life." A few distributists were influenced by the economic ideas of Proudhon and his mutualist economic theory, thus the lesser-known anarchist branch of distributism of Dorothy Day and the Catholic Worker Movement could be considered a form of free-market libertarian socialism due to their opposition to both state capitalism and state socialism. Some have seen it more as an aspiration, realised in the short term by commitment to the principles of subsidiarity and solidarity, though proponents cite such periods as the Middle Ages as examples of the historical long-term viability of distributism.
Influential in the development of distributist theory were Catholic authors G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc, the Chesterbelloc, two of distributism's earliest and strongest proponents; the mid-to-late 19th century witnessed an increase in popularity of political Catholicism across Europe. According to historian Michael A. Riff, a common feature of these movements was opposition not only to secularism, but to both capitalism and socialism. In 1891 Pope Leo XIII promulgated Rerum novarum, in which he addressed the "misery and wretchedness pressing so unjustly on the majority of the working class" and spoke of how "a small number of rich men" had been able to "lay upon the teeming masses of the laboring poor a yoke little better than that of slavery itself". Affirmed in the encyclical was the right of all men to own property, the necessity of a system that allowed "as many as possible of the people to become owners", the duty of employers to provide safe working conditions and sufficient wages, the right of workers to unionise.
Common and government property ownership was expressly dismissed as a means of helping the poor. Around the start of the 20th century, G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc drew together the disparate experiences of the various cooperatives and friendly societies in Northern England and Northern Europe into a coherent political ideology which advocated widespread private ownership of housing and control of industry through owner-operated small businesses and worker-controlled cooperatives. In the United States in the 1930s, distributism was treated in numerous essays by Chesterton and others in The American Review and edited by Seward Collins. Pivotal among Belloc's and Chesterton's other works regarding distributism are The Servile State, Outline of Sanity. Although a majority of distributism's supporters were not Catholics and many were in fact former radical socialists who had become disillusioned with socialism, distributist thought was adopted by the Catholic Worker Movement, conjoining it with the thought of Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin concerning localized and independent communities.
It influenced the thought behind the Antigonish Movement, which implemented cooperatives and other measures to aid the poor in the Canadian Maritimes. Its practical implementation in the form of local cooperatives has been documented by Race Mathews in his 1999 book Jobs of Our Own: Building a Stakeholder Society; the position of distributists when compared to other political philosophies is somewhat paradoxical and complicated. Entrenched in an organic but English Catholicism, advocating culturally traditionalist and agrarian values, directly challenging the precepts of Whig history—Belloc was nonetheless an MP for the Liberal Party and Chesterton once stated "As much as I did, more than I did, I believe in Liberalism, but there was a rosy time of innocence when I believed in Liberals." This liberalism is different from most modern forms, taking influence from William Cobbett and John Ruskin, who combined elements of radicalism, challenging the establishment position, but from a perspective of renovation, not revolution.
For devotions in the Eastern Catholic Churches, refer to the articles on the individual Churches or the corresponding Orthodox Churches. In the Catholic Church, devotions are prayers and practices followed by believers that are not part of the liturgy of the Church; the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops describes devotions as "expressions of love and fidelity that arise from the intersection of one's own faith and the Gospel of Jesus Christ". Devotions are not considered part of liturgical worship if they are performed in a church or led by a priest; the Congregation for Divine Worship at the Vatican publishes a Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy. Catholic devotions have various forms, ranging from formalized, multi-day prayers such as novenas to activities which do not involve any prayers, such as Eucharistic adoration outside Mass, the wearing of scapulars, the veneration of the saints, the Canonical coronations of sacred Marian or Christological images and horticultural practices such as maintaining a Mary garden.
Common examples of Catholic devotions include the Rosary, the Stations of the Cross, the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Holy Face of Jesus, the various scapulars, the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Seven Sorrows of Mary, novenas to various saints, devotions to the Blessed Sacrament, the veneration of saintly images. While the Catholic Church considers liturgy to be central to the life and mission of the Church, it acknowledges the benefit of popular devotions, stating in Sacrosanctum Concilium that "The spiritual life, however, is not limited to participation in the liturgy... Popular devotions of the Christian people are to be commended, provided they accord with the laws and norms of the Church, above all when they are ordered by the Apostolic See... These devotions should be so drawn up that they harmonize with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some fashion derived from it, lead the people to it, since, in fact, the liturgy by its nature far surpasses any of them."Several factors shape the efficacy of devotional practices in eliciting feelings of devotion: a strong emotional appeal, a simplicity of form which puts them within the reach of all, the association with many others engaged in the same practices, their derivation from the example of others considered to lead a holy life.
Since the Middle Ages, popes have encouraged devotions such as Eucharistic Adoration, the Rosary and the Stations of the Cross, while maintaining the primacy of liturgy over private devotions. Pious devotions have influenced some important parts of the Catholic calendar such as the feast of Corpus Christi which arose after petitions by those following the devotion. Catholic devotions can form the basis of major community events, such as the statue of our Our Lady of Zapopan, which attracts over one million pilgrims on October 12 each year as the statue travels through the streets moving from one cathedral to another. In Catholic tradition, a wide range of practices have developed, ranging from devotions to the Holy Trinity to specific saints; the three-level hierarchy of latria and dulia determines the appropriate type of worship or veneration for different situations. Latria is used for worship and reverence directed only to the Holy Trinity. Dulia is the kind of honor given to the communion of saints, while the Blessed Virgin Mary is honored with hyperdulia, a higher form of dulia but lower than latria.
Various unapproved acts such as the promotion of chain letters that contain prayers or the belief that the use of a statue of Saint Joseph can speed up the sale of a house have been discouraged as non-pious and against Catholic values. In general and beliefs that aim at the manipulation of divine power for specific gainful purposes are always condemned as contrary to Catholic devotional practices; the Feast of the Holy Trinity is a devotional day celebrated on the first Sunday after Pentecost and honors the three Persons of God: the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit. The Novena to the Holy Trinity may include the Glory Be prayer, as well as other prayers, although the other prayers may vary. According to the Fátima seer Lúcia Santos, in late September or October 1916, the Angel of Peace appeared for the third time to herself and the other visionaries, her cousins Francísco and Jacinta Marto, taught them a prayer of reparation to the Holy Trinity. Several widespread devotions in the Catholic tradition relate directly to Jesus.
Official Catholic teachings consider Eucharistic adoration an important practice which "stimulates the faithful to an awareness of the marvelous presence of Christ and is an invitation to spiritual communion with Him." In many cases Eucharistic adoration is performed by each person for an uninterrupted hour known as the Holy Hour. The inspiration for the Holy Hour is Matthew 26:40 when in the Garden of Gethsemane the night before his crucifixion, Jesus asks Peter: "So, could you men not keep watch with me for one hour?". Some devotions have the form of Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ for the sufferings and insults that Jesus endured during His Passion or for the sin of blasphemy, e.g. the Golden Arrow Prayer. Devotions involving the Sacred Heart of Jesus first appeared in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, but most current devotions are attributed to Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque and was encouraged by Pope Pius XI in Miserentissimus Redemptor; the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus dates back to Sister Marie of St Peter in 1843 who reported visions of Jesus and Mary in which she was urged to spread the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus in re
Lincoln at Gettysburg
Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America written by Garry Wills and published by Simon & Schuster in 1992, won the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction and the 1992 National Book Critics Circle Award for Criticism. The book uses Lincoln's notably short speech at Gettysburg to examine his rhetoric overall. In particular, Wills compares Lincoln's speech to Edward Everett's delivered on the same day, focusing on the influences of the Greek revival in the United States and 19th century transcendentalist thought. Wills argues that Lincoln's speech draws from his interpretation of the U. S. Constitution. Lincoln at Gettysburg on Open Library at the Internet Archive Lincoln at Gettysburg by Edward Vebell New York Times Review "Gettysburg Address". C-SPAN. 12 December 1994. Retrieved 3 May 2015. Mr. Wills, author of Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words that Remade America, talked about the Gettysburg address, which President Lincoln delivered on November 19, 1863... ... The Library of Congress displayed one of its two original manuscripts for the first time in 23 years.
Only five versions are known to exist
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers, it moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.
While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven and forest and nature preserves throughout New England; the university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. All members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.
As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents, 19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U. S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university. Its wealth and influence have led to Yale being reported as amoungst the most prestigious universities in the United States. Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, while meeting in New Haven; the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, Rev. James Noyes II, James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's library.
The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders". Known as the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth; the school moved to Saybrook and Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as liberal, ecclesiastically lax, overly broad in Church polity; the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu "Eli" Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in Madras as a representative of the East India Company, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time.
Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College".. Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale; the 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science and theology. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity". In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England, they were returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library. Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the peri
Papal infallibility is a dogma of the Catholic Church that states that, in virtue of the promise of Jesus to Peter, the Pope is preserved from the possibility of error "when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church." "Infallibility means more than exemption from actual error. According to Catholic theology, there are several concepts important to the understanding of infallible, divine revelation: Sacred Scripture, Sacred Tradition, the Sacred Magisterium; the infallible teachings of the Pope are part of the Sacred Magisterium, which consists of ecumenical councils and the "ordinary and universal magisterium". In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is one of the channels of the infallibility of the Church; the infallible teachings of the Pope must be based on, or at least not contradict, Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture. The doctrine of infallibility relies on one of the cornerstones of Catholic dogma: that of Petrine supremacy of the pope, his authority as the ruling agent who decides what are accepted as formal beliefs in the Roman Catholic Church.
The use of this power is referred to as speaking ex cathedra. The solemn declaration of papal infallibility by Vatican I took place on 18 July 1870. Since that time, the only example of an ex cathedra decree took place in 1950, when Pope Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary as an article of faith. Prior to the solemn definition of 1870, there were other decrees which fit the definition of ex cathedra, for example, Pope Boniface VIII in the bull Unam Sanctam of 1302, Pope Pius IX in the Papal constitution Ineffabilis Deus of 1854; the church teaches that infallibility is a charism entrusted by Christ to the whole church, whereby the Pope, as "head of the college of bishops," enjoys papal infallibility. This charism is the supreme degree of participating in Christ's divine authority, which, in the New Covenant, so as to safeguard the faithful from defection and guarantee the profession of faith, ensures the faithful abide in the truth; the church further teaches that divine assistance is given to the Pope when he exercises his ordinary Magisterium.
According to the teaching of the First Vatican Council and Catholic tradition, the conditions required for ex cathedra papal teaching are as follows: the Roman Pontiff speaks ex cathedra, that is, when, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole ChurchThe terminology of a definitive decree makes clear that this last condition is fulfilled, as through a formula such as "By the authority of Our Lord Jesus Christ and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, by Our own authority, We declare and define the doctrine... to be revealed by God and as such to be and immutably held by all the faithful," or through an accompanying anathema stating that anyone who deliberately dissents is outside the Catholic Church. For example, in 1950, with Munificentissimus Deus, Pope Pius XII's infallible definition regarding the Assumption of Mary, there are attached these words: "Hence if anyone, which God forbid, should dare willfully to deny or to call into doubt that which We have defined, let him know that he has fallen away from the divine and Catholic Faith."As with all charisms, the church teaches that the charism of papal infallibility must be properly discerned, though only by the Church's leaders.
The way to know if something a pope says is infallible or not is to discern if they are ex cathedra teachings. Considered infallible are the teachings of the whole body of bishops of the Church but not only in an ecumenical council. Pastor aeternus does not allow any infallibility for the Pope for new doctrines. Any doctrines defined must be "conformable with Sacred Scripture and Apostolic Traditions": "For the Holy Spirit was not promised to the successors of Peter that by His revelation they might make known new doctrine, but that by His assistance they might inviolably keep and faithfully expound the Revelation, the Deposit of Faith, delivered through the Apostles. " It gives examples of the kinds of consultations that are appropriate include assembling Ecumenical Councils, asking for the mind of the church scattered around the world, so on. Not all Catholic teaching is infallible; the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith differentiates three kinds of doctrine: to be believed as divinely revealed to be held following a solemn defining act by a Pope or Ecumenical council following a non-defining act by a Pope, confirming or re-affirming a thing taught by the ordinary and universal teaching authority of bishops worldwide otherwise, to be respected or submitted to as part of the ordinary teaching authority of bishops, but without any claim of infallibility.
In July 2005 Pope Benedict XVI stated during an impromptu address to priests in Aosta that: "The Pope is not an oracle. Pope John XXIII once remarked: "I am only infallible if I speak infallibly but I shall never do th
Saint Louis University
Saint Louis University is a private Roman Catholic four-year research university with campuses in St. Louis, United States and Madrid, Spain. Founded in 1818 by Louis Guillaume Valentin Dubourg, It is the oldest university west of the Mississippi River and the second-oldest Jesuit university in the United States, it is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Universities. The university is accredited by the North Central Association of Secondary Schools. SLU's athletic teams are a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference, it has an enrollment of 12,649 students, including 7,984 undergraduate students and 4,665 graduate students that represents all 50 states and more than 70 foreign countries. Its average class size is 23.8 and the student-faculty ratio is 9:1. For nearly 50 years the university has maintained a campus in Spain; the Madrid campus was the first freestanding campus operated by an American university in Europe and the first American institution to be recognized by Spain's higher education authority as an official foreign university.
The campus has 826 students, a faculty of 110, an average class size of 15 and a student-faculty ratio of 7:1. Saint Louis University traces its origins to the Saint Louis Academy, founded on November 16, 1818 by the Most Reverend Louis Guillaume Valentin Dubourg, Bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas, placed under the charge of the Reverend François Niel and others of the secular clergy attached to the Saint Louis Cathedral, its first location was in a private residence near the Mississippi River in an area now occupied by the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial within the Archdiocese of St. Louis. Having a two-story building for the 65 students using Bishop Dubourg's personal library of 8,000 volumes for its printed materials, the name Saint Louis Academy was changed in 1820 to Saint Louis College. In 1827 Bishop Dubourg placed Saint Louis College in the care of the Society of Jesus. Not long after that, it received its charter as a university by act of the Missouri Legislature. In 1829 it moved to Washington Avenue and Ninth at the site of today's America's Center by the Edward Jones Dome.
In 1852 the university and its teaching priests were the subject of a viciously anti-Catholic novel, The Mysteries of St. Louis, written by newspaper editor Henry Boernstein whose popular paper, the Anzeiger des Westens was a foe of the university. In 1867 after the American Civil War the University purchased "Lindell's Grove" to be the site of its current campus. Lindell's Grove was the site of the Civil War "Camp Jackson Affair". On May 10, 1861 U. S. Regulars and Federally enrolled Missouri Volunteers arrested the Missouri Volunteer Militia after the militia received a secret shipment of siege artillery, infantry weapons and ammunition from the Confederate Government. While the Militia was arrested without violence, angry local citizens rushed to the site, rioting broke out, in which 28 people were killed; the Camp Jackson Affair lead to open conflict within the state, culminating with a successful Federal offensive in mid-June 1861 which expelled the state's pro-secession governor Claiborne Fox Jackson from the state capitol.
Jackson led a Missouri Confederate government-in-exile, dying of cancer in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1862. The first building on campus, DuBourg Hall, began construction in 1888, the college moved to its new location in 1889. St. Francis Xavier College Church moved to its current location with the completion of the lower church in 1884, it was completed in 1898. During the early 1940s, many local priests the Jesuits, began to challenge the segregationist policies at the city's Catholic colleges and parochial schools. After the Pittsburgh Courier, an African-American newspaper, ran a 1944 exposé on St. Louis Archbishop John J. Glennon's interference with the admittance of a black student at the local Webster College, Fr. Claude Heithaus, SJ, professor of Classical Archaeology at Saint Louis University, delivered an angry homily accusing his own institution of immoral behavior in its segregation policies. By summer of 1944, Saint Louis University had opened its doors to African Americans, after its president, Father Patrick Holloran, secured Glennon's reluctant approval.
1818 – First institution of higher learning west of the Mississippi River 1832 – First graduate programs west of the Mississippi River 1836 – First medical school west of the Mississippi River 1843 – First in the West to open a school of law 1906 – First forward pass in football history 1910 – First business school west of the Mississippi River 1925 – First department of geophysics in the Western Hemisphere 1927 – First federally licensed school of aviation 1944 – First university in Missouri to establish an official policy admitting African-American students, integrating its student body 1959 - First dual credit program west of the Mississippi, named the 1818 Project and now known as the 1818 Advanced College Credit Program 1967 – First major Catholic institution in the world with an integrated lay and religious board of trustees 1972 – First human heart transplant in Missouri 2000 – First Doctor of Philosophy degree in aviation in the world awarded In 1967, Saint Louis University became one of the first Catholic universities to increase layperson decision making power.
At the time board chairman Fr. Paul Reinert, SJ, stepped aside to be replaced by layman Daniel Schlafly; the board shifted to an 18 to 10 majority of laypeople. This was instituted due to the landmark Maryland Court of Appeals case, Horace Mann vs. the Board of Public Works of Maryland, in
Latin literature includes the essays, poems and other writings written in the Latin language. The beginning of Latin literature dates to 240 BC. Latin literature would flourish for the next six centuries; the classical era of Latin literature can be divided into the following periods: Early Latin literature, The Golden Age, The Imperial Period and Late Antiquity. Latin was the language of the ancient Romans, but it was the lingua franca of Western Europe throughout the Middle Ages, so Latin literature includes not only Roman authors like Cicero, Vergil and Horace, but includes European writers after the fall of the Empire, from religious writers like Aquinas, to secular writers like Francis Bacon, Baruch Spinoza, Isaac Newton. Formal Latin literature began in 240 BC; the adaptor was Livius Andronicus, a Greek, brought to Rome as a prisoner of war in 272 BC. Andronicus translated Homer's Greek epic the Odyssey into an old type of Latin verse called Saturnian; the first Latin poet to write on a Roman theme was Gnaeus Naevius during the 3rd century BC.
He composed an epic poem about the first Punic War. Naevius's dramas were reworkings of Greek originals, but he created tragedies based on Roman myths and history. Other epic poets followed Naevius. Quintus Ennius wrote a historical epic, the Annals, describing Roman history from the founding of Rome to his own time, he adopted Greek dactylic hexameter. He became famous for his tragic dramas. In this field, his most distinguished successors were Marcus Pacuvius and Lucius Accius; these three writers used episodes from Roman history. Instead, they wrote Latin versions of tragic themes that the Greeks had handled, but when they copied the Greeks, they did not translate slavishly. Only fragments of their plays have survived. More is known about early Latin comedy, as 26 Early Latin comedies are extant – 20 of which Plautus wrote, the remaining six of which Terence wrote; these men modeled their comedies on Greek plays known as New Comedy. But they treated the plots and wording of the originals freely.
Plautus scattered songs through his plays and increased the humor with puns and wisecracks, plus comic actions by the actors. Terence's plays were more polite in tone, dealing with domestic situations, his works provided the chief inspiration for French and English comedies of the 17th century AD, for modern American comedy. The prose of the period is best known through On Agriculture by Cato the Elder. Cato wrote the first Latin history of Rome and of other Italian cities, he was the first Roman statesman to put his political speeches in writing as a means of influencing public opinion. Early Latin literature ended with Gaius Lucilius, who created a new kind of poetry in his 30 books of Satires, he wrote in an easy, conversational tone about books, food and current events. Traditionally, the height of Latin literature has been assigned to the period from 81 BC to AD 17, although recent scholarship has questioned the assumptions that privileged the works of this period over both earlier and works.
This period is said to have begun with the first known speech of Cicero and ended with the death of Ovid. Cicero has traditionally been considered the master of Latin prose; the writing he produced from about 80 BC until his death in 43 BC exceeds that of any Latin author whose work survives in terms of quantity and variety of genre and subject matter, as well as possessing unsurpassed stylistic excellence. Cicero's many works can be divided into four groups: letters, rhetorical treatises, philosophical works, orations, his letters provide detailed information about an important period in Roman history and offer a vivid picture of the public and private life among the Roman governing class. Cicero's works on oratory are our most valuable Latin sources for ancient theories on education and rhetoric, his philosophical works were the basis of moral philosophy during the Middle Ages. His speeches inspired the founders of the United States. Julius Caesar and Sallust were outstanding historical writers of Cicero's time.
Caesar wrote commentaries on the Gallic and civil wars in a straightforward style to justify his actions as a general. Sallust adopted an pointed style in his historical works, he wrote brilliant descriptions of their motives. The birth of lyric poetry in Latin occurred during the same period; the short love lyrics of Catullus are noted for their emotional intensity. Catullus wrote poems that attacked his enemies. In his longer poems, he suggested images in delicate language. One of the most learned. Called "the most learned of the Romans" by Quintillian, he wrote about a remarkable variety of subjects, from religion to poetry, but only his writings on agriculture and the Latin language are extant in their complete form. The emperor Augustus took a personal interest in the literary works produced during his years of power from 27 BC to AD 14; this period is sometimes called the Augustan Age of Latin Literature. Virgil published his pastoral Eclogues, the Georgics, the Aeneid, an epic poem describing the events that led to the creation of Rome.
Virgil told. Virgil provided divine justification for Roman rule over the world. Although Virgil died before he could put the finishing touches on his poem, it was soon